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[亲宠交流] 名犬品种(纯种狗介绍)

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:11:25 | 显示全部楼层




万能梗(Airedale Terrier)
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[简介]

    万能梗在梗类当中,是体型最大梗。名字来源于产地约克夏郡的\"Airedale\"溪谷。身体强壮而结实,且充满活力,一般是用来捕猎水獭。喜欢在水里游泳,特别喜爱水中生活。

[历史]

    万能梗是由水獭犬和早已绝种的黑褐梗进行交配,改良后的犬种。一般是用来捕猎水獭、熊、狼、山猪、雄鹿等。世界上第一次战争时,在英国第一次被陆军当作守卫以及传达任务的军犬使用。曾经有一只万能梗名子叫杰克,由于在战场上非常勇敢,当它死去之后获得了维多利亚十字勋章。

[体型]

    正常肩高约58.4厘米,母犬可能略矮一些,不论公母,都应该结实、肌肉发达、骨骼粗壮。

[头部]

    头颅和脸在外观上只有很小的差异。头颅应该很长,而且平坦,耳朵间距离不能太宽,眼睛间距离略窄。头皮没有皱纹、止部勉强可见,面颊不丰满。耳朵位于头部两侧,v形,但不能指向眼睛,小但与整体尺寸比例恰当。耳朵的折叠线应该与头顶处于同一水平线。面颊应该深、结实、有力、而且肌肉发达。填满眼睛前的位置。眼睛应该颜色深、小、不突出、充满梗类犬的眼神,热情而聪慧。嘴唇紧。鼻镜为黑色,而且不能太小。钳状咬合、轻微的重叠咬合或剪状咬合都可以接受,不分优劣。

[颈、背线、身躯]

    颈部长度和厚度适中,向肩部逐渐加粗。皮肤紧,不能松弛。肩部长,斜向与背结合。肩胛平。从前面看,胸深但不宽。胸的深度大致与肘部齐平。背部短,结实,水平。肋骨扩张良好。腰部肌肉发达,宽度适中。最后一根肋骨到臀部的距离短。

[四肢]

    后躯结实、肌肉发达,没有下垂。前肢笔直,肌肉发达、骨量充足。肘部垂直于身体,能自由活动。后腿长而且有力,大腿肌肉发达,后膝关节角度恰当,不向内翻或向外转。从后面看,飞节以下彼此平行。足爪小,圆且紧密,脚垫深度合适,脚趾适度上拱,不向内翻或向外翻。

[尾巴]

    尾根位置较高。尾巴总是快乐地举着,但不能翻卷在背上。一般长度,有力。

[被毛]

    硬、浓密、类似金属丝,紧紧地贴在身体上,覆盖了身躯和腿部。最硬的一些毛发呈卷曲状或轻微的波纹状。在坚硬的毛发下面,是长度较短而且较软的底毛。

[颜色]

    头部和耳朵为棕色,耳朵颜色比其他地方略深。头颅一侧出现深色阴影是允许的。大腿和肘部以下、身躯下半部分及胸部也是棕色,棕色还延伸到肩膀。身躯上半部分两侧,应该是黑色或深灰色。黑色中有时会混有红色,但不被欢迎。胸部有白色斑是这一品种某些品系特有的特征。

[步态]

    步态在比赛中十分关键。行动应该不费力。从前面看,前肢在身体两侧垂直摆动,足爪间距离与肘部距离相等。从后部看,后腿相互平行,不能太近,也不能太远,站立姿势和步态显得平衡和健壮。足尖不向内翻也不向外翻。

[性格]

[失格]

    黄眼,猎犬状耳,白脚,毛软,太长于或短于规定的标准比度,颚外突或内收,运动不灵活等,都是应严格杜绝的缺陷。

[评分]

    头                         10

    颈、肩、胸                 10

    身躯                       10

    后躯和尾巴                 10

    腿和足爪                   10

    被毛                       10

    颜色                        5

    体型                       10

    外观和表情                 15

    总计100

标准通过日期:1959年7月14日

Airedale Terrier Breed Standard


Head

Should be well balanced with little apparent difference between the length of skull and foreface.

Skull
Should be long and flat, not too broad between the ears and narrowing very slightly to the eyes. Scalp should be free from wrinkles, stop hardly visible and cheeks level and free from fullness.

Ears
Should be V-shaped with carriage rather to the side of the head, not pointing to the eyes, small but not out of proportion to the size of the dog. The topline of the folded ear should be above the level of the skull.

Foreface
Should be deep, powerful, strong and muscular. Should be well filled up before the eyes.

Eyes
Should be dark, small, not prominent, full of terrier expression, keenness and intelligence.

Lips
Should be tight.

Nose
Should be black and not too small.

Teeth
Should be strong and white, free from discoloration or defect. Bite either level or vise-like. A slightly overlapping or scissors bite is permissible without preference.

Neck
Should be of moderate length and thickness gradually widening towards the shoulders. Skin tight, not loose.

Shoulders and Chest
Shoulders long and sloping well into the back. Shoulder blades flat. From the front, chest deep but not broad. The depth of the chest should be approximately on a level with the elbows.

Body
Back should be short, strong and level. Ribs well sprung. Loins muscular and of good width. There should be but little space between the last rib and the hip joint.

Hindquarters
Should be strong and muscular with no droop.

Tail
The root of the tail should be set well up on the back. It should be carried gaily but not curled over the back. It should be of good strength and substance and of fair length.

Legs
Forelegs should be perfectly straight, with plenty of muscle and bone. Elbows should be perpendicular to the body, working free of sides. Thighs should be long and powerful with muscular second thigh, stifles well bent, not turned either in or out, hocks well let down parallel with each other when viewed from behind. Feet should be small, round and compact with a good depth of pad, well cushioned; the toes moderately arched, not turned either in or out.

Coat
Should be hard, dense and wiry, lying straight and close, covering the dog well over the body and legs. Some of the hardest are crinkling or just slightly waved. At the base of the hard very stiff hair should be a shorter growth of softer hair termed the undercoat.

Color
The head and ears should be tan, the ears being of a darker shade than the rest. Dark markings on either side of the skull are permissible. The legs up to the thighs and elbows and the under-part of the body and chest are also tan and the tan frequently runs into the shoulder. The sides and upper parts of the body should be black or dark grizzle. A red mixture is often found in the black and is not to be considered objectionable. A small white blaze on the chest is a characteristic of certain strains of the breed.

Size
Dogs should measure approximately 23 inches in height at the shoulder; bitches, slightly less. Both sexes should be sturdy, well muscled and boned.

Movement
Movement or action is the crucial test of conformation. Movement should be free. As seen from the front the forelegs should swing perpendicular from the body free from the sides, the feet the same distance apart as the elbows. As seen from the rear the hind legs should be parallel with each other, neither too close nor too far apart, but so placed as to give a strong well-balanced stance and movement. The toes should not be turned either in or out.

Faults
Yellow eyes, hound ears, white feet, soft coat, being much over or under the size limit, being undershot or overshot, having poor movement, are faults which should be severely penalized.

Scale of Points
Head
Neck, shoulders and chest
Body
Hindquarters and tail
Legs and feet
Coat
Color
Size
Movement
General characteristics and expression
Total ...10
...10
...10
...10
...10
...10
....5
...10
...10
...15
..100

Approved July 14, 1959

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:13:30 | 显示全部楼层
玩具犬组(Toy Group)



约克夏梗(Yorkshire Terrier)AKC标准及介绍

约克夏梗简介
约克夏梗是一种玩具梗,长着兰色和棕色被毛,一部分脸上的被毛、从头到尾的被毛都直直地、柔顺地挂在身体两侧。身材小巧、紧凑而且比例匀称。约克夏的头高高昂起,透出自信、自尊和精力充沛。

约克夏的体型
不超过7磅(6.3市斤)。

约克夏的头部
头部小而且顶部较平,头颅不能突起或拱起。口吻不能太长,不能是上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合,牙齿结实。剪式咬合或钳式咬合都可以接受。鼻镜为黑色。眼睛中等大小,不突出;颜色深而明亮,透出锐利而聪慧的目光。眼圈颜色深。耳朵小,V字形,直立耳,耳根位置不能太远。

约克夏的颈部、背线、身躯
比例紧凑。背较短,背线水平,肩膀的高度与其他部位相同。在总长度的1/2处断尾,举在比后背略高的位置。

[约克夏的腿和足爪]
前腿直,肘部既不内翻也不能外翻。从后面看,后腿直,而从侧面看,后膝关节呈适当的角度。足爪圆,指甲为黑色。后腿如果有狼爪,则必须切除,前腿如果有狼爪,可以切除。

约克夏的被毛
被毛的质地、品质和毛量是十分重要的。被毛有光泽、精致、象丝一般。身体上的被毛相当长而且十分直(不能有任何波浪状)。如果希望他能行动自如而且外观整洁,可以将被毛长度修剪到刚好垂到地面。头顶的毛发可以梳到中间结起来,或从中间分开,向两边梳,并结成两个髻。口吻上的毛发非常长。耳朵上和足爪上的毛发可以适当剪短,可以使外观整洁、行动方便。

约克夏的颜色
幼犬在出生时的颜色是黑色和棕色,颜色很深。他的颜色是棕色中搀杂着黑色毛发,直到成年后。对成年狗来的身体颜色来说,在头部和腿部引有大量的棕色是很重要的。而下列颜色也是必须的:兰色:比较深的钢蓝色,不能有银蓝色、也不能混有青铜色或黑色毛发。棕色:所有的棕色毛发都是根部颜色深、而毛尖颜色浅。棕色中不能混合烟灰色或黑色毛发。从颈部后面到尾根处都是兰色的,尾巴的颜色是深蓝色,尤其是尾尖。在前腿的肘部以下和后腿的膝部以下是大量明亮的棕色。



标准通过日期:1966年4月12日

Yorkshire Terrier Breed Standard


General Appearance
That of a long-haired toy terrier whose blue and tan coat is parted on the face and from the base of the skull to the end of the tail and hangs evenly and quite straight down each side of body. The body is neat, compact and well proportioned. The dog\'s high head carriage and confident manner should give the appearance of vigor and self-importance.

Head
Small and rather flat on top, the skull not too prominent or round, the muzzle not too long, with the bite neither undershot nor overshot and teeth sound. Either scissors bite or level bite is acceptable. The nose is black. Eyes are medium in size and not too prominent; dark in color and sparkling with a sharp, intelligent expression. Eye rims are dark. Ears are small, V-shaped, carried erect and set not too far apart.

Body
Well proportioned and very compact. The back is rather short, the back line level, with height at shoulder the same as at the rump.

Legs and Feet
Forelegs should be straight, elbows neither in nor out. Hind legs straight when viewed from behind, but stifles are moderately bent when viewed from the sides. Feet are round with black toenails. Dewclaws, if any, are generally removed from the hind legs. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed.

Tail
Docked to a medium length and carried slightly higher than the level of the back.

Coat
Quality, texture and quantity of coat are of prime importance. Hair is glossy, fine and silky in texture. Coat on the body is moderately long and perfectly straight (not wavy). It may be trimmed to floor length to give ease of movement and a neater appearance, if desired. The fall on the head is long, tied with one bow in center of head or parted in the middle and tied with two bows. Hair on muzzle is very long. Hair should be trimmed short on tips of ears and may be trimmed on feet to give them a neat appearance.

Colors
Puppies are born black and tan and are normally darker in body color, showing an intermingling of black hair in the tan until they are matured. Color of hair on body and richness of tan on head and legs are of prime importance in adult dogs, to which the following color requirements apply:

Blue: Is a dark steel-blue, not a silver-blue and not mingled with fawn, bronzy or black hairs.

Tan: All tan hair is darker at the roots than in the middle, shading to still lighter tan at the tips. There should be no sooty or black hair intermingled with any of the tan.

Color on Body
The blue extends over the body from back of neck to root of tail. Hair on tail is a darker blue, especially at end of tail.

Headfall
A rich golden tan, deeper in color at sides of head, at ear roots and on the muzzle, with ears a deep rich tan. Tan color should not extend down on back of neck.

Chest and Legs
A bright, rich tan, not extending above the elbow on the forelegs nor above the stifle on the hind legs.

Weight
Must not exceed seven pounds.

Approved April 12, 1966

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:14:14 | 显示全部楼层


Toy Fox Terrier Breed Standard


简介

  玩具狐梗是一种真正的玩具犬和梗犬的混合,两者都对它的性格和特性产生了影响。作为梗犬,玩具狐梗拥有敏捷的智力,勇气和活泼。作为玩具犬,它小巧,对主人有无尽的持久的爱。玩具狐梗是一种平衡性良好的玩具犬,有健壮的外形,显示出高雅和敏捷,以及同等程度的力量和毅力。它身体的柔软肌肉具有流畅高雅的外形,给人的印象是轻松的动作和无尽的耐力。它装饰自然,高傲,活泼,警惕。特有的特征是它雅致的头部,它的短短的亮泽的以白色为主的被毛,配上突出的纯色的头部,以及它短短的高高的尾巴。

大小,比例和体型
大小:8.5-11.5英寸,9-11为首选,8.5-11.5为可接受范围。

比例:玩具狐梗在比例上呈方形,高与长几乎相等;高是从马肩隆到地面的高度,长是从肩到臀部的长度。雌性略长是可以的。

体型:骨骼必须强壮,但是不能过于强壮,要与大小成比例。全面的平衡很重要。

失格:任何8.5英寸以下或11.5英寸以上的犬。

头部
头部雅致,均衡,富有表情,没有粗糙的感觉。

  表情:聪明,警惕,充满了好奇。

  眼睛:清楚,明亮,深色,包括眼框,除了巧克力色的眼框是纯色的。眼睛丰满,圆。稍微在些突出,但是不是鼓鼓的,具有一种温柔的伶俐的表情。眼睛的位置适当分开,不倾斜,在眼槽中非常合适的组合起来。

  耳朵:耳朵是直立的,尖角的,倒放的V形,位置高并且挨得近,但是不能碰在一起。大小与头和身体成比例。

  失格:六个月以上的犬耳朵不是直立的。

  脑袋:相当宽,略呈球形,呈边缘柔和的楔形。止部中等,有些坡形。从前面看时,头从鼻子到耳朵根渐渐变宽。从鼻子到止部的距离等于从止部到后脑勺的距离。面颊平,有肌肉,在眼睛下的区域很丰满。

  缺陷:苹果头。

  口部:强壮而不是纤细,与头成比例,整体上平行于脑袋的顶部。

  鼻子:除了纯巧克力色外均为黑色。

  失格:达德利鼻。

  嘴唇:小而紧闭。

  咬合:一组完整的强壮的白色牙齿,以剪状咬合相接为首选。只要咬合可以确定为正确,牙齿的缺少不会作为缺陷。

  失格:下颚突出,歪嘴,上颚突出超过了1/8英寸。

颈部,背线和身体

  颈部高傲的直举着,位置合适,略有拱形,有优雅的曲线,灵活,肌肉强健,喉咙活动自由。它与头和身体相称,并且渐渐变宽,平和的融入到肩处。颈的长度约等于头的长度。

  背线:站立和漫步时水平。

  身体:均衡,从肋骨到腰略有变细。

  胸:深,肌肉强健,肋骨有很好的弹性。胸的深度扩展到肘处。

  背:笔直,水平,肌肉强健。腰短而壮,有适度的折起,显得优美典雅。

  臀部:与背线水平,呈完美的圆形。

  尾巴:位置高,直竖着,与犬的大小成比例。在第三或第四尾椎处断尾。

前半部

  前半部呈适当的角度。肩处的连接结实,有足量的肌肉,但是不能过于发达。肩有坡形,并适当后仰,从颈部到背部融合的非常平滑。前胸发达。肘部靠近身体并与身体呈直角。腿到骹骨是笔直并且平行的,骹骨强壮,直,但保持着灵活性。脚小,椭圆形,向前指,不能内弯或外弯。脚趾强壮,呈适度的拱形,与深深的脚垫紧紧的连在一起。

后半部

  后半部呈适当的角度,强壮,肌肉发达。大腿的上部和下部强壮,肌肉发达,有足够的长度。膝关节界限明显,有适当的角度。跗关节能适当下降且结实。后骹骨笔直。从后面看腿是平行的,不能外弯或内弯。如果后腿出现了狼爪应当被切除。

被毛

  被毛亮泽,光滑摸起来纤细平滑。均一的覆盖身体,只在颈环处略长一些。

颜色

  三色:头上黑色为主,在面部、嘴唇和眼上方的点上带有清晰的褐色标记。身体超过50%的白色,带或不带黑色的斑点。

  白色、巧克力色和褐色:头部巧克力色为主,在面部、嘴唇和眼上方的点上带有清晰的褐色标记。身体超过50%的白色,带或不带巧克力色的斑点。

  白色和褐色:头部褐色为主。身体超过50%的白色,带或不带褐色斑点。

  白色和黑色:头部黑色为主,身体超过50%的白色,带或不带黑色斑点。

  颜色应当丰满清晰。火焰状的斑点是可以的,但是不能分布到眼睛或耳朵上。干净的白色是首选,但是少量的标记不会被扣分。三色中黑色头部的身体斑点必须是黑色;三色中巧克力色头部的身体斑点必须是巧克力色;身体斑点在胸部或尾巴下面的,边缘带或不带轻微的褐色,都将被视作两色的品种。

  缺陷:颜色,除了标记外,扩展到肘部或跗骨以下。

  失格:火焰状斑点扩展到眼睛或耳朵上。不符合上述标准的任何颜色组合。任何头部白色超过50%的犬。任何身体上白色不到50%的犬。任何头部和身体的斑点颜色不同的犬。

步态

  动作流畅,有好的前伸和强壮的后驱。背线应当保持笔直,当漫步时头和尾巴要竖直举起。

  缺陷:马状步态。

性情

  玩具狐梗是一种聪明,警惕,友好的犬,忠于主人。它学习新技能很快,热心于取悦,适合于几乎任何条件。玩具狐梗,与其它梗一样,具有自制力,英勇,坚定,不容易被胁迫。它是非常活泼的玩具犬,一生都滑稽,有趣,顽皮。有些个别的缺少梗的态度和性格将被认为是缺陷。

失格

  低于8.5英寸或高于11.5英寸的犬
  超过六个月但是耳朵不直立的犬
  达德利鼻
  下颚突出,歪嘴,上颚突出超过了1/8英寸
  火焰状斑点扩展到眼睛或耳朵上
  任何上面标准中没有提到的颜色组合
  任何头部白色超过50%的犬
  任何身体上白色不到50%的犬
  任何头部和身体的斑点颜色不同的犬








General Appearance
The Toy Fox Terrier is truly a toy and a terrier and both have influenced his personality and character. As a terrier, the Toy Fox Terrier possesses keen intelligence, courage, and animation. As a toy his is diminutive, and devoted with an endless abiding love for his master. The Toy Fox Terrier is a well-balanced Toy dog of athletic appearance displaying grace and agility in equal measure with strength and stamina. His lithe muscular body has a smooth elegant outline which conveys the impression of effortless movement and endless endurance. He is naturally well groomed, proud, animated, and alert. Characteristic traits are his elegant head, his short glossy and predominantly white coat, coupled with a predominantly solid head, and his short high-set tail.

Size, Proportion and Substance
Size: 8.5 - 11.5 inches, 9 -11 preferred, 8.5 - 11.5 acceptable. Proportion: The Toy Fox Terrier is square in proportion, with height being approximately equal to length; with height measured from withers to ground and length measured from point of shoulder to buttocks. Slightly longer in bitches is acceptable. Substance: Bone must be strong, but not excessive and always in proportion to size. Overall balance is important.
Disqualification: Any dog under 8.5 inches and over 11.5 inches.

Head
The head is elegant, balanced and expressive with no indication of coarseness. Expression is intelligent, alert, eager and full of interest. Eyes: clear, bright and dark, including eye-rims, with the exception of chocolates whose eye-rims should be self-colored. The eyes are full, round and somewhat prominent, yet never bulging, with a soft intelligent expression. They are set well apart, not slanted, and fit well together into the sockets. Ears: The ears are erect, pointed, inverted V-shaped, set high and close together, but never touching. The size is in proportion to the head and body. Disqualification: Ears not erect on any dog over six months of age. Skull: is moderate in width, slightly rounded and softly wedge shaped. Medium stop, somewhat sloping. When viewed from the front, the head widens gradually from the nose to the base of the ears. The distance from the nose to the stop is equal to the distance from the stop to the occiput. The cheeks are flat and muscular, with the area below the eyes well filled in. Faults: Apple head. Muzzle: Strong rather than fine, in proportion to the head as a whole and parallel to the top of the skull. Nose: Black only with the exception of self-colored in chocolate dogs. Disqualification: Dudley nose. Lips: are small and tight fitting. Bite: a full complement of strong white teeth meeting in a scissors bite is preferred. Loss of teeth should not be faulted as long as the bite can be determined as correct. Disqualification: Undershot, wry mouth, overshot more than 1/8 inch.

Neck, Topline and Body
The neck is carried proudly erect, well set on, slightly arched, gracefully curved, clean, muscular and free from throatiness. It is proportioned to the head and body and widens gradually blending smoothly into the shoulders. The length of the neck is approximately the same as that of the head. The topline is level when standing and gaiting. The body is balanced and tapers slightly from ribs to flank. The chest is deep and muscular with well sprung ribs. Depth of chest extends to the point of elbow. The back is straight, level, and muscular. Short and strong in loin with moderate tuck-up to denote grace and elegance. The croup is level with topline and well-rounded. The tail is set high, held erect and in proportion to the size of the dog. Docked to the 3rd or 4th joint.

Forequarters
Forequarters are well angulated. The shoulder is firmly set and has adequate muscle, but is not overdeveloped. The shoulders are sloping and well laid back, blending smoothly from neck to back. The forechest is well developed. The elbows are close and perpendicular to the body. The legs are parallel and straight to the pasterns which are strong and straight while remaining flexible. Feet are small and oval, pointing forward turning neither in nor out. Toes are strong, well-arched and closely knit with deep pads.

Hindquarters
Hindquarters are well angulated, strong and muscular. The upper and lower thighs are strong, well muscled and of good length. The stifles are clearly defined and well angulated. Hock joints are well let down and firm. The rear pasterns are straight. The legs are parallel from the rear and turn neither in nor out. Dewclaws should be removed from hindquarters if present.

Coat
The coat is shiny, satiny, fine in texture and smooth to the touch. It is slightly longer in the ruff, uniformly covering the body.

Color
Tri-Color: Predominately black head with sharply defined tan markings on cheeks, lips and eye dots. Body is over fifty-per-cent white, with or without black body spots. White, Chocolate and Tan: Predominately chocolate head with sharply defined tan markings on cheeks, lips and eye dots. Body is over fifty-percent white, with or without chocolate body spots. White and Tan: Predominately tan head. Body is over fifty-percent white with or without tan body spots. White and Black: Predominately black head. Body is over fifty percent white with or without black body spots. Color should be rich and clear. Blazes are acceptable, but may not touch the eyes or ears. Clear white is preferred, but a small amount of ticking is not to be penalized. Body spots on black headed tri-colors must be black; body spots on chocolate headed tri-colors must be chocolate; both with or without a slight fringe of tan alongside any body spots near the chest and under the tail as seen in normal bi-color patterning. Faults: Color, other than ticking, that extends below the elbow or the hock. Disqualifications: A blaze extending into the eyes or ears. Any color combination not stated above. Any dog whose head is more than fifty-percent white. Any dog whose body is not more than fifty-percent white. Any dog whose head and body spots are of different colors.


Gait
Movement is smooth and flowing with good reach and strong drive. The topline should remain straight and head and tail carriage erect while gaiting. Fault: Hackney gait.

Temperament
The Toy Fox Terrier is intelligent, alert and friendly, and loyal to its owners. He learns new tasks quickly, is eager to please, and adapts to almost any situation. The Toy Fox Terrier, like other terriers, is self-possessed, spirited, determined and not easily intimidated. He is a highly animated toy dog that is comical, entertaining and playful all of his life. Any individuals lacking good terrier attitude and personality are to be faulted.

Disqualifications
Any dog under 8.5 inches or over 11.5 inches.
Ears not erect on any dog over six months of age.
Dudley nose.
Undershot, wry mouth, overshot more than 1/8 inch.
A blaze extending into the eye or ears.
Any color combination not stated above.
Any dog whose head is more than fifty percent white.
Any dog whose body is not more than fifty percent white.
Any dog whose head and body spots are of different colors.

Approved: July 8, 2003
Effective: August 27, 2003

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:15:06 | 显示全部楼层


丝毛梗(Silky Terrier)AKC标准及介绍
[丝毛梗的简介]
丝毛梗是真正的“玩具梗”。他较矮小,体长略大于身高,骨骼结构纤巧,但有足够的骨量,使其能顺利完成在家中捕猎老鼠的任务。他的被毛象丝一样,从止部至尾都需要整饰,但不能过度雕琢。他具有好奇的天性和快乐的生活态度,使他成为理想的伴侣犬。

[丝毛梗的体型]
肩高9~10英寸。任何偏差都不符合规定。狗的体长大约比肩高长1/5。骨量小,骨骼健壮但更重要的是精巧。

[丝毛梗的头部]
头部强壮,呈楔状,长度中等。表情和酷,眼睛小,颜色深,呈杏仁状,眼圈颜色深。浅色眼睛是严重缺陷。耳朵小,V形,耳朵位置高,直立耳,不能出现任何歪斜现象。头颅平坦,两眼间距离不是很宽。头颅相对口吻略长。止部较浅。鼻镜为黑色。牙齿整齐,剪状咬合。上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合都属于严重缺陷。

[丝毛梗的颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部与肩部优雅地结合。长度适中,漂亮,与脑袋有一些角度。背线水平。背线不平属于严重缺陷。胸宽中等,深度与肘齐平。身体位置较低,体长比肩高长约 1/5。体长是指肩膀起始点(或前胸)到大腿最后(臀部终点)的投影。身体太短或身体太长都是缺陷。断尾,尾根位置高,处于12~2点的位置。

[丝毛梗的前肢]
肩角度适中,平贴于上肢上方,前肢的位置恰好位于身体下面。前肢结实、笔直、骨骼纤巧。足爪小,猫足、圆、紧凑。脚垫厚实而有弹性,趾甲坚硬而且颜色深。白色或肉色的趾甲属于缺陷。足爪笔直向前,没有内翻或外翻情况。如果有狼爪,必须切除。

[丝毛梗的后肢]
大腿肌肉发达、结实,但轮廓不显得过重。后膝关节角度恰当,飞节低,从后面看,两腿平行。足爪与前肢相同。

[丝毛梗的被毛]
直、单层毛、有光泽、象丝一样。成年犬的被毛顺着身体轮廓下垂。但长度不能靠近地面。头顶的毛发很多,形成头释,但脸和耳朵的毛发太长则不受欢迎。头上、后背到尾根的毛发需要向两边分开。尾巴上的毛发正好,但没有饰毛。腿部从脚腕到足爪或从飞节到足爪部分长有短毛。足爪不应该被腿上的毛发遮蔽。

[丝毛梗的颜色]
兰色和棕色。兰色可以是银蓝、鸽子蓝或石板蓝,棕色深而丰富。兰色从头部延伸到尾巴尖,前腿部分向下延伸到肘部,后腿部分在大腿外侧的上面一半。尾巴的兰色非常深。棕色出现在口吻和面颊,耳根周围,腿、足爪及肛门周围。头饰应该是银色或比其他棕色地方亮的杏黄色。     

[丝毛梗的步态]
应该是轻松、步伐轻快,活泼而且笔直向前。后躯驱动力强,足尖向内或向外翻属于缺陷。

[丝毛梗的气质]
梗类犬特有的警惕性,但胆怯或过度神经质都属于缺陷。其态度应该是反应快、友好、敏感。

标准通过日期:1989年10月10日
标准执行日期:1989年11月30日


[以下为丝毛梗(Silky Terrier)AKC标准英文原版]


Silky Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Silky Terrier is a true \"toy terrier\". He is moderately low set, slightly longer than tall, of refined bone structure, but of sufficient substance to suggest the ability to hunt and kill domestic rodents. His coat is silky in texture, parted from the stop to the tail and presents a well groomed but not sculptured appearance. His inquisitive nature and joy of life make him an ideal companion.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - Shoulder height from nine to ten inches. Deviation in either direction is undesirable. Proportion - The body is about one fifth longer than the dog\'s height at the withers. Substance - Lightly built with strong but rather fine bone.

Head
The head is strong, wedge-shaped, and moderately long. Expression piercingly keen, eyes small, dark, almond shaped with dark rims. Light eyes are a serious fault. Ears are small, V-shaped, set high and carried erect without any tendency to flare obliquely off the skull. Skull flat, and not too wide between the ears. The skull is slightly longer than the muzzle. Stop shallow. The nose is black. Teeth strong and well aligned, scissors bite. An undershot or overshot bite is a serious fault.

Neck, Topline and Body
The neck fits gracefully into sloping shoulders. It is medium long, fine, and to some degree crested. The topline is level. A topline showing a roach or dip is a serious fault. Chest medium wide and deep enough to extend down to the elbows. The body is moderately low set and about one fifth longer than the dog\'s height at the withers. The body is measured from the point of the shoulder (or forechest) to the rearmost projection of the upper thigh (or point of the buttocks). A body which is too short is a fault, as is a body which is too long. The tail is docked, set high and carried at twelve to two o\'clock position.

Forequarters
Well laid back shoulders, together with proper angulation at the upper arm, set the forelegs nicely under the body. Forelegs are strong, straight and rather fine-boned. Feet small, catlike, round, compact. Pads are thick and springy while nails are strong and dark colored. White or flesh-colored nails are a fault. The feet point straight ahead, with no turning in or out. Dewclaws, if any, are removed.

Hindquarters
Thighs well muscled and strong, but not so developed as to appear heavy. Well angulated stifles with low hocks which are parallel when viewed from behind. Feet as in front.

Coat
Straight, single, glossy, silky in texture. On matured specimens the coat falls below and follows the body outline. It should not approach floor length. On the top of the head, the hair is so profuse as to form a topknot, but long hair on the face and ears is objectionable. The hair is parted on the head and down over the back to the root of the tail. The tail is well coated but devoid of plume. Legs should have short hair from the pastern and hock joints to the feet. The feet should not be obscured by the leg furnishings.

Color
Blue and tan. The blue may be silver blue, pigeon blue or slate blue, the tan deep and rich. The blue extends from the base of the skull to the tip of the tail, down the forelegs to the elbows, and half way down the outside of the thighs. On the tail the blue should be very dark. Tan appears on muzzle and cheeks, around the base of the ears, on the legs and feet and around the vent. The topknot should be silver or fawn which is lighter than the tan points.

Gait
Should be free, light-footed, lively and straightforward. Hindquarters should have strong propelling power. Toeing in or out is to be faulted.

Temperament
The keenly alert air of the terrier is characteristic, with shyness or excessive nervousness to be faulted. The manner is quick, friendly, responsive.

Approved October 10, 1989
Effective November 30, 1989

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:15:46 | 显示全部楼层


西施犬(Shih Tzu)介绍及AKC标准
[西施犬的历史]
传说在17世纪中叶,由西藏达赖喇嘛献给皇帝的拉萨狮子犬与北京犬杂交便得到了西施犬。1908年慈禧太后死后,这种犬才秘密地运往欧洲。西施犬小而聪明,非常驯顺。据说西施犬的繁殖是由一些太监负责的,他们竞相育成能讨皇帝欢心的小犬。英国于1935年成立了西施犬俱乐部,再由英国引入斯坎地纳维亚国家和其他欧洲国家以及澳大利亚。第二次世界大战期间驻英美军回国时又引入了美国。1969年美国养犬俱乐部对西施犬开始登记。西施犬喜欢与人交往,依恋性和耐受性强,自信、聪明,爱儿童与动物,既适合于养在城市也适合于农村生活。但必须每天梳理修饰被毛,头上的长毛至少在喂食时要扎住。如果饲养管理良好,可以活15年以上。

[西施犬的简介]
西施犬是一种结实、活泼、警惕的玩具狗,有两层被毛,毛长而平滑。其中国祖先具有高贵的血统,是一种宫廷宠物,所以西施非常骄傲,总是高傲地昂着头,尾巴翻卷在背上。尽管西施犬大小相当不一致,但必须是紧凑、结实、有适当的体重和骨骼。

[西施犬的体型]
理想的尺寸是肩高9~10 1/2英寸;但不能低于8英寸或高于11英寸。成年狗理想的体重在9~16磅。从肩到尾根的长度略大于肩高。西施不能太高,变成长脚狗,也不能太矮,象个矮脚鸡。不管是什么尺寸,西施都应该是紧凑、结实而且有相当的体重和骨量。

[西施犬的头部]
头部圆且宽,两眼之间开阔,与犬的全身大小相称,既不太大又不太小。缺陷:头窄,眼睛距离近。表情热情、和蔼,眼睛大睁,友好而充满信任。整体平衡和令人愉快的表情要比其他部分都重要。实际质素非常重要,比赛中检查的是实际的头部和表情,而不是通过美容塑造的外观。眼睛大而圆,不外突,两眼间距离恰当,视线笔直向前。眼睛颜色非常深。肝色和兰色狗的眼睛颜色浅。缺陷:小,距离近,浅色眼睛;眼白过多。耳朵大,耳根位于头顶下略低一点的地方;长有浓密的被毛。脑袋呈圆拱形。止部轮廓清晰。口吻宽、短、没有皱纹,上唇厚实,不能低于下眼角。决不能向下弯。理想的尺寸是从鼻尖到止部不超过1英寸。当然各种不同尺寸的狗情况略有不同。口吻前端平;下唇和下颌不突出,也不后缩。缺陷:没有明显的止部。鼻孔宽大、张开。鼻镜、嘴唇眼圈应该是黑色的,除了肝色的狗是肝色,兰色的狗是兰色。缺陷:粉色的鼻子、嘴唇或眼圈。下颚突出式咬合,颌部宽阔。缺齿和牙齿略不整齐都不是严重缺陷。嘴唇闭合时,牙齿和舌头不可见。缺陷:上颚突出式咬合。

[西施犬的颈部、背线、身躯]
最重要的特点就是整体均衡,没有特别夸张的地方。颈部与肩的结合流畅平滑;颈长足以使头自然高昂并与肩高和身长相称。背线平。身躯短而结实,没有细腰或收腹。体长略大于肩高。缺陷:腿长。胸部宽而深,肋骨扩张良好,然而不能出现桶状胸。胸部的深度刚好达到肘部以下的位置。从肘部到马肩隆的长度略大与从肘部到地面的距离。尾根位置高,饰毛丰厚,翻卷在背后。太松散、太紧、太平或尾根位置太低都属于有缺陷,不符合品种标准。

[西施犬的前躯]
肩的角度良好,平贴于躯干。腿直,骨骼良好,肌肉发达,分立于胸下,肘紧贴于躯干。腕部强壮而垂直。狼爪可以切除。脚结实,脚垫发达,脚尖向前。

[西施犬的后躯]
后躯角度应与前躯平衡。后腿的骨骼和肌肉都很发达。从后面观查,腿直。膝关节适当弯曲,两腿不紧贴,但与前肢成一线。飞节靠近地面,垂直。缺陷:飞节长。狼爪可以切除。脚结实,脚垫发达,脚尖向前。

[西施犬的被毛]
被毛华丽,双层毛,丰厚浓密,毛长而平滑,允许有轻微波状起伏。头顶毛用饰带扎起。缺陷:毛量稀少,单层毛,卷毛。为了整洁和便于运动,脚、腹底和肛门部位的被毛可以修剪。缺陷:修剪过度。

[西施犬的颜色]
允许有任何颜色,而且所有颜色一视同仁。

[西施犬的步态]
西施犬的行走路线直,速度自然,既不飞奔,也不受拘束,步态平滑、流畅、不费力,具有良好的前躯导向和强大的后躯驱动力,背线始终保持水平,自然地昂着头,尾巴柔和地翻卷在背后。

[西施犬的气质] 由于西施犬的唯一目的是作为伴侣犬和家庭宠物,它的性情基本上是开朗、欢乐、多情,对所有的人友好而信任。

标准通过日期:1989年5月9日
标准执行日期:1989年6月29日

[以下为西施犬(Shih Tzu)AKC标准原版]

Shih Tzu Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Shih Tzu is a sturdy, lively, alert toy dog with long flowing double coat. Befitting his noble Chinese ancestry as a highly valued, prized companion and palace pet, the Shih Tzu is proud of bearing, has a distinctively arrogant carriage with head well up and tail curved over the back. Although there has always been considerable size variation, the Shih Tzu must be compact, solid, carrying good weight and substance.

Even though a toy dog, the Shih Tzu must be subject to the same requirements of soundness and structure prescribed for all breeds, and any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural faults common to all breeds are as undesirable in the Shih Tzu as in any other breed, regardless of whether or not such faults are specifically mentioned in the standard.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - Ideally, height at withers is 9 to 10½ inches; but, not less than 8 inches nor more than 11 inches. Ideally, weight of mature dogs, 9 to 16 pounds. Proportion - Length between withers and root of tail is slightly longer than height at withers. The Shih Tzu must never be so high stationed as to appear leggy, nor so low stationed as to appear dumpy or squatty. Substance - Regardless of size, the Shih Tzu is always compact, solid and carries good weight and substance.

Head
Head - Round, broad, wide between eyes, its size in balance with the overall size of dog being neither too large nor too small. Fault: Narrow head, close-set eyes. Expression - Warm, sweet, wide-eyed, friendly and trusting. An overall well-balanced and pleasant expression supersedes the importance of individual parts. Care should be taken to look and examine well beyond the hair to determine if what is seen is the actual head and expression rather than an image created by grooming technique. Eyes - Large, round, not prominent, placed well apart, looking straight ahead. Very dark. Lighter on liver pigmented dogs and blue pigmented dogs. Fault: Small, close-set or light eyes; excessive eye white. Ears - Large, set slightly below crown of skull; heavily coated. Skull - Domed. Stop - There is a definite stop. Muzzle - Square, short, unwrinkled, with good cushioning, set no lower than bottom eye rim; never downturned. Ideally, no longer than 1 inch from tip of nose to stop, although length may vary slightly in relation to overall size of dog. Front of muzzle should be flat; lower lip and chin not protruding and definitely never receding. Fault: Snipiness, lack of definite stop. Nose - Nostrils are broad, wide, and open. Pigmentation - Nose, lips, eye rims are black on all colors, except liver on liver pigmented dogs and blue on blue pigmented dogs. Fault: Pink on nose, lips, or eye rims. Bite - Undershot. Jaw is broad and wide. A missing tooth or slightly misaligned teeth should not be too severely penalized. Teeth and tongue should not show when mouth is closed. Fault: Overshot bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Of utmost importance is an overall well-balanced dog with no exaggerated features. Neck - Well set-on flowing smoothly into shoulders; of sufficient length to permit natural high head carriage and in balance with height and length of dog. Topline - Level. Body -Short-coupled and sturdy with no waist or tuck-up. The Shih Tzu is slightly longer than tall. Fault: Legginess. Chest -Broad and deep with good spring-of-rib, however, not barrel-chested. Depth of ribcage should extend to just below elbow. Distance from elbow to withers is a little greater than from elbow to ground. Croup - Flat. Tail - Set on high, heavily plumed, carried in curve well over back. Too loose, too tight, too flat, or too low set a tail is undesirable and should be penalized to extent of deviation.

Forequarters
Shoulders - Well-angulated, well laid-back, well laid-in, fitting smoothly into body. Legs - Straight, well-boned, muscular, set well-apart and under chest, with elbows set close to body. Pasterns - Strong, perpendicular. Dewclaws - May be removed. Feet - Firm, well-padded, point straight ahead.

Hindquarters
Angulation of hindquarters should be in balance with forequarters. Legs - Well-boned, muscular, and straight when viewed from rear with well-bent stifles, not close set but in line with forequarters. Hocks - Well let down, perpendicular. Fault: Hyperextension of hocks. Dewclaws - May be removed. Feet - Firm, well-padded, point straight ahead.

Coat
Coat - Luxurious, double-coated, dense, long, and flowing. Slight wave permissible. Hair on top of head is tied up. Fault: Sparse coat, single coat, curly coat. Trimming - Feet, bottom of coat, and anus may be done for neatness and to facilitate movement. Fault: Excessive trimming.

Color and Markings
All are permissible and to be considered equally.

Gait
The Shih Tzu moves straight and must be shown at its own natural speed, neither raced nor strung-up, to evaluate its smooth, flowing, effortless movement with good front reach and equally strong rear drive, level topline, naturally high head carriage, and tail carried in gentle curve over back.

Temperament
As the sole purpose of the Shih Tzu is that of a companion and house pet, it is essential that its temperament be outgoing, happy, affectionate, friendly and trusting towards all.

Approved May 9, 1989
Effective June 29, 1989

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巴哥犬、八哥犬、哈巴狗(Pug)AKC标准及介绍


[巴哥犬的历史]
巴哥犬究竟是什么系种?有专家认为,此犬产于苏格兰低地,传到亚洲后边在由荷兰商人从远东地区带回西方;也有专家认为,此犬是东方犬种,源自北京犬的短毛种,后来和斗牛犬交配而成;还有人认为巴哥犬是法国叫波尔多犬的獒犬的小型类种,并且在许多作品里画上巴哥犬作装饰品。维多利亚世代,此犬的知名度达到顶峰。

[巴哥犬的简介]
巴哥犬(或称哈巴狗)富有魅力而且高雅,18世纪末正式命名为\"巴哥\";,其词意古语为鬼,狮子鼻或小猴子的意思。巴哥犬是体贴,可爱的小型犬钟,不需要运动或经常整理背毛,但需要同伴。容貌皱纹较多,走起路来象拳击手是其特征。它是以咕噜的呼吸声及象马一样抽鼻子的声音作为沟通的方式。同时,此犬具备优良及爱干净的个性,这些特色便成为广受喜爱的原因。 总体来看,通常外观呈正方形而且短胖。歪斜、长腿或腿太短的八哥犬都不受欢迎。

[巴哥犬的体型]
八哥犬的特点是小中见大,浓缩(也许可以这样形容),结构紧凑、良好的比例,而且口吻轮廓硬。理想的体重范围是从14~18磅(公狗或母狗)。比例为正方形。

[巴哥犬的头部]
头部大、粗重,不上拱,苹果头,前额不后缩。眼睛颜色非常深,非常大,突出而醒目。球状,眼神充满安详和渴望。非常亮,兴奋时,充满热情。耳朵薄、小、软、象黑色天鹅绒。有两种耳形:玫瑰耳或纽扣耳。后者比较理想。皱纹大而深。口吻短、钝、宽,但不上翘。咬合应该是轻微的下颚突出式咬合。

[巴哥犬的颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部呈轻微的拱形,粗壮,其长度足够使头能高傲的昂起。背短,背线水平。身体短而胖,胸宽且肋骨扩张良好。尾巴尽可能卷在臀部以上部位。多重卷曲则更理想。

[巴哥犬的前躯]
腿非常粗壮,直,长度适中,位于身体下。从侧面看,肘部直接安在肩膀下面。腕部结实,既不过分,也不向下。足爪既不象兔足那样长,也不象猫足那样圆。脚趾适当分开,黑色趾甲。狼爪通常被切除。

[巴哥犬的后躯]
粗壮,有力的后躯,后膝关节角度适中,飞节垂直于地面。从后面看,两条腿相互平行。后躯与前躯平衡。大腿和臀部丰满而且肌肉发达。足爪与前躯相同。

[巴哥犬的被毛]
被毛美观,平滑、柔软、短、而有光泽,既不坚硬,也不能象羊毛。 颜色是银色、杏黄色或黑色。银色或杏黄色应该清晰,与其他颜色斑纹及脸面颜色对比强烈。

[巴哥犬的斑纹]
斑纹轮廓清楚。口吻或脸部颜色、耳朵、耳朵边、拇指斑、前肢的菱形斑及背部斑纹可能是黑色的。脸部颜色应该是黑色的。

[巴哥犬的步态]
从前面看,前躯导向良好,脚腕有力,脚爪撑在地上呈方形,中间的脚趾向前。后躯动作有力、轻松。后膝关节及飞节不向里或向外翻。后腿与前腿处于同一直线。前后肢都自然的略显收敛。后躯轻微的扭动说明他轻松、自信、愉快。

[巴哥犬的气质]
这是一种性情稳定的品种,显示出安定、开朗、富有魅力、高贵、友善和可爱的性情。

标准通过日期:1991年10月8日
标准执行日期:1991年11月28日

Pug Breed Standard

General Appearance
Symmetry and general appearance are decidedly square and cobby. A lean, leggy Pug and a dog with short legs and a long body are equally objectionable.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The Pug should be multum in parvo, and this condensation (if the word may be used) is shown by compactness of form, well knit proportions, and hardness of developed muscle. Weight from 14 to 18 pounds (dog or bitch) desirable. Proportion square.

Head
The head is large, massive, round-not apple-headed, with no indentation of the skull. The eyes are dark in color, very large, bold and prominent, globular in shape, soft and solicitous in expression, very lustrous, and, when excited, full of fire. The ears are thin, small, soft, like black velvet. There are two kinds-the \"rose\" and the \"button.\" Preference is given to the latter. The wrinkles are large and deep. The muzzle is short, blunt, square, but not upfaced. Bite-A Pug\'s bite should be very slightly undershot.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is slightly arched. It is strong, thick, and with enough length to carry the head proudly. The short back is level from the withers to the high tail set. The body is short and cobby, wide in chest and well ribbed up. The tail is curled as tightly as possible over the hip. The double curl is perfection.

Forequarters
The legs are very strong, straight, of moderate length, and are set well under. The elbows should be directly under the withers when viewed from the side. The shoulders are moderately laid back. The pasterns are strong, neither steep nor down. The feet are neither so long as the foot of the hare, nor so round as that of the cat; well split-up toes, and the nails black. Dewclaws are generally removed.

Hindquarters
The strong, powerful hindquarters have moderate bend of stifle and short hocks perpendicular to the ground. The legs are parallel when viewed from behind. The hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters. The thighs and buttocks are full and muscular. Feet as in front.

Coat
The coat is fine, smooth, soft, short and glossy, neither hard nor woolly.

Color
The colors are silver, apricot-fawn, or black. The silver or apricot-fawn colors should be decided so as to make the contrast complete between the color and the trace and the mask.

Markings
The markings are clearly defined. The muzzle or mask, ears, moles on cheeks, thumb mark or diamond on forehead, and the back trace should be as black as possible. The mask should be black. The more intense and well defined it is, the better. The trace is a black line extending from the occiput to the tail.

Gait
Viewed from the front, the forelegs should be carried well forward, showing no weakness in the pasterns, the paws landing squarely with the central toes straight ahead. The rear action should be strong and free through hocks and stifles, with no twisting or turning in or out at the joints. The hind legs should follow in line with the front. There is a slight natural convergence of the limbs both fore and aft. A slight roll of the hindquarters typifies the gait which should be free, self-assured, and jaunty.

Temperament
This is an even-tempered breed, exhibiting stability, playfulness, great charm, dignity, and an outgoing, loving disposition.

Approved October 8, 1991
Effective November 28, 1991

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贵宾犬、贵妇犬(Poodle)AKC标准及介绍




[贵宾犬的外观标准]
对于标准型、迷你型、玩具型的贵宾犬来说,各项指标的标准都是一样的,除了高度。

贵宾犬的外形、姿态和状态

贵宾犬是很活跃、机警而且行动优雅的犬种,拥有很好的身体比例和矫健的动作,显示出一种自信的姿态。经过传统方式修剪和仔细的梳理后,贵宾犬会显示出与生俱来的独特而又高贵的气质。

[贵宾犬的尺寸、比例、体型]
标准型贵宾犬:肩高超过15英寸(38厘米)。任何一种标准型贵宾犬肩高等于或小于15英寸都会从竞赛中淘汰。

迷你型贵宾犬:肩高等于或小于15英寸(38厘米),高于10英寸(28厘米)。任何一种迷你型的贵宾犬超过15英寸或等于小于10英寸都会从竞赛中淘汰。

玩具型贵宾犬:肩高等于或小于10英寸(28厘米)。任何一种玩具型贵宾犬超过10英寸都会从竞赛中淘汰。

区分玩具型贵宾犬和迷你型贵宾犬的唯一标准就是体形大小。

体态匀称,令人满意的外形比例应该是:从胸骨到尾部的点的长度近似于肩部最高点到地面的高度。

前腿及后腿的骨骼和肌肉都应符合犬的全身比例。

[贵宾犬的头部和表情]
眼睛--非常黑,形状为椭圆形,眼神机灵,成为聪慧表情的重点。

主要缺陷:眼睛圆、突出,大或太浅。

耳朵--下垂的耳朵紧贴头部,耳根位置在或者低于眼睛的水平线,耳廓很长,很宽,表面上有浓密的毛覆盖。但是,耳朵的不能过分的长。

头部--小而圆,有轻微突出。鼻梁、颊骨和肌肉平滑,从枕骨到鼻梁的长度等于口鼻的长度。

口鼻--长、直且纤细,唇部不下垂。眼部下方稍凹陷。下颚大小适中,轮廓明显,不尖细。主要缺陷:下颚不明显。

牙齿--白而坚固、呈剪状咬合。

主要缺陷:下颚突出或上颚突出,齿型不整齐。

[贵宾犬的颈部、背线、躯干]
脖子的比例匀称,结实、修长。足以支撑头部,显出其高贵、尊严的品质。咽喉部的皮毛很软,脖子的毛很浓。由平滑的肌肉连接头部与肩部。

主要缺陷:母羊脖子。

背线是水平的,从肩胛骨的最高点到尾巴的根部既不倾斜也不成拱形。只有在肩后有一个微小的凹下。

[贵宾犬的躯干]
胸部宽阔舒展。富有弹性的肋骨。

腰短而宽,结实、健壮,肌肉匀称。

尾巴直,位置高并且向上翘。截尾后的长度足够支持整体的平衡。

主要缺陷:位置低、卷曲,翘的过于靠后。

[贵宾犬的前半身]
强壮的,肩部的肌肉平滑、结实。肩胛骨闭合完全,长度近似于前腿上部。

主要缺陷:肩部不平、突出。

前肢直,从正面看是平行的。从侧面看,前肢位于肩的正下方。脚踝结实、狼趾可能会被剪掉。

[贵宾犬的足]
足较小,形状成卵状,脚趾成狐状排列。脚上的肉垫厚、结实。脚趾较短,但可见。脚的方向既不朝里也不朝外。

主要缺陷:软、脚趾分开。

[贵宾犬的后半身]
前半身平衡。

后肢直,从后面看是平行的。肌肉宽厚。后膝关节健壮、结实,曲度合适;股骨和胫骨长度相当;跗关节到脚跟距离较短,且垂直于地面。站立时,后脚趾略超出尾部。

主要缺陷:母牛式跗关节

[贵宾犬的皮毛]
品质--(1)粗毛:自然的粗糙的质地,皮毛非常浓密。

      (2)软毛:紧凑、平滑垂下、长度不一。在胸部、身体、头部和耳朵比较长。关节部位的毛发相对短而蓬松。

[贵宾犬的修剪]
不满12个月的贵宾犬常被修饰成幼犬形。在通常的分类标准里,满12个月或大于12个月的犬必须修剪成\"英格兰鞍型\"或\"欧陆\"型。种犬和参加非竞争性展示可被修剪成猎犬型。其它任何型的都会被淘汰出竞赛。

幼犬型--不足一岁的贵宾犬可能被修剪为留有长毛的幼犬型。这种形态的犬要修剪面部、喉部、脚部和尾巴下部的毛。修剪后的整个脚部清晰可见,尾部被修饰成绒球状。为了使其外形整洁、优雅,保证其流畅的视觉效果,允许适当修饰全身的皮毛

\"英格兰鞍型\"--英格兰鞍型犬的面部、喉部、前肢和尾巴底部的毛需要修剪。修剪后,前肢的关节处留有一些毛,尾巴的末梢被修剪成绒球状。后半身除了身体两侧和两条后腿上各留出两片弧形的修饰过的皮毛外,其余部分全部剪短,修剪后可露出整个脚部,前肢关节以上的部分也清晰可见。其它部分的皮毛可以不用修剪,但为了保证贵宾犬整体的平衡,可以适当修整。

\"欧陆型\"--修剪面部、喉部、脚和尾巴底部。犬的后半身在臀部被修剪成绒球状,其余剪净。修剪后,整个脚部和前腿关节处以上的部位都露了出来。身体其它部分的皮毛可以不用修剪,但为保持整体的平衡,可以适当修整。

\"猎犬型\"--在猎犬型贵宾犬的修剪中,面部、脚部、喉部和尾巴底部得到修剪,只留下一团剪齿状的帽型皮毛,尾巴底部也被修饰成绒球状。为了使整个身体轮廓清晰流畅,躯干的其它部分包括四肢的毛应不超过一英寸,四肢的毛可以比躯干的毛略长。

在所有形态的修剪中,头部的毛发可以留成自然状或用橡皮筋扎起来。只有头部的毛发长度相当时,犬才能显出流畅完美的外观。\"头饰\"仅指头骨,即鼻梁至枕骨这部分的毛发,只有在这个部位,橡皮筋才有用武之地。

[贵宾犬的颜色]
毛色均匀、一致。贵宾犬有青灰色、灰色、银白色、褐色、咖啡色、杏色和奶油色,同一种颜色也会有不同的深浅。通常是耳朵和颈部的毛色深一些。通体同色为上品,但毛色中自然的深浅变化也不视为缺陷。褐色和咖啡色的贵宾犬通常有着肝褐色的鼻子、眼眶、嘴唇、深色的脚趾甲和深琥珀色的眼睛。而黑色、青灰色、灰色、银白色、奶油色和白色的贵宾犬通常有黑色的鼻子、眼眶和嘴唇,黑色或本色的脚趾甲和深色的眼睛。而杏色的犬拥有上述的这些颜色都还不错,如果是肝褐色的鼻子、眼眶、嘴唇和琥珀色的眼睛也可以,但已不是上品。

主要缺陷:鼻子、嘴唇和眼眶颜色不一致;或这些部份的颜色与犬全身颜色不协调。

杂色的犬都会被淘汰出竞赛。所谓杂色即其身上的毛色并非均匀、一致,而是由两种或两种以上的颜色组成。

[贵宾犬的步态]
向前小跑时,步伐轻快有力,主要依靠后肢发力。头部高昂,尾巴上翘。步态的稳健有力是此项关键。

性情

姿态高傲,非常灵敏、聪慧、自信。贵宾犬拥有非凡的气质和独特的尊严。

主要缺陷:害羞或是凶猛。

主要缺陷:

任何明显不符合上述的特点都可认为是此种犬的缺陷。

淘汰标准

尺寸--不足或超出规定标准。

修剪--任何不符合上述修剪标准的将被淘汰出竞赛。

杂色--全身毛色并非均匀、一致,而是由两种或两种以上的颜色组成。杂色的犬通常都会被淘汰出竞赛。

[贵宾犬的打分标准]
整体外观,气质,姿态和状态………30

头、表情,耳朵,眼睛和牙齿………20

身体、颈部、四肢、脚和尾巴………20

步态………20

毛皮,颜色和毛质………10

1984年8月14日通过
1990年3月27日重新编改



[以下为贵宾犬(Poodle)AKC标准英文原版]


Poodle Breed Standard

The Standard for the Poodle (Toy variety) is the same as for the Standard and Minature varieties except as regards heights.

General Appearance, Carriage and Condition
That of a very active, intelligent and elegant-appearing dog, squarely built, well proportioned, moving soundly and carrying himself proudly. Properly clipped in the traditional fashion and carefully groomed, the Poodle has about him an air of distinction and dignity peculiar to himself.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size
The Standard Poodle is over 15 inches at the highest point of the shoulders. Any Poodle which is 15 inches or less in height shall be disqualified from competition as a Standard Poodle.

The Miniature Poodle is 15 inches or under at the highest point of the shoulders, with a minimum height in excess of 10 inches. Any Poodle which is over 15 inches or is 10 inches or less at the highest point of the shoulders shall be disqualified from competition as a Miniature Poodle.

The Toy Poodle is 10 inches or under at the highest point of the shoulders. Any Poodle which is more than 10 inches at the highest point of the shoulders shall be disqualified from competition as a Toy Poodle.

As long as the Toy Poodle is definitely a Toy Poodle, and the Miniature Poodle a Miniature Poodle, both in balance and proportion for the Variety, diminutiveness shall be the deciding factor when all other points are equal.

Proportion - To insure the desirable squarely built appearance, the length of body measured from the breastbone to the point of the rump approximates the height from the highest point of the shoulders to the ground.

Substance - Bone and muscle of both forelegs and hindlegs are in proportion to size of dog.

Head and Expression
(a) Eyes-- very dark, oval in shape and set far enough apart and positioned to create an alert intelligent expression. Major fault: eyes round, protruding, large or very light.

(b) Ears-- hanging close to the head, set at or slightly below eye level. The ear leather is long, wide and thickly feathered; however, the ear fringe should not be of excessive length.

(c) Skull-- moderately rounded, with a slight but definite stop. Cheekbones and muscles flat. Length from occiput to stop about the same as length of muzzle.

(d) Muzzle-- long, straight and fine, with slight chiseling under the eyes. Strong without lippiness. The chin definite enough to preclude snipiness. Major fault: lack of chin. Teeth-- white, strong and with a scissors bite. Major fault: undershot, overshot, wry mouth.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck well proportioned, strong and long enough to permit the head to be carried high and with dignity. Skin snug at throat. The neck rises from strong, smoothly muscled shoulders. Major fault: ewe neck.

The topline is level, neither sloping nor roached, from the highest point of the shoulder blade to the base of the tail, with the exception of a slight hollow just behind the shoulder.

Body
(a) Chest deep and moderately wide with well sprung ribs. (b) The loin is short, broad and muscular. (c) Tail straight, set on high and carried up, docked of sufficient length to insure a balanced outline. Major fault: set low, curled, or carried over the back.

Forequarters
Strong, smoothly muscled shoulders. The shoulder blade is well laid back and approximately the same length as the upper foreleg. Major fault: steep shoulder.

(a) Forelegs - Straight and parallel when viewed from the front. When viewed from the side the elbow is directly below the highest point of the shoulder. The pasterns are strong. Dewclaws may be removed.

Feet - The feet are rather small, oval in shape with toes well arched and cushioned on thick firm pads. Nails short but not excessively shortened. The feet turn neither in nor out. Major fault: paper or splay foot.

Hindquarters
The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters.

(a) Hind legs straight and parallel when viewed from the rear. Muscular with width in the region of the stifles which are well bent; femur and tibia are about equal in length; hock to heel short and perpendicular to the ground. When standing, the rear toes are only slightly behind the point of the rump. Major fault: cow-hocks.

Coat
(a) Quality--(1) Curly: of naturally harsh texture, dense throughout. (2) Corded: hanging in tight even cords of varying length; longer on mane or body coat, head, and ears; shorter on puffs, bracelets, and pompons.

(b) Clip-- A Poodle under 12 months may be shown in the \"Puppy\" clip. In all regular classes, Poodles 12 months or over must be shown in the \"English Saddle\" or \"Continental\" clip. In the Stud Dog and Brood Bitch classes and in a non-competitive Parade of Champions, Poodles may be shown in the \"Sporting\" clip. A Poodle shown in any other type of clip shall be disqualified.

(1) \"Puppy\"--A Poodle under a year old may be shown in the \"Puppy\" clip with the coat long. The face, throat, feet and base of the tail are shaved. The entire shaven foot is visible. There is a pompon on the end of the tail. In order to give a neat appearance and a smooth unbroken line, shaping of the coat is permissible. (2) \"English Saddle\"--In the \"English Saddle\" clip the face, throat, feet, forelegs and base of the tail are shaved, leaving puffs on the forelegs and a pompon on the end of the tail. The hindquarters are covered with a short blanket of hair except for a curved shaved area on each flank and two shaved bands on each hindleg. The entire shaven foot and a portion of the shaven leg above the puff are visible. The rest of the body is left in full coat but may be shaped in order to insure overall balance. (3) \"Continental\"--In the \"Continental\" clip, the face, throat, feet, and base of the tail are shaved. The hindquarters are shaved with pompons (optional) on the hips. The legs are shaved, leaving bracelets on the hindlegs and puffs on the forelegs. There is a pompon on the end of the tail. The entire shaven foot and a portion of the shaven foreleg above the puff are visible. The rest of the body is left in full coat but may be shaped in order to insure overall balance. (4) \"Sporting\"--In the \"Sporting\" clip, a Poodle shall be shown with face, feet, throat, and base of tail shaved, leaving a scissored cap on the top of the head and a pompon on the end of the tail. The rest of the body, and legs are clipped or scissored to follow the outline of the dog leaving a short blanket of coat no longer than one inch in length. The hair on the legs may be slightly longer than that on the body.

In all clips the hair of the topknot may be left free or held in place by elastic bands. The hair is only of sufficient length to present a smooth outline. \"Topknot\" refers only to hair on the skull, from stop to occiput. This is the only area where elastic bands may be used.

Color
The coat is an even and solid color at the skin. In blues, grays, silvers, browns, cafe-au-laits, apricots and creams the coat may show varying shades of the same color. This is frequently present in the somewhat darker feathering of the ears and in the tipping of the ruff. While clear colors are definitely preferred, such natural variation in the shading of the coat is not to be considered a fault. Brown and cafe-au-lait Poodles have liver-colored noses, eye-rims and lips, dark toenails and dark amber eyes. Black, blue, gray, silver, cream and white Poodles have black noses, eye-rims and lips, black or self colored toenails and very dark eyes. In the apricots while the foregoing coloring is preferred, liver-colored noses, eye-rims and lips, and amber eyes are permitted but are not desirable. Major fault: color of nose, lips and eye-rims incomplete, or of wrong color for color of dog.

Parti-colored dogs shall be disqualified. The coat of a parti-colored dog is not an even solid color at the skin but is of two or more colors.

Gait
A straightforward trot with light springy action and strong hindquarters drive. Head and tail carried up. Sound effortless movement is essential.

Temperament
Carrying himself proudly, very active, intelligent, the Poodle has about him an air of distinction and dignity peculiar to himself. Major fault: shyness or sharpness.

Major Faults
Any distinct deviation from the desired characteristics described in the Breed Standard.

Disqualifications
Size-- A dog over or under the height limits specified shall be disqualified. Clip-- A dog in any type of clip other than those listed under coat shall be disqualified. Parti-colors-- The coat of a parti-colored dog is not an even solid color at the skin but of two or more colors. Parti-colored dogs shall be disqualified.

Value of Points
General appearance, temperament, carriage and condition.......30
Head, expression, ears, eyes and teeth.......20
Body, neck, legs, feet and tail.......20
Gait.......20
Coat, color and texture.......10

Approved August 14, 1984
Reformatted March 27, 1990

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:18:19 | 显示全部楼层


博美犬(Pomeranian)AKC标准




[博美犬的简介]
博美犬是一种紧凑、 短背、 活跃的玩具狗。他拥有柔软、浓密的底毛和粗硬的披毛。尾根位置很高,长有浓密饰毛的尾巴平放在背上。 他具有警惕的性格、 聪明的表情、轻快的举止和好奇的天性。博美的步态骄傲、庄重而且活泼。他的气质和行动都是健康的。

[博美犬的体型]
博美的体重范围是3~7磅,比赛级博美的理想体重是4~6磅。任何达不到这一体重或超过这一体重的狗都属于不受欢迎的。无论如何,整体质素要比大小更重要。体长(从肩到臀的长度)要略小于肩高,从胸到地面的距离等于肩高的一半。骨量中等,腿的长度与身体结构保持平衡。触摸时,应该感觉他很结实。

[博美犬的头部]
头部与身体相称,口吻短,直,精致,能自由的张嘴却不显得粗鲁。表情警惕,可以说是有点象狐狸。头骨密合,头盖骨略圆,但不能呈拱形。当从前面或侧面看时,能看见位置很高而且竖立的小耳朵。如果想象有一条线从鼻尖出发穿过两眼中间和耳朵尖,你能发现博美的头部是呈楔状的。眼睛颜色深、明亮、中等大小而且呈杏仁状。它们位于头骨上显著的止部两侧。博美的鼻镜、眼圈呈黑色,除了棕色、河狸色和兰色博美是与其自身毛色相配的颜色。剪状咬合。缺齿一颗是可以接受的。主要缺陷:太圆,呈拱形的头骨;上颚突出;下颚突出。

[博美犬的颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部短,其与肩结合的位置正好能使头高高昂起。背短,背线水平。身躯紧凑,肋骨扩张良好,胸深与肘部齐平。羽毛状尾巴是这一品种的特征之一,直直地平放在背后。

[博美犬的前躯]
博美的肩膀足够靠后,使颈部和头能高高昂起。肩膀和腿的肌肉适度发达。肩胛的长度与上臂相等。前腿直而且相互平行。从肘部到马肩隆的长度与从肘部到地面的长度大致相等。腕部直而且结实。足爪呈拱形,紧凑,既不向内也不向外翻。趾甲前伸。可以切除狼爪。主要缺陷:脚腕低。

[博美犬的后躯]
后腿和臀部与后躯成恰当的角度。臀部在尾巴后面恰当的位置。大腿肌肉适度发达,后膝关节适度倾斜,形成清晰的轮廓。飞节与地面垂直,腿骨直,而且两条后腿相互平行。足爪呈拱形,紧凑,既不向内也不向外翻。趾甲前伸。如果后腿有狼爪,可以切除。主要缺陷:牛肢或后腿或后膝关节缺乏稳定的支撑结构。

[博美犬的被毛]
博美犬具有双层被毛,底毛柔软而浓密。披毛长、直、光亮而且质地粗硬。厚厚的底毛支撑起外层披毛,使其能竖立在博美的身体上。脖子、肩膀前面和前胸的被毛浓密,在肩和胸前形成装饰。头部和腿部的被毛比身体其他部分的被毛短,紧贴身体。前肢的饰毛延伸到脚腕,尾巴上布满长、粗硬、散开且直的被毛。为了使轮廓清晰整洁而做的修剪是允许的。主要缺陷:被毛软、平、稀。


[博美犬的颜色]
所有的颜色、图案、变化都可以接受,并一视同仁。图案:褐色和棕色-清晰的棕色或铁锈色斑纹位于眼睛上面、口吻、喉部和前胸、腿和爪子及尾巴后面。棕色多一些比较理想;斑点:基本颜色是金色、红色或橘色斑点,上面不满黑色十字斑纹;颜色搭配:白色加其他颜色斑纹,头部有白筋比较理想。分类:在专业比赛中,把颜色分为几类:红色类包括红色、橘色、奶油色和紫貂色;黑色类包括黑色、褐色和兰色;其他颜色类包括了其他任何颜色和图案或变化。
   

[博美犬的步态]
博美的步态流畅、轻松、和谐而且活泼。良好的前躯导向和有力的后躯驱动。每一侧的后腿都与前腿在同一直线上移动。腿略向身体中心线会聚,以达到平衡。前腿和后腿既不向内也不向外翻,背线保持水平而且整体轮廓保持平衡。

[博美犬的气质]
博美是一种性格外向,非常聪明而且活泼的狗,使其成为非常优秀的伴侣犬,同时也是很有竞争力的比赛犬。

标准通过日期:1996年12月9日
标准执行日期:1997年1月31日

Pomeranian Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Pomeranian is a compact, short-backed, active toy dog. He has a soft, dense undercoat with a profuse harsh-textured outer coat. His heavily plumed tail is set high and lies flat on his back. He is alert in character, exhibits intelligence in expression, is buoyant in deportment, and is inquisitive by nature. The Pomeranian is cocky, commanding, and animated as he gaits. He is sound in composition and action.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The average weight of the Pomeranian is from 3 to 7 pounds, with the ideal weight for the show specimen being 4 to 6 pounds. Any dog over or under the limits is objectionable. However, overall quality is to be favored over size. The distance from the point of shoulder to the point of buttocks is slightly shorter than from the highest point of the withers to the ground. the distance from the brisket to the ground is half the height at the withers. He is medium-boned, and the length of his legs is in proportion to a well-balanced frame. When examined, he feels sturdy.

Head
The head is in balance with the body. The muzzle is rather short, straight, fine, free of lippiness and never snipey. His expression is alert and may be referred to as fox-like. The skull is closed. The top of the skull is slightly rounded, but not domed. When viewed from the front and side, one sees small ears which are mounted high and carried erect. To form a wedge, visualize a line from the tip of the nose ascending through the center of the eyes and the tip of the ears. The eyes are dark, bright, medium in size and almond-shaped. They are set well into the skull on either side of a well-pronounced stop. The pigmentation is black on the nose and eye rims except self-colored in brown, beaver, and blue dogs. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. One tooth out of alignment is acceptable. Major Faults: Round, domed skull; under-shot mouth; overshot mouth.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is short with its base set well into the shoulders to allow the head to be carried high. The back is short with a level topline. The body is compact and well-ribbed with brisket reaching the elbow. The plumed tail is one of the characteristics of the breed, and lies flat and straight on the back.

Forequarters
The Pomeranian has sufficient layback of shoulders to carry the neck and head proud and high. The shoulders and legs are moderately muscled. The length of the shoulder blade and upper arm are equal. The forelegs are straight and parallel to each other. Height from elbows to withers approximately equals height from ground to elbow. The pasterns are straight and strong. The feet are well-arched, compact, and turn neither in nor out. He stands well up on his toes. Dewclaws may be removed. Major Faults: Down in pasterns.

Hindquarters
The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. The buttocks are well behind the set of the tail. The thighs are moderately muscled with stifles that are moderately bent and clearly defined. The hocks are perpendicular to the ground and the legs are straight and parallel to each other. The feet are well-arched, compact, and turn neither in nor out. He stands well up on his toes. Dewclaws, if any on the hind legs may be removed. Major Faults: Cowhocks or lack of soundness in hind legs or stifles.

Gait
The Pomeranian\'s gait is smooth, free, balanced and vigorous. He has good reach in his forequarters and strong drive with his hindquarters. Each rear leg moves in line with the foreleg on the same side. To achieve balance, his legs converge slightly inward toward a center line beneath his body. The rear and front legs are thrown neither in nor out. The topline remains level, and his overall balance and outline are maintained.

Coat
A Pomeranian is noted for its double coat. The undercoat is soft and dense. The outer-coat is long, straight, glistening and harsh in texture. A thick undercoat will hold up and permit the guard hair to stand off from the Pomeranian\'s body. The coat is abundant from the neck and fore part of shoulders and chest, forming a frill which extends over the shoulders and chest. The head and leg coat is tightly packed and shorter in length than that of the body. The forequarters are well-feathered and thighs and hind legs well-feathered to the hock. The tail is profusely covered with long, harsh, spreading straight hair. Trimming for neatness and a clean outline is permissible. Major Faults: Soft, flat or open coat.

Color
All colors, patterns, and variations there-of are allowed and must be judged on an equal basis. Patterns: Black and Tan - tan or rust sharply defined, appearing above each eye and on muzzle, throat, and forechest, on all legs and feet and below the tail. The richer the tan the more desirable; Brindle - the base color is gold, red, or orange-brindled with strong black cross stripes; Parti-color - is white with any other color distributed in patches with a white blaze preferred on the head. Classifications: The Open Classes at specialty shows may be divided by color as follows: Open Red, Orange, Cream, and Sable; Open Black, Brown, and Blue; Open Any Other Color, Pattern, or Variation.

Temperament
The Pomeranian is an extrovert, exhibiting great intelligence and a vivacious spirit, making him a great companion dog as well as a competitive show dog.

Even though a Toy dog, the Pomeranian must be subject to the same requirements of soundness and structure prescribed for all breeds, and any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Approved December 9, 1996
Effective January 31, 1997

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:18:55 | 显示全部楼层


北京犬(Pekingese)AKC标准及介绍

[简介]
北京犬是一种平衡良好,结构紧凑的狗,前躯重而后躯轻。他起源于中国,有个性,表现欲强。其形象酷似狮子。他代表的勇气、大胆、自尊更胜于漂亮、优雅或精致。

[体型]
大小:如果举起北京犬的话,会发现他的分量惊人的沉重。他身材矮胖,肌肉发达。他分量重是与前躯骨量有密切关系。体重不的超过14磅,这一点不能忽略。缺陷:体重超过14磅。比例:体长(从胸骨到臀部的直线距离)略大于肩高。整体平衡及其重要。

[头部]
头颅:头顶骨骼粗大、宽阔且平(不能是拱形的)。头顶高,面颊骨骼宽阔,宽而低的下颚和宽宽的下巴组成了其正确的面部结构。从正面观察,头部宽大于深,造成了头面部的矩形形状。从侧面看,北京犬的脸必须是平的。下巴、鼻镜和额部处于同一平面。当头部处于正常位置时,这一平面应该是垂直的,但实际上是从下巴到额头略想后倾斜。鼻子:黑色、宽、而且从侧面看非常短。形成非常平的脸。鼻孔张开。鼻子位于两眼中间,鼻子上端正好处于两眼间连线的中间位置。眼睛:非常大、非常黑、圆、有光泽而且分的很开。眼圈颜色黑,而且当狗向前直视时,看不见眼白。皱纹:非常有效地区分了脸的上半部分和下半部分。外观是从皮肤皱摺开始到面颊有毛发覆盖,中间经过一个倒V形延伸到另一侧面颊。皱纹既不过分突出以至挤满整个脸,也不会太大以至于遮住鼻子和眼睛而影响视线。止部:深。看起来鼻梁和鼻子的皱纹完全被毛发遮蔽。口吻:非常短且宽,配合了高而宽的颧骨。皮肤是黑色的。胡须添加了东方式的面貌。下颚略向前突。嘴唇平,而且当嘴巴闭合时,看不见牙齿和舌头。过度发达的下巴和不够发达的下巴一样不受欢迎。耳朵:心形耳,位于头部两侧。正确的耳朵位置加上非常浓密的毛发造成了头部更宽的假象。任何颜色的狗的鼻镜、嘴唇、眼圈都是黑色的。

[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部非常短,粗,与肩结合。身体呈梨形,且紧凑。前躯重,肋骨扩张良好,挂在前腿中间。胸宽,突出很小或没有突出的胸骨。细而轻的腰部,十分特殊。背线平。尾根位置高;翻卷在后背中间。长、丰厚而直的饰毛垂在一边。

[前躯]
前肢短,粗且骨骼粗壮。肘部到脚腕之间的骨骼略弯。肩的角度良好,平贴于躯干。肘部总是贴近身体。前足爪大、平而且略向外翻。必须能好好地站立。

[后躯]
骨骼比前躯轻。后膝和飞节角度柔和。从后面观察,后腿适当的靠近、平行,脚尖向前。前躯和后躯都要求很健康。

[被毛]
身躯被毛:被毛长、直、竖立着,而且有丰厚柔软的底毛盖满身体,脖子和肩部周围有显著的鬃毛,比身体其他部分的被毛稍短。长而丰厚的被毛比较理想,但不能影响身体的轮廓外观,也不能忽略正确的被毛结构。饰毛:在前腿和大腿后边,耳朵、尾巴、脚趾上有长长的饰毛。脚趾上的饰毛要留着,但不能影响行动。

[颜色]
允许所有的颜色,所有颜色一视同仁。

[步态]
步态从容高贵,肩部后略显扭动。由于弯曲的前肢、宽而重的前躯,轻、直和平行的后肢,所以会以细腰为支点扭动。扭动的步态流畅、轻松而且可能象弹跳、欢蹦乱跳一样自由。

[气质]
综合了帝王的威严、自尊、自信、顽固而易怒的天性,但对获得其尊重的人则显得可爱、友善而充满感情。上述特点是北京犬的完美典型。缺陷根据其程度进行评判。
[缺陷]
达德利鼻、灰色或肝色鼻子
浅褐色、黄色或兰色眼睛。
牙齿或舌头外露。
上颚突出式咬合。
歪嘴。
耳位过高,过低或靠后。
脊柱弯曲。
前腿骨骼直。     
   


[记分]
表情:     5分
鼻子:     5分
止部:     5分
口吻:     5分
腿和足:     15分
尾巴:     5分
头颅:     10分
眼睛:     5分
耳朵:     5分
身体形状:     20分
被毛,饰毛和健康情况:     10分
步态:     10分

总计     100分

[失格]
体重超过14磅。

标准通过日期:1995年6月13日
标准执行日期:1995年7月31日
[注:因没有最新2004年标准的翻译以上翻译为95年的标准]


[以下为北京犬(Pekingese)AKC标准英文原版]

Pekingese Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Pekingese is a well-balanced, compact dog of Chinese origin with a heavy front and lighter hindquarters. Its temperament is one of directness, independence and individuality. Its image is lionlike, implying courage, dignity, boldness and self-esteem rather than daintiness or delicacy.

Size, Substance, Proportion
Size/Substance - The Pekingese, when lifted, is surprisingly heavy for its size. It has a stocky, muscular body. All weights are correct within the limit of 14 pounds. Disqualification: Weight over 14 pounds. Proportion - Overall balance is of utmost importance. The head is large in proportion to the body. The Pekingese is slightly longer than tall when measured from the forechest to the buttocks. The overall outline is an approximate ratio of 3 high to 5 long.

Head
Face - The topskull is massive, broad and flat and, when combined with the wide set eyes, cheekbones and broad lower jaw, forms the correctly shaped face. When viewed from the front, the skull is wider than deep, which contributes to the desired rectangular, envelope-shaped appearance of the head. In profile, the face is flat. When viewed from the side, the chin, nose leather and brow all lie in one plane, which slants very slightly backward from chin to forehead. Ears - They are heart-shaped, set on the front corners of the topskull, and lie flat against the head. The leather does not extend below the jaw. Correctly placed ears, with their heavy feathering and long fringing, frame the sides of the face and add to the appearance of a wide, rectangular head. Eyes - They are large, very dark, round, lustrous and set wide apart. The look is bold, not bulging. The eye rims are black and the white of the eye does not show when the dog is looking straight ahead. Nose - It is broad, short and black. Nostrils are wide and open rather than pinched. A line drawn horizontally over the top of the nose intersects slightly above the center of the eyes. Wrinkle - It effectively separates the upper and lower areas of the face. It is a hair-covered fold of skin extending from one cheek over the bridge of the nose in a wide inverted V to the other cheek. It is never so prominent or heavy as to crowd the facial features, obscure more than a small portion of the eyes, or fall forward over any portion of the nose leather. Stop - It is obscured from view by the over-nose wrinkle. Muzzle - It is very flat, broad, and well filled-in below the eyes. The skin is black on all colors. Whiskers add to the desired expression. Mouth - The lower jaw is undershot and broad. The black lips meet neatly and neither teeth nor tongue show when the mouth is closed.

Neck, Body, Tail
Neck - It is very short and thick. Body - It is pear-shaped, compact and low to the ground. It is heavy in front with well-sprung ribs slung between the forelegs. The forechest is broad and full without a protruding breastbone. The underline rises from the deep chest to the lighter loin, thus forming a narrow waist. The topline is straight and the loin is short. Tail - The high set tail is slightly arched and carried well over the back, free of kinks or curls. Long, profuse, straight fringing may fall to either side.

Forequarters
They are short, thick and heavy-boned. The bones of the forelegs are moderately bowed between the pastern and elbow. The broad chest, wide set forelegs and the closer rear legs all contribute to the correct rolling gait. The distance from the point of the shoulder to the tip of the withers is approximately equal to the distance from the point of the shoulder to the elbow. Shoulders are well laid back and fit smoothly onto the body. The elbows are always close to the body. Front feet are turned out slightly when standing or moving. The pasterns slope gently.

Hindquarters
They are lighter in bone than the forequarters. There is moderate angulation of stifle and hock. When viewed from behind, the rear legs are reasonably close and parallel, and the feet point straight ahead when standing or moving.

Coat & Presentation
Coat - It is a long, coarse-textured, straight, stand-off outer coat, with thick, soft undercoat. The coat forms a noticeable mane on the neck and shoulder area with the coat on the remainder of the body somewhat shorter in length. A long and profuse coat is desirable providing it does not obscure the shape of the body. Long feathering is found on toes, backs of the thighs and forelegs, with longer fringing on the ears and tail. Presentation - Presentation should accentuate the natural outline of the Pekingese. Any obvious trimming or sculpting of the coat, detracting from its natural appearance, should be severely penalized.

Color
All coat colors and markings are allowable and of equal merit. A black mask or a self-colored face is equally acceptable. Regardless of coat color the exposed skin of the muzzle, nose, lips and eye rims is black.

Gait
It is unhurried, dignified, free and strong, with a slight roll over the shoulders. This motion is smooth and effortless and is as free as possible from bouncing, prancing or jarring. The rolling gait results from a combination of the bowed forelegs, well laid back shoulders, full broad chest and narrow light rear, all of which produce adequate reach and moderate drive.

Temperament
A combination of regal dignity, intelligence and self-importance make for a good natured, opinionated and affectionate companion to those who have earned its respect.

Disqualification
Weight over 14 pounds.

The foregoing is a description of the ideal Pekingese. Any deviation should be penalized in direct proportion to the extent of that deviation.

Approved: January 13, 2004
Effective: March 2, 2004

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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蝴蝶犬(Papillon)AKC标准及介绍

[历史]
蝴蝶犬的身世来源无法考证, 从1545年一只被买卖的蝴蝶犬有记载后, 才开始由许多文书上出现. 有人认为,此犬的祖先是由中国传到西班牙的猎鹬犬种. 16世纪, 蝴蝶犬深受西班牙及法国贵族人士的喜爱, 从而确定了此犬在犬界的地位. 如苏格兰女王玛丽与其爱犬查理士王猎犬以其赴刑, 玛丽安德渥内特亦和蝴蝶犬一起赴死刑场. 19世纪, 法国及比利时饲养者致力发展直立耳的品种. 蝴蝶犬 耳朵上的装饰毛如翩翩起舞的蝴蝶,由此得名蝴蝶犬.美国和英国的饲养者致力要改良出比其它国家的体型更小的蝴蝶犬种

[简介]
蝴蝶犬是一种小巧、友好、文雅的玩具犬,骨骼纤细,动作轻巧、优美而活泼。与其他品种最大的区别在于其状似蝴蝶的耳朵。

[体型]
肩高8~11英寸。高于11英寸属于有缺陷。高于12英寸属于失格。身体的比例是体长略大于肩高。由于骨骼纤细,所以他不是一种结实的狗。体重与身高成正比。

[头部]
眼睛:颜色暗,圆,不外突,中等大小,眼神带有警惕。内眼角与止短端处于同一直线。黑色眼眶。

耳朵:直立耳或者垂耳,耳朵大而且耳尖较圆,位于头部两侧相对靠后的位置。(1)立耳型的耳朵斜向伸展,酷似展翅飞翔的蝴蝶翅膀。当警惕时,每个耳朵都背到与头部形成约45度角的位置。耳廓应该有足够的力量使整个耳朵保持竖立状态。(2)垂耳型,与我们所知道的一般蝴蝶犬一样,其他方面都很相似,但耳朵是下垂的,而且是完全向下。缺陷:耳朵小,耳尖太尖,耳位太高;一个耳朵竖立或部分耳朵下垂。头颅:头部小。头颅宽度中等,在两耳间,略呈圆拱型。在口吻与头部结合的位置,止部的轮廓十分清晰。

口吻:口吻精致,从头部下来突然变细,鼻尖非常细。口吻的长度(从鼻尖到止部)大约等于整个脑袋长度(从鼻尖到后脑)的1/3。鼻镜呈黑色,圆形,上端略平。鼻镜不是黑色属于严重缺陷。嘴唇紧、薄且黑。当嘴闭者时,应该看不见舌头。咬合为剪状咬合,上颚突出或下颌突出式咬合属于缺陷。

[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部:长度中等。

背线:直而且平。胸深中等,肋骨扩张良好。腹部向上收。尾巴长,尾根位置高,反搭在背上。尾巴上饰有长而飘逸的饰毛。尾巴上的饰毛挂在身体两侧。缺陷:尾根低;没有反搭在背上或太短。

前躯:肩部轮廓清晰,向后斜着不影响行动。前肢纤细,骨骼细但必须很直,可以切除狼爪。足爪细而长(野兔爪),足尖不向内或向外翻。

后躯:恰当的发达和适当的角度。后腿纤细,骨骼细,从后面看,两腿平行。飞节不向里或向外翻。后脚如果有狼爪,必须切除。足爪细而长(野兔爪),足尖不向内或向外翻。

[被毛]
毛量丰富,长,精致,象丝一样,飘逸,直而且有弹性。背上和身体两侧的毛发笔直。胸部长有丰富的饰毛。没有底毛。头部、口吻、前肢正面和后肢从足爪到飞节部分的毛发紧而且短,耳朵边缘长有漂亮的饰毛,里面则长有中等长度的,柔软光滑的毛发。前腿背面长有饰毛,到脚腕处减少。后腿到飞节这段部分被\"马裤\"(也称为裙裤)覆盖。脚上的毛发较短,但精致的饰毛可能盖住脚面。

[颜色]
理想的颜色总是白色加其他颜色的斑纹。在头部,颜色必须是除白色外的其他颜色覆盖两个耳朵,正面和反面,并且延伸到眼睛,中间不能断开。纯色的头部,从鼻尖开始,脸中间有一道白筋的是首选。脸部图案对称是很重要的。有色斑纹在身体上的大小、位置、形状甚至存在或不存在都不重要。只要眼圈、鼻子和嘴唇的黑色素充足,至于是什么颜色并无区别。下列情况属于严重缺陷:除白色外的其他颜色不能覆盖耳朵(正面和反面),或不能从耳朵延伸到眼睛。如果在不影响蝴蝶形外观的前提下,耳朵周围镶一圈白边或在其他颜色上散布少量白色毛发不算严重缺陷。任何全白的狗或没有白色的狗都属于失格。

[步态]
轻松、迅速、从容、优雅,行走中不能有划桨动作,或臀部僵硬的情况出现。

[气质]
快乐,警惕,而且友好,不能胆怯,也不能有攻击性。

标准通过日期:1991年6月10日

标准执行日期:1991年7月31日

[以下为蝴蝶犬(Papillon)AKC标准英文原版]

Papillon Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Papillon is a small, friendly, elegant toy dog of fine-boned structure, light, dainty and of lively action; distinguished from other breeds by its beautiful butterfly-like ears.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - Height at withers, 8 to 11 inches. Fault - Over 11 inches. Disqualification - Over 12 inches. Proportion - Body must be slightly longer than the height at withers. It is not a cobby dog. Weight is in proportion to height. Substance - Of fine-boned structure.

Head
Eyes dark, round, not bulging, of medium size and alert in expression. The inner corners of the eyes are on line with the stop. Eye rims black. Ears - The ears of either the erect or drop type should be large with rounded tips, and set on the sides and toward the back of the head. (1) Ears of the erect type are carried obliquely and move like the spread wings of a butterfly. When alert, each ear forms an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the head. The leather should be of sufficient strength to maintain the erect position. (2) Ears of the drop type, known as the Phalene, are similar to the erect type, but are carried drooping and must be completely down. Faults - Ears small, pointed, set too high; one ear up, or ears partly down.

Skull - The head is small. The skull is of medium width and slightly rounded between the ears. A well-defined stop is formed where the muzzle joins the skull. Muzzle - The muzzle is fine, abruptly thinner than the head, tapering to the nose. The length of the muzzle from the tip of the nose to stop is approximately one-third the length of the head from tip of nose to occiput. Nose black, small, rounded and slightly flat on top. The following fault shall be severely penalized - Nose not black. Lips tight, thin and black. Tongue must not be visible when jaws are closed. Bite - Teeth must meet in a scissors bite. Faults - Overshot or undershot.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck of medium length. Topline - The backline is straight and level. Body - The chest is of medium depth with ribs well sprung. The belly is tucked up. Tail long, set high and carried well arched over the body. The tail is covered with a long, flowing plume. The plume may hang to either side of the body. Faults - Low-set tail; one not arched over the back, or too short.

Forequarters
Shoulders well developed and laid back to allow freedom of movement. Forelegs slender, fine-boned and must be straight. Removal of dewclaws on forelegs optional. Front feet thin and elongated (hare-like), pointing neither in nor out.

Hindquarters
Well developed and well angulated. The hind legs are slender, fine-boned, and parallel when viewed from behind. Hocks inclined neither in nor out. Dewclaws, if any, must be removed from hind legs. Hind feet thin and elongated (hare-like), pointing neither in nor out.

Coat
Abundant, long, fine, silky, flowing, straight with resilient quality, flat on back and sides of body. A profuse frill on chest. There is no undercoat. Hair short and close on skull, muzzle, front of forelegs, and from hind feet to hocks. Ears well fringed, with the inside covered with silken hair of medium length. Backs of the forelegs are covered with feathers diminishing to the pasterns. Hind legs are covered to the hocks with abundant breeches (culottes). Tail is covered with a long, flowing plume. Hair on feet is short, but fine tufts may appear over toes and grow beyond them, forming a point.

Color
Always parti-color or white with patches of any color(s). On the head, color(s) other than white must cover both ears, back and front, and extend without interruption from the ears over both eyes. A clearly defined white blaze and noseband are preferred to a solidly marked head. Symmetry of facial markings is desirable. The size, shape, placement, and presence or absence of patches of color on the body are without importance. Among the colors there is no preference, provided nose, eye rims and lips are well pigmented black.

The following faults shall be severely penalized - Color other than white not covering both ears, back and front, or not extending from the ears over both eyes. A slight extension of the white collar onto the base of the ears, or a few white hairs interspersed among the color, shall not be penalized, provided the butterfly appearance is not sacrificed. Disqualifications - An all white dog or a dog with no white.

Gait
Free, quick, easy, graceful, not paddlefooted, or stiff in hip movements.

Temperament Happy, alert and friendly. Neither shy nor aggressive.

Disqualifications
Height over 12 inches.
An all white dog or a dog with no white.

Approved June 10, 1991
Effective July 31, 1991

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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迷你笃宾、迷你品、迷你杜宾犬、鹿犬(Miniature Pinscher)AKC标准及介绍
小型笃宾犬(德语为梗类)在迷你品犬产生的几世纪前,就已经出现在德国与斯堪的那维亚地区.1895年,德国笃宾犬俱乐部设立,接着迷你品犬也受到公认.1920年,此犬输入到美国以后,受到当地人的喜爱.1929年,美国迷你笃宾犬俱乐部成立.

迷你杜宾犬简介
迷你杜宾犬是一种结构平衡、紧凑、结实、精密的短毛狗。他的外观自然、高傲、有活力且警惕。骏马式的步伐、大胆的作风、完全独立的个性和精力旺盛是这一品种独有的特征。他们是优秀的家庭犬.也是抓老鼠的能手。1900年前,除其在德国地去仍是个默默无闻的品种.虽然有些外形似笃宾犬的小型种类,但遗传上与其没有任何关系

迷你杜宾犬的体型
肩高10~12.5英寸,理想的尺寸是11~11.5英寸。肩高低于10英寸或高于12.5英寸属于失格。公狗的身体长度等于肩高,母狗身体略长一些。

迷你杜宾犬的头部
与身体比例恰当。前端变窄,比例合适,而且面部不能比头颅突出。不能显得粗糙。眼睛:饱满,略呈卵形,清楚、明亮、深色甚至是纯黑色,包括眼圈也是深色的,除了巧克力色的狗(眼圈颜色与体色一致)。耳朵:耳位高,立耳。可以剪耳或不剪耳。头颅:平坦,向口吻方向变窄。口吻:强壮而不是精巧纤细,与头部组成一个整体。略向下倾,与头顶部分平行。鼻镜:只允许黑色,除了巧克力色的狗(与体色一致)。嘴唇和脸颊:小而紧,彼此贴近。牙齿:呈剪状咬合。

迷你杜宾犬的颈部、背线、身躯
颈部在身体和头之间略呈拱形,曲线优雅,肌肉发达而且没有赘肉和皱皮。背线:站立和行走时,背线水平或略向后倾。身体:紧凑,略呈楔状,肌肉发达。胸部发达,肋骨扩张良好,胸深适度,与肘齐平。适度收腹,显得优雅。短而结实的腰部。尾部:尾根高,竖立,在适当位置截断。

迷你杜宾犬的前躯
肩部整洁并倾斜适当的角度,使他有骑马式的动作。肘部贴近身体。腿部骨骼强壮且结合紧密。从前面看,直而整齐。腕部强壮而直。狼爪应该切除。足爪小,猫爪,足趾强壮,呈拱形且紧密,脚垫厚实,趾甲厚而钝。

迷你杜宾犬的后躯
后腿肌肉发达,距离恰当。从后面看,腿直且平行。从旁边看,角度恰当。大腿肌肉发达。后膝关节轮廓鲜明,飞节短,距离恰当。狼爪应该切除。足爪小,猫爪,足趾强壮,呈拱形且紧密,脚垫厚实,趾甲厚而钝。

迷你杜宾犬的被毛
平滑、短而硬,直且有光泽,紧贴全身。

迷你杜宾犬的颜色
纯红色。鹿红色(红色中搀杂黑色毛发)。黑色带铁锈红斑纹,明显的铁锈红色斑纹分布在脸颊,嘴唇,下颌,喉咙,眼眉和胸口,前腿下半部分,后腿内侧,飞节下部和足爪。足趾上有黑色铅笔条纹。巧克力色带铁锈红斑纹的情况与黑色带铁锈红斑纹的情况一样,只有足趾上是巧克力色铅笔纹。纯红色和鹿红色中,有深色阴影比较理想。失格:除列出的颜色以外,其他任何颜色;拇指斑(前腿脚腕到脚之间部分的正面,在黑色斑块外包一圈铁锈红,如果是巧克力色,斑块颜色是巧克力色)。身体任何部分出现较长方向超尺寸过1/2英寸的白色斑块。  

迷你杜宾犬的步态
前腿和后腿平行移动,脚既不向内弯,也不向外弯。骏马式步态是指其行走时前腿高抬轻放,脚腕弯曲,自由而轻松的步态。行动流畅,后躯驱动力强。

迷你杜宾犬的气质
大胆的作风、完全独立的个性和精力旺盛

迷你杜宾犬的失格
肩高低于10英寸或高于12.5英寸;除列出的颜色以外,其他任何颜色;拇指斑(前腿脚腕到脚之间部分的正面,在黑色斑块外包一圈铁锈红,如果是巧克力色,斑块颜色是巧克力色)。身体任何部分出现较长方向超尺寸过1/2英寸的白色斑块。

标准制订日期:1980年7月8日
标准执行日期:1990年2月21日

[以下为迷你笃宾、迷你品、迷你杜宾犬、鹿犬(Miniature Pinscher)AKC标准英文原版]

Miniature Pinscher Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Miniature Pinscher is structurally a well balanced, sturdy, compact, short-coupled, smooth-coated dog. He naturally is well groomed, proud, vigorous and alert. Characteristic traits are his hackney-like action, fearless animation, complete self-possession, and his spirited presence.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size -10 inches to 12½ inches in height allowed, with desired height 11 inches to 11½ inches measured at highest point of the shoulder blades. Disqualification -Under 10 inches or over 12½ inches in height. Length of males equals height at withers. Females may be slightly longer.

Head
In correct proportion to the body. Tapering, narrow with well fitted but not too prominent foreface which balances with the skull. No indication of coarseness. Eyes full, slightly oval, clear, bright and dark even to a true black, including eye rims, with the exception of chocolates, whose eye rims should be self-colored. Ears set high, standing erect from base to tip. May be cropped or uncropped. Skull appears flat, tapering forward toward the muzzle. Muzzle strong rather than fine and delicate, and in proportion to the head as a whole. Head well balanced with only a slight drop to the muzzle, which is parallel to the top of the skull. Nose black only, with the exception of chocolates which should have a self-colored nose. Lips and Cheeks small, taut and closely adherent to each other. Teeth meet in a scissors bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck proportioned to head and body, slightly arched, gracefully curved, blending into shoulders, muscular and free from suggestion of dewlap or throatiness. Topline -Back level or slightly sloping toward the rear both when standing and gaiting. Body compact, slightly wedge-shaped, muscular. Forechest well developed. Well-sprung ribs . Depth of brisket, the base line of which is level with points of the elbows. Belly moderately tucked up to denote grace of structural form. Short and strong in loin. Croup level with topline. Tail set high, held erect, docked in proportion to size of dog.

Forequarters
Shoulders clean and sloping with moderate angulation coordinated to permit the hackney-like action. Elbows close to the body. Legs -Strong bone development and small clean joints. As viewed from the front, straight and upstanding. Pasterns strong, perpendicular. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet small, catlike, toes strong, well arched and closely knit with deep pads. Nails thick, blunt.

Hindquarters
Well muscled quarters set wide enough apart to fit into a properly balanced body. As viewed from the rear, the legs are straight and parallel. From the side, well angulated. Thighs well muscled. Stifles well defined. Hocks short, set well apart. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet small, catlike, toes strong, well arched and closely knit with deep pads. Nails thick, blunt.

Coat
Smooth, hard and short, straight and lustrous, closely adhering to and uniformly covering the body.

Color
Solid clear red. Stag red (red with intermingling of black hairs). Black with sharply defined rust-red markings on cheeks, lips, lower jaw, throat, twin spots above eyes and chest, lower half of forelegs, inside of hind legs and vent region, lower portion of hocks and feet. Black pencil stripes on toes. Chocolate with rust-red markings the same as specified for blacks, except brown pencil stripes on toes. In the solid red and stag red a rich vibrant medium to dark shade is preferred. Disqualifications -Any color other than listed. Thumb mark (patch of black hair surrounded by rust on the front of the foreleg between the foot and the wrist; on chocolates, the patch is chocolate hair). White on any part of dog which exceeds one-half inch in its longest dimension.

Gait
The forelegs and hind legs move parallel, with feet turning neither in nor out. The hackney-like action is a high-stepping, reaching, free and easy gait in which the front leg moves straight forward and in front of the body and the foot bends at the wrist. The dog drives smoothly and strongly from the rear. The head and tail are carried high.

Temperament
Fearless animation, complete self-possession, and spirited presence.

Disqualifications
Under 10 inches or over 12½ inches in height.
Any color other than listed. Thumb mark (patch of black hair surrounded by rust on the front of the foreleg between the foot and the wrist; on chocolates, the patch is chocolate hair). White on any part of dog which exceeds one-half (½) inch in its longest dimension.

Approved July 8, 1980
Reformatted February 21, 1990

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玛尔济斯(Maltese)介绍及AKC标准

[历史]
  英国亨利八世时马尔济斯犬已在英国流行了,并成为宫廷夫人的心爱小犬。1877年作为马尔济斯狮子犬首次在美国展出。1879年一条有色犬作为马耳济司绠展出。1888年美国养犬俱乐部登记了马尔济斯犬。
   许多世纪以来,马尔济斯犬就是有文化的,是有钱人和口味高的人的家庭宠物,可能就因为马尔济斯犬具有文雅、忠诚和爱清洁等品质的原因。马尔济斯犬对运动 的要求很低,对儿童特别友好,具有良好的体质而长寿(可活14-16年,有时可活18年以上)。它态度高贵、聪明(有时甚至是狡猾)。而且非常依恋它的主 人。如果有兴趣拥有一条非常美丽的小犬而不是一条有实际用途的犬,马尔济斯犬是合适的选择。
  马尔济斯犬虽然不需要太大的空间,但要求精心照顾,每天必须彻底地梳理刷净它的长毛。这种犬不脱毛。但它毛长及地往往带进屋内许多污物,尤其是在阴雨天。由于它对潮湿很敏感,阴雨天每次外出后都必须擦干吹干,因此不适合不能花时间做这些事的人。

[简介]
马 尔济斯犬是从头到脚披着白色丝状长毛的玩具犬。它的态度文雅而深情、热切而行动活泼,尽管体型小却具有令人满意的作为伴侣犬所需的精力。马尔济斯犬是温和 的小犬,全家的宠物。可以放心地让它与儿童玩耍。通常健康良好,一直到生命晚期仍生气勃勃。马尔济斯犬最古老的欧洲玩赏犬之一。但是肯定马尔济斯犬的原产 地是马耳他岛,却引起了一系列的异议, 虽然这种犬在该岛无疑已有许多世纪了。

[头部]
与体形大小相比长度适中。颅顶部略呈圆形,额鼻阶适度。下垂耳位较低,有大量长毛形成耳缘饰毛,毛下垂至头。眼距极宽,眼色极深而呈圆形,其黑色眼边增强了文雅而机敏的表情。吻长适中,精巧而逐渐收缩但不显长吻状。鼻黑色。牙齿钳状咬合或剪状咬合。

[颈部]
最好有充分长度以便头能高昂。

[躯干]
紧凑,肩高等于肩峰至尾根长。肩胛斜位,肘部结实并紧贴躯干。 背线平, 肋骨扩张良好。 胸相当深, 腰紧而强, 下面略收腹。

[尾]
尾有长羽状饰毛,优美地位于背上,尾尖向体侧超过1/4。

[腿与脚]
腿骨纤细,有良好的饰毛。前腿直,掌节结实,不见弯曲。后腿强健,膝关节和飞节角度适当。脚小而圆,趾垫黑色。脚上参差不齐的毛可修剪使之更整洁。

[被毛和颜色]
单层被毛,即无绒毛层。被毛长、平而呈丝状,向体侧下垂及地。头部长毛可用头饰扎住或任其下垂。任何缠纹、卷曲或毛茸茸状迹象都是要不得的。毛色纯白,允许耳部有淡黄褐色或柠檬色,但不是最好的。

[体型]
体重小于7磅,比较理想的体重为4~6磅。但整体品质比体重重要。

[步态]
马尔济斯犬的步态轻快、平稳而流畅、侧观,按体形大小考虑,给人以运动迅速的印象。后腿\"X\"(飞节向内*而后脚趾向外)或后脚趾内向或外向的任何迹象都算缺点
[气质]
尽管马尔济斯犬体型极小,但却似乎不知道害怕。它的自信和有感情的反应性是很诱人的。它是所有小犬中态度最温和的,但它又是活泼爱玩和生气勃勃的。

[优劣]
体重不要超过6斤,毛色纯白,允许耳部有淡黄褐色或柠檬色,但不是最好的。

[以下为玛尔济斯(Maltese)AKC标准英文原版]

Maltese Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Maltese is a toy dog covered from head to foot with a mantle of long, silky, white hair. He is gentle-mannered and affectionate, eager and sprightly in action, and, despite his size, possessed of the vigor needed for the satisfactory companion.

Head
Of medium length and in proportion to the size of the dog. The skull is slightly rounded on top, the stop moderate. The drop ears are rather low set and heavily feathered with long hair that hangs close to the head. Eyes are set not too far apart; they are very dark and round, their black rims enhancing the gentle yet alert expression. The muzzle is of medium length, fine and tapered but not snipy.The nose is black. The teeth meet in an even, edge-to-edge bite, or in a scissors bite.

Neck
Sufficient length of neck is desirable as promoting a high carriage of the head.

Body
Compact, the height from the withers to the ground equaling the length from the withers to the root of the tail. Shoulder blades are sloping, the elbows well knit and held close to the body. The back is level in topline, the ribs well sprung. The chest is fairly deep, the loins taut, strong, and just slightly tucked up underneath.

Tail
A long-haired plume carried gracefully over the back, its tip lying to the side over the quarter.

Legs and Feet
Legs are fine-boned and nicely feathered. Forelegs are straight, their pastern joints well knit and devoid of appreciable bend. Hind legs are strong and moderately angulated at stifles and hocks. The feet are small and round, with toe pads black. Scraggly hairs on the feet may be trimmed to give a neater appearance.

Coat and Color
The coat is single, that is, without undercoat. It hangs long, flat, and silky over the sides of the body almost, if not quite, to the ground. The long head-hair may be tied up in a topknot or it may be left hanging. Any suggestion of kinkiness, curliness, or woolly texture is objectionable. Color, pure white. Light tan or lemon on the ears is permissible, but not desirable.

Size
Weight under 7 pounds, with from 4 to 6 pounds preferred. Overall quality is to be favored over size.

Gait
The Maltese moves with a jaunty, smooth, flowing gait. Viewed from the side, he gives an impression of rapid movement, size considered. In the stride, the forelegs reach straight and free from the shoulders, with elbows close. Hind legs to move in a straight line. Cowhocks or any suggestion of hind leg toeing in or out are faults.

Temperament
For all his diminutive size, the Maltese seems to be without fear. His trust and affectionate responsiveness are very appealing. He is among the gentlest mannered of all little dogs, yet he is lively and playful as well as vigorous.

Approved March 10, 1964

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:21:10 | 显示全部楼层


日本仲(Japanese Chin)介绍及AKC标准

[简介]
日本仲是一种小体型,安定、活泼且贵族化的玩具犬,他带有一种独特的、东方式的表情。动作轻盈而时髦。羽毛状的尾巴卷在背后,搭在身体一侧。毛量丰厚,象丝一样光滑、柔软,且直。他的轮廓呈正方形。

[体型]
理想的尺寸是肩高在8~11英寸间。身体长度(从胸至臀的距离)等于肩高。身体结构结实、紧凑、精确。体重与身体的高度及结构成正确的比例。

[头部]
表 情活泼、好奇、警惕且聪明。大而宽的脑袋、距离分地很开的大眼睛、短而宽的口吻、耳朵和耳朵上的饰毛及脸部斑纹组成的图案,构成了日本仲独特的东方式的表 情。眼睛:距离分的很开、大、圆、颜色深且又光泽。眼角内能看见少量白色,是这个品种特有的,使他们看上去好象很惊讶的样子。耳朵:垂耳、小、V形、距离 分的很开,位于头顶较偏下的位置。警惕时,耳朵向前和向下转动。耳朵长满饰毛,并配合脑袋形成圆形轮廓。头颅:大、宽、在两耳间显得略圆,但不是圆拱形。 前额:突出,与鼻镜齐。宽度与两眼距离差不多。从侧面看,额头和口吻处于同一垂直平面上,与头顶的水平面正好成直角。止部:深。口吻:短而宽,摺皱的脸颊 和嘴唇正好包住牙齿。鼻子:非常短,且宽,鼻孔开阔。鼻尖与两眼处于同一水平线上,并处于正中间,鼻子向上翻。鼻镜颜色:黑白体色的狗或黑白带褐色体色的 狗,鼻镜颜色是黑色的,红白体色的狗,鼻镜颜色是体毛颜色或黑色。咬合:下颌宽,轻微的下颌突出式咬合。有缺齿1~2颗或牙齿稍微有点不整齐不算严重缺 陷。所以对日本仲的评判很注意口头陈述。如果狗显示出任何犹豫,评判员将询问并参照犬主关于咬合的陈述。

[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部的长度和粗细适中。在肩膀上恰当的位置,使小狗能够骄傲地昂首阔步。背线水平。身体呈正方形,圆形肋骨使胸宽适度。胸深适度,与肘齐平。尾根高,卷在背上,并搭在身体一侧。

[前躯]
腿直,骨骼纤细,肘部贴近身体。狼爪可以切除。足爪呈兔形足,成年狗的脚
趾末端有饰毛。脚趾直或略向外张。

[后躯]
从后面看,腿直,且骨骼纤细。后膝关节适度弯曲。狼爪可以切除。足爪呈兔形足,成年狗的脚趾末端有饰毛。脚趾直。

[被毛]
毛 量丰厚,毛发直,单层毛且象丝般柔滑。毛发属于弹性质地且竖立在身体上,尤其是在脖子、肩膀、胸部周围形成浓密的鬃毛或毛领。尾巴毛量丰厚形成羽毛状。臀 部被厚厚的被毛覆盖,形成裙裤,或短裤。头部和口吻被短短的被毛所覆盖,除了耳朵是长满浓密的饰毛。前腿长有短毛,但在腿的后面混有许多长长的饰毛。后腿 的被毛就是先前描述的裙裤,成年狗,在飞节至足爪部分长有轻盈的饰毛。

[颜色]
有三种颜色:黑白花、红白花和黑白花带褐色斑纹。褐色斑纹包括了从褐色到红色的斑点,比如在眼睛周围的斑点、耳朵里面、两颊、肛门周围区域(如果显示出黑色的话)等。红色包括了各种浓度的红,包括了橘红、柠檬色、紫色
和上述各种红色的混合色等。在所有允许的颜色中,所有颜色的得分情况都一样。对面部图案来说,清晰的白色口吻和面部白筋比较理想,面部图案左右对称比较理想。至于身体上图案的规模、形状、位置或数量都不重要。要求没有细碎的白色斑点。

[步态]
动作时髦而轻盈。呈直线运动,前后腿在同一平面上移动。

[气质]
敏感而聪明的狗,唯一的目的就是成为一个忠心的伙伴。对熟悉和喜欢的人充满感情而对陌生人或新情况有所保留。


[以下为日本仲(Japanese Chin)AKC标准英文原版]

Japanese Chin Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Japanese Chin is a small, well balanced, lively, aristocratic toy dog with a distinctive Oriental expression. It is light and stylish in action. The plumed tail is carried over the back, curving to either side. The coat is profuse, silky, soft and straight. The dog\'s outline presents a square appearance.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - Ideal size is 8 inches to 11 inches at the highest point of the withers. Proportion - Length between the sternum and the buttock is equal to the height at the withers. Substance - Solidly built, compact, yet refined. Carrying good weight in proportion to height and body build.

Head
Expression - bright, inquisitive, alert, and intelligent. The distinctive Oriental expression is characterized by the large broad head, large wide-set eyes, short broad muzzle, ear feathering, and the evenly patterned facial markings. Eyes - set wide apart, large, round, dark in color, and lustrous. A small amount of white showing in the inner corners of the eyes is a breed characteristic that gives the dog a look of astonishment. Ears - hanging, small, V-shaped, wide apart, set slightly below the crown of the skull. When alert, the ears are carried forward and downward. The ears are well feathered and fit into the rounded contour of the head. Skull - large, broad, slightly rounded between the ears but not domed. Forehead is prominent, rounding toward the nose. Wide across the level of the eyes. In profile, the forehead and muzzle touch on the same vertical plane of a right angle whose horizontal plane is the top of the skull. Stop - deep. Muzzle - short and broad with well-cushioned cheeks and rounded upper lips that cover the teeth. Nose - very short with wide, open nostrils. Set on a level with the middle of the eyes and upturned. Nose leather is black in the black and white and the black and white with tan points, and is self-colored or black in the red and white. Bite - The jaw is wide and slightly undershot. A dog with one or two missing or slightly misaligned teeth should not be severely penalized. The Japanese Chin is very sensitive to oral examination. If the dog displays any hesitancy, judges are asked to defer to the handler for presentation of the bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck - moderate in length and thickness. Well set on the shoulders enabling the dog to carry its head up proudly. Topline - level. Body - square, moderately wide in the chest with rounded ribs. Depth of rib extends to the elbow. Tail - set on high, carried arched up over the back and flowing to either side of the body.

Forequarters
Legs - straight, and fine boned, with the elbows set close to the body. Removal of dewclaws is optional. Feet - hare-shaped with feathering on the ends of the toes in the mature dog. Point straight ahead or very slightly outward.

Hindquarters
Legs - straight as viewed from the rear and fine boned. Moderate bend of stifle. Removal of dewclaws is optional. Feet - hare-shaped with feathering on the ends of the toes in the mature dog. Point straight ahead.

Coat
Abundant, straight, single, and silky. Has a resilient texture and a tendency to stand out from the body, especially on neck, shoulders, and chest areas where the hair forms a thick mane or ruff. The tail is profusely coated and forms a plume. The rump area is heavily coated and forms culottes or pants. The head and muzzle are covered with short hair except for the heavily feathered ears. The forelegs have short hair blending into profuse feathering on the backs of the legs. The rear legs have the previously described culottes, and in mature dogs, light feathering from hock joint to the foot.

Color
Either black and white, red and white, or black and white with tan points. The term tan points shall include tan or red spots over each eye, inside the ears, on both cheeks, and at the anal vent area if displaying any black. The term red shall include all shades of red, orange, and lemon, and sable, which includes any aforementioned shade intermingled or overlaid with black. Among the allowed colors there shall be no preference when judging. A clearly defined white muzzle and blaze are preferable to a solidly marked head. Symmetry of facial markings is preferable. The size, shape, placement or number of body patches is not of great importance. The white is clear of excessive ticking.

Gait
Stylish and lively in movement. Moves straight with front and rear legs following in the same plane.

Temperament
A sensitive and intelligent dog whose only purpose is to serve man as a companion. Responsive and affectionate with those it knows and loves but reserved with strangers or in new situations.

Approved December 8, 1992
Effective January 27, 1993

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:22:20 | 显示全部楼层


意大利灰狗、意大利灵缇犬、意大利格雷伊猎犬(Italian Greyhound)AKC标准及介绍

[简介]
意大利灵缇与灵缇非常相似,但意大利灵缇要小很多,而且比灵缇更优雅、更高贵。
[体型]
肩高13~15英寸
[头部]
头 窄而长,鼻子很尖,止部不明显。脑袋相当长,几乎是平的。口吻长而纤细、秀气。鼻镜颜色暗,颜色可能是黑色、褐色或其他与体色相配的颜色。浅色或局部着色 的鼻镜属于有缺陷。剪状咬合,严重的下颌突出或上颌突出都属于有缺陷。眼睛颜色暗,明亮,聪明,中等大小。浅色眼睛属于有缺陷。耳朵小,轻巧;非警戒状态 时,耳朵都向后面摺,以适当的角度摺向脑袋。立耳或纽扣耳都属于严重缺陷。
[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈: 长,细且形成优美的拱形。 身躯:长度适中,连接紧凑;从侧面看,马肩隆、背部曲线和向下的后躯,形成向上拱的弓形,弓形的最高点在腰的起点处。胸:深而窄。尾巴:细长,末端尖,呈 曲线状。长度正好到飞节。尾根位置低,尾巴放的也很低。卷尾属于严重缺陷,甩尾也属于有缺陷。
[前躯]
肩:长而倾斜。前肢:长而直,位于肩膀下合适的位置;腕部结实强壮,骨骼纤细。足爪:足爪呈适合的拱形(兔形足)。可以

切除狼爪。
[后躯]
后肢长,大腿肌肉发达;从后面看,两条后退平行,飞节向下,后膝角度适合。足爪同前肢。
[被毛]
被毛精细而柔软,毛发短,摸上去,象缎子一样光滑和柔软。
[颜色]
除了斑点和带黄褐色斑纹(通常是其他品种才有黑底带褐斑的颜色)属于失格,其他任何颜色和斑纹都可以接受。
[步态]
步伐大,不受拘束,前腿和后腿在同一直线上移动。
标准通过日期:1976年12月14日


[以下为意大利灰狗、意大利灵缇犬、意大利格雷伊猎犬(Italian Greyhound)AKC标准英文原版]

Italian Greyhound Breed Standard
Description
The Italian Greyhound is very similar to the Greyhound, but much smaller and more slender in all proportions and of ideal elegance and grace.

Head
Narrow and long, tapering to nose, with a slight suggestion of stop. Skull Rather long, almost flat. Muzzle Long and fine. Nose Dark. It may be black or brown or in keeping with the color of the dog. A light or partly pigmented nose is a fault. Teeth Scissors bite. A badly undershot or overshot mouth is a fault. Eyes Dark, bright, intelligent, medium in size. Very light eyes are a fault. Ears Small, fine in texture; thrown back and folded except when alerted, then carried folded at right angles to the head. Erect or button ears severely penalized.

Neck
Long, slender and gracefully arched.

Body
Of medium length, short coupled; high at withers, back curved and drooping at hindquarters, the highest point of curve at start of loin, creating a definite tuck-up at flanks.

Shoulders
Long and sloping.

Chest
Deep and narrow.

Forelegs
Long, straight, set well under shoulder; strong pasterns, fine bone.

Hindquarters
Long, well-muscled thigh; hind legs parallel when viewed from behind, hocks well let down, well-bent stifle.

Feet
Harefoot with well-arched toes. Removal of dewclaws optional.

Tail
Slender and tapering to a curved end, long enough to reach the hock; set low, carried low. Ring tail a serious fault, gay tail a fault.

Coat
Skin fine and supple, hair short, glossy like satin and soft to the touch.

Color
Any color and markings are acceptable except that a dog with brindle markings and a dog with the tan markings normally found on black-and-tan dogs of other breeds must be disqualified.

Action
High stepping and free, front and hind legs to move forward in a straight line.

Size
Height at withers, ideally 13 inches to 15 inches.

Disqualifications
A dog with brindle markings. A dog with the tan markings normally found on black-and-tan dogs of other breeds.

Approved December 14, 1976

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:22:57 | 显示全部楼层


哈瓦那犬(哈威那)-Havanese AKC标准及介绍

[简介]
哈瓦那犬是一种强壮、安详的短腿小狗,有着不太整齐的被毛。羽毛状的尾巴翻卷在背后。他是一种充满感情的快乐小狗,步态活泼轻快。

[体型]
身高范围从8~11英寸,9~10英寸身高是最理想的。体重范围从7~13磅,体重8~11磅是最理想的。任何体重超出范围的狗都属于有严重缺陷,任何身高超出8~11英寸范围的狗都属于失格。身体长度(自胸至臀)略大于肩高,看起来不应该是正方形的。前腿和后腿都比较短,但其长度能够使狗有一定的高度而不显得贴着地面。哈威那是一种强壮的狗,属于小体型品种,但不显得过分也不显得脆弱。

[头部]
与身体的成中等比例。眼睛非常大,呈杏仁状,颜色非常深,表情温和。兰色和银白色被毛的狗,眼睛颜色可能略淡;巧克力色被毛的狗,眼睛颜色可能是浅色;不过,深色眼睛是最理想的。除了巧克力色外,其他颜色的狗眼圈都是黑色的,巧克力色的狗眼圈颜色与被毛一致。缺点:小而圆的眼睛,眼圈不完整或色素不足。野,突出的眼睛属于严重缺陷。所有在一个或两个眼圈部发生色素不足的狗,都属于失格。耳朵位置既不太高,也不太低且向下折,构成一个柔和的皱摺,而且耳朵上长满长长的饰毛。他们略翘,适度突出,但既不向外翻飞,也不紧贴面颊。脑袋宽阔且稍稍有点圆,止部适中。面颊平坦,嘴唇干净。口吻长度等于止部到后脑壳的距离。口吻既不粗也不钝。除了巧克力色的狗,其他各种颜色的狗的鼻镜和嘴唇是深黑色,巧克力色的狗,鼻镜和嘴唇呈巧克力般的深褐色。失格:达德利鼻,除了巧克力色的狗,鼻子和嘴唇出现黑色以外的颜色。咬合:剪状咬合最理想,钳状咬合也可以接受,上下牙床的牙齿都很完整是最理想的。弯曲的牙齿或缺齿属于有缺陷,上突式咬合、下突式咬合和歪嘴,属于严重缺陷。

[颈部,背线,身躯]
中等长度的颈部,既不太长也不太短。背线直,*臀部微微上提。侧腹适当突起。肋骨圆。尾根高,卷在背后,长有长长的、柔软的丝状饰毛。直立不动时,允许尾巴下垂。

[前躯]
前腿骨骼强壮且笔直,从肘到肩的高度等于从脚到肘的高度。狼爪可能已被切除。足爪紧凑,适度穹拱,适度紧密。任何足爪内转或外转都属于缺陷。

[后躯]
后腿比较短,骨骼和肌肉强壮,角度适中;从后面看,后躯笔直。狼爪可能已经切除。足爪与前肢相同。缺点与前肢同。

[被毛]
哈威那属于有两层被毛的品种,具有同样柔软的底毛和披毛。毛发很长,很丰厚,显得十分自然。被毛的类型包括从直毛到卷毛都可以,波浪状被毛是最理想的。卷毛允许扎起来。成犬的被毛长约6~8英寸。被毛过长过厚也不是最理想。当然,除了小狗,被毛短都属于有缺陷。把头上的被毛在两眼上面分别编扎起来是可以的,但不能将背上的毛发从中间分开,向两边梳理。头部的毛发不允许修剪,也不允许任何形式的修剪、修整被毛,除了脚底毛可以修剪,以避免变成“船形足”或“拖鞋脚”。除了修剪

脚底毛,修剪其他地方的被毛都属于失格。

[颜色]
所有颜色,包括从纯白到奶油色,香槟色,金黄色,黑色,兰色,银色,巧克力色或任何上述几种颜色的组合(双色组合或三色组合)。单色并不比其他颜色更好。

[步态]
步态独特且具有强调哈威那快乐的气质的“轻快”步伐。前肢直、肩部不受拘束,而后躯驱动力强,使其行动呈直线。行走中尾巴翻卷在背上。骑马姿势、划奖姿势,移动中后部太*近,尾巴没有翻卷在背上,都属于缺陷。 充满感情,快乐。

[失格]
所有小于8 1/2英寸或大于11 1/2英寸的狗。所有在眼圈部位缺乏色素的狗。达德利鼻,除了巧克力色的狗,其嘴唇和鼻镜颜色应该是与体毛颜色一直的深褐色外,其他任何鼻镜和嘴唇不是黑色的狗,以及修剪了除脚底毛以外任何部位被毛的狗,都属于失格。


[以下为哈瓦那犬(哈威那Havanese)AKC标准英文原版]
Havanese Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Havanese is a small sturdy dog of immense charm. He is slightly longer than tall, and covered with a profuse mantle of untrimmed long, silky, wavy hair. His plumed tail is carried loosely curled over his rump. A native of Cuba, he has evolved over the centuries from the pampered lap-dog of the aristocracy into what he is today - the quintessential family pet of a people living on a small tropical island. His duties traditionally have been those of companion, watchdog, child\'s playmate and herder of the family poultry flock. His presentation in the show ring should reflect his function - always in excellent condition but never so elaborately coifed as to preclude an impromptu romp in the leaves, as his character is essentially playful rather than decorative.

While historically always a toy dog and therefore never overly large or coarse, he does not appear so fragile as to make him unsuitable as a child\'s pet. His unique coat reflects centuries in the tropics, and protects against heat. It is remarkably soft and light in texture, profuse without being harsh or woolly. Likewise, the furnishings of the head are believed to protect the eyes from the harsh tropical sun, and have traditionally never been gathered in a topknot for this reason.

In both structure and gait, the Havanese is not easily mistaken for any other breed. His characteristic topline, rising slightly from withers to rump is a result of moderate angulation both fore and aft combined with a typically short upper arm. The resulting springy gait is flashy rather than far-reaching and unique to the breed. The overall impression of the dog on the move is one of agility rather than excessive ability to cover ground. These characteristics of temperament, structure and gait contribute in large part to the character of the breed, and are essential to type.

Size, Proportion and Substance
The height range is from 8½ to 11½ inches, with the ideal being between 9 and 10½ inches, measured at the withers, and is slightly less than the length from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, creating a rectangular outline rather than a square one. The Havanese is a sturdy little dog, and should never appear fragile. A coarse dog with excessive bone is likewise contrary to type and therefore equally undesirable. The minimum height ranges set forth in the description above shall not apply to dogs and bitches under twelve months of age. Disqualification: Height at withers under 8½ inches or over 11½ inches, except that the minimum height ranges set forth in the description above shall not apply to dogs or bitches under twelve months of age.

Head
The expression is soft and intelligent, mischievous rather than cute. The eyes are dark brown, large, almond-shaped, and set rather widely apart. Dark eyes are preferred irrespective of coat color, although the chocolate colored dog may have somewhat lighter eyes. The pigment on the eyerims is complete, solid black for all colors except for the chocolate dog which has complete solid, dark chocolate pigment. No other dilution of pigment is acceptable. Ears are of medium length; the leather, when extended, reaches halfway to the nose. They are set high on the skull, slightly above the endpoint of the zygomatic arch, and are broad at the base, showing a distinct fold. When the dog is alert, the ears lift at the base, producing an unbroken shallow arc from the outer edge of each ear across the backskull. The backskull is broad and slightly rounded. The stop is moderate. Length of muzzle is slightly less than length of back skull measured from stop to point of occiput and the planes are level. The nose is broad and squarish, fitting a full and rectangular muzzle, with no indication of snipiness. The pigment on the nose and lips is complete, solid black for all colors except for the chocolate dog which has complete solid, dark chocolate brown pigment. No other dilution of pigment is acceptable. A scissors bite is ideal. Full complement of incisors preferred. Disqualifications: Complete absence of black (or chocolate in the chocolate dog) pigmentation on the eyerims, nose or lips.

Neck, Topline, and Body
The neck is of moderate length, in balance with the height and length of the dog. It carries a slight arch and blends smoothly into the shoulders. The topline is straight but not level, rising slightly from withers to rump. There is no indication of a roach back. The body, measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, is slightly longer than the height at the withers. This length comes from the ribcage and not from the short, well-muscled loin. The chest is deep, rather broad in front, and reaches the elbow. The ribs are well sprung. There is a moderate tuck-up. The tail is high-set and plumed with long, silky hair. It arcs forward over the back, but neither lies flat on the back nor is tightly curled. On the move the tail is carried loosely curled over the rump. The long plume of the hair may fall straight forward or to either side of the body. The tail may not be docked.

Forequarters
Shoulder layback is moderate, lying not more than 40 degrees off vertical. Extreme shoulder layback will negatively affect proper gait, and should be faulted. The tops of the shoulder blades lie in at the withers, allowing the neck to merge smoothly into the back. The upper arm is relatively short, but there is sufficient angle between the shoulder and upper arm to set the legs well under the body with a pronounced forechest. The elbows turn neither in nor out, and are tight to the body. Forelegs are well-boned and straight when viewed from any angle. The distance from the foot to the elbow is equal to the distance from elbow to withers. The pasterns are short, strong and flexible, very slightly sloping. Dewclaws may be removed. The feet are round, with well arched toes, and turn neither in nor out. Pads and nails may be black, white, pink, or a combination of these colors. Chocolate dogs may also have brown pads and nails.

Hindquarters
The hind legs are well-boned and muscular through the thigh, with moderate angulation. The hocks are short and turn neither in nor out. In normal stance, the hind legs are parallel to each other from hock to heel and all the joints are in line when viewed from the rear. The rear assembly, in which the rump is slightly higher than the withers, contributes to the breed\'s unique, springy gait. Dewclaws should be removed. The hind feet fall slightly behind a perpendicular line from point of buttock when viewed from the side. Hind feet have well arched toes and turn neither in nor out. Pads and nails may be black, white, pink or a combination of these colors. Chocolate dogs may also have brown pads and nails.

Coat
The coat is double, but without the harsh standoff guard hair and woolly undercoat usually associated with double coats. Rather, it is soft and light in texture throughout, though the outer coat carries slightly more weight. The long hair is abundant and, ideally, wavy. An ideal coat will not be so profuse nor overly long as to obscure the natural lines of the dog. Puppies may have a shorter coat. A single, flat coat or an excessively curly coat are equally contrary to type and should be faulted. Disqualifications: A coarse, wiry coat. An atypical short coat on an adult dog (atypical would be smooth, flat coat with, or without furnishings.)

Color
All colors are acceptable, singly or in any combination. No preference is given to one color over another. The skin may be freckled or parti-colored.

Gait
The Havanese gait is lively, elegant, resilient, and unique, contributing greatly to the breed\'s overall essential typiness. The characteristic \"spring\" is caused by the strong rear drive combined with a \"flashy\" front action effected by the short upper arm. While a truly typey dog is incapable of exaggerated reach and drive, the action does not appear stilted or hackneyed. The slightly higher rear may cause a correctly built specimen to show a flash of pad coming and going. The front legs reach forwardfreely. There is good extension in the rear and no tendency toward sickle hocks. The topline holds under movement, neither flattening nor roaching. Head carriage is typically high, even on the move.

Temperament
Playful and alert. The Havanese is both trainable and intelligent with a sweet, non-quarrelsome disposition.

Presentation
The dog should be shown as naturally as is consistent with good grooming. He may be shown either brushed or corded. His coat should be clean and well conditioned. In mature specimens, the length of the coat may cause it to fall to either side down the back but it should not appear to be artificially parted. The long, untrimmed head furnishings may fall forward over the eyes, naturally and gracefully to either side of the skull, or be held in two small braids beginning above the outer corner of the eyes, secured with plain elastic bands. (No ribbons or bows are permitted.) Corded coats will naturally separate into wavy sections in young dogs and will in time develop into cords. Adult corded dogs will be completely covered with a full coat of tassle-like cords. In either coat, minimal trimming of the hair at the inside corner of the eye is allowed for hygienic purposes only, not an attempt to resculpt the planes of the head. Minimal trimming around the anal and genital areas, for hygienic purposes only, is permissible but should not be noticeable on presentation. The hair on the feet and between the pads should be neatly trimmed for the express purpose of a tidy presentation. Any other trimming or sculpting of the coat is to be severely penalized as to preclude placement. Because correct gait is essential to breed type, the Havanese is presented at natural speed on a loose lead.

Faults
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Havanese. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation keeping in mind the importance of the contribution of the various features toward the \"original purpose of the breed.\"

Disqualification
Height at withers under 8½ or over 11½ inches except that the minimum height range shall not apply to dogs or bitches under twelve months of age.
Complete absence of black ( or chocolate in the chocolate dog) pigmentation on the eyerims, nose or lips.
Coarse, wiry coat.
An atypical short coat on an adult. (Atypical refers to a smooth, flat coat with, or without furnishings.)

Approved: May 7, 2001
Effective: June 27, 2001

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:23:48 | 显示全部楼层


英国玩具犬(English Toy Spaniel)AKC标准及介绍

English Toy Spaniel Breed Standard

[简介]
英国玩具猎鹬犬是一种紧凑的、基本上呈正方形的、镇定的短鼻猎犬,圆脑袋,快乐且充满柔情的性格,和象丝一样柔软的被毛。他具有紧凑强壮的身体和迷人的气质,圆圆的脑袋,明亮的黑眼睛,柔和的脸部曲线,显示出这是一种独特的、有个性的狗。他最重要的特征就在于他的头。
[体型]
成犬的理想体重因该在8~14磅。一般来说,匀称比体重要重要;不过,在其他条件都相同的前提下,比较小一些的狗是首选。以COBBY线为基础形成紧凑的比例和正方形体型。身体结构牢固结实。
[头部]
头:相对体型而言,头显得很大,看起来“豪华”、丰满,但是纯正的血统使其不显得粗糙。表情:安静且有魅力,表现出高智商的本质。眼睛:大,深褐色或黑色,与鼻子处于同一直线位置,眼白很少或根本没有。眼圈黑。耳朵:非常长,位置低且紧贴头部,长有浓密的饰毛。颅骨:高高隆起,从侧面看,曲线可能超过眼睛。止部:深且明显。口吻:非常短,塌鼻子,鼻子边上的皮皱在眼睛下面。颚:方形,宽且深,向上包着,和嘴唇很好的结合形成了精巧的外观。鼻镜:大,鼻镜黑色,鼻孔宽阔。咬合:轻微的下颌突出,牙齿不能外露。歪嘴属于缺点,挂舌更不能接受。
[颈部,背线,身躯]
脖子长度适中;形成合适的拱形。身体短,紧凑,宽且厚,在COBBY线上,背阔。骨架坚固,强健的肋骨和深厚的BRISKET。尾巴:断尾,留2~4英寸长,处于背线延长线上或向上翻卷,轻搭在背上。尾根位置位于背平面。有不少小狗出生时,尾巴短或扭曲,是可以接受的。尾巴上的饰毛应该象丝一样,有3~4英寸长,形成显著的“旗帜”形状。尾巴和它的姿态显示了这种品种的性格和气质。
[前躯]
塌肩膀;腿部骨骼强壮,肘部以下垂直。腕部结实。足:前后紧凑、整洁;融合的脚趾是常见的和可以接受的。
[后躯]
后腿肌肉强壮,角度恰当,显得有力,后肘相互平行。
[被毛]
被毛丰厚,浓密的皮毛覆盖了耳朵、身体和前胸,飘逸的羽壮饰毛覆盖了前后腿,足部也有饰毛。被毛直或带有轻微的波浪,被毛呈丝状,非常光滑。虽然布伦海姆色和宝石红色的被毛及耳毛长度很少能比的上查尔斯王子色或查尔斯国王色。但好的被毛和长耳毛是获奖的重要因素。过度修剪身体、足部或尾巴上的饰毛是不允许的。
[颜色]
布伦海姆(红白双色)由珍珠白的底色上均匀地分布了深红色或栗色的斑纹、斑点。耳朵和面颊是红色的,脸上有白筋,从鼻子上延伸到两耳间的前额部,并形成月牙形曲线。在两眼周围有红色斑纹的比较理想。布伦海姆常在头顶或颅骨中央带有馒头形斑纹或“布伦海姆斑点”。查尔斯王子色(三色)有珍珠白底色,均匀地分布着黑色斑纹,整个黑色的耳朵和脸上上的黑色斑纹。两个眼睛周围有黑色斑纹比较理想。黄褐色是很丰富的颜色,分布在脸上,眼睛周围,耳朵里面和尾巴下面。查尔斯国王色(黑色和黄褐色)是丰富、均匀的黑色,在脸颊,耳朵里面,眼睛周围,腿上和尾巴下面带有明亮的桃花芯木的黄褐色斑纹。小于四分之一的白色斑纹或在胸前有白毛,作为查尔斯国王色的英国玩具猎鹬犬,不算是缺点;如果还有其他白色斑纹,则属于缺点。 宝石红色是单色的,丰富的桃花芯木的红色。小于四分之一的白色斑纹或在胸前有白毛,作为宝石红色的英国玩具猎鹬犬,不算是缺点;如果还有其他白色斑纹,则属于缺点。
[步态]
行动优雅,良好的前躯导向和有力的后躯驱动。整个步态是自由、活泼的,证明了性格稳定和骨骼结构正确。从侧面看,步距恰当,从后面和前面看,身体保持垂直和正确的姿势,这是由于骨骼和肌肉都发育的很正确。
[气质]
英国玩具猎鹬犬是欢快的,令人感兴趣的小型狗,充满感情,服从。



General Appearance
The English Toy Spaniel is a compact, cobby and essentially square toy dog possessed of a short-nosed, domed head, a merry and affectionate demeanor and a silky, flowing coat. His compact, sturdy body and charming temperament, together with his rounded head, lustrous dark eye, and well cushioned face, proclaim him a dog of distinction and character. The important characteristics of the breed are exemplified by the head.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - The most desirable weight of an adult is eight to fourteen pounds. General symmetry and substance are more important than the actual weight; however, all other things being equal, the smaller sized dog is to be preferred. Proportion - Compact and essentially square in shape, built on cobby lines. Substance - Sturdy of frame, solidly constructed.

Head
Head large in comparison to size, with a plush, chubby look, albeit with a degree of refinement which prevents it from being coarse.

Expression
Soft and appealing, indicating an intelligent nature.

Eyes
Large and very dark brown or black, set squarely on line with the nose, with little or no white showing. The eye rims should be black.

Ears
Very long and set low and close to the head, fringed with heavy feathering.

Skull
High and well domed; from the side, curves as far out over the eyes as possible.

Stop
Deep and well-defined.

Muzzle
Very short, with the nose well laid back and with well developed cushioning under the eyes.

Jaw
Square, broad, and deep, and well turned up, with lips properly meeting to give a finished appearance.

Nose
Large and jet black in color, with large, wide open nostrils.

Bite
Slightly undershot; teeth not to show. A wry mouth should be penalized; a hanging tongue is extremely objectionable.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck-Moderate in length; nicely arched. Topline - Level. Body - Short, compact, square and deep, on cobby lines, with a broad back. Sturdy of frame, with good rib and deep brisket.

Tail
The tail is docked to two to four inches in length and carried at or just slightly above the level of the back. The set of the tail is at the back\'s level. Many are born with a shorter or screw tail which is acceptable. The feather on the tail should be silky and from three to four inches in length, constituting a marked \"flag\" of a square shape. The tail and its carriage is an index of the breed\'s attitude and character.

Forequarters
Shoulders well laid back; legs well boned and strong, dropping straight down from the elbow; strong in pastern. Feet, front and rear, are neat and compact; fused toes are often seen and are acceptable.

Hindquarters
Rear legs are well muscled and nicely angulated to indicate strength, and parallel of hock.

Coat
Profusely coated, heavy fringing on the ears, body, and on the chest, and with flowing feathering on both the front and hind legs, and feathering on the feet. The coat is straight or only slightly wavy, with a silken, glossy texture. Although the Blenheim and the Ruby rarely gain the length of coat and ears of the Prince Charles and King Charles, good coats and long ear fringes are a desired and prized attribute. Over-trimming of the body, feet or tail fringings should be penalized.

Color
The Blenheim (red and white) consists of a pearly white ground with deep red or chestnut markings evenly distributed in large patches. The ears and the cheeks are red, with a blaze of white extending from the nose up the forehead and ending between the ears in a crescentic curve. It is preferable that there be red markings around both eyes. The Blenheim often carries a thumb mark or \"Blenheim Spot\" placed on the top and the center of the skull.

The Prince Charles (tricolor) consists of a pearly white ground, with evenly distributed black patches, solid black ears and black face markings. It is preferable that there be black markings around both eyes. The tan markings are of a rich color, and on the face, over the eyes, in the lining of the ears, and under the tail.

The King Charles (black and tan) is a rich, glossy black with bright mahogany tan markings appearing on the cheeks, lining of the ears, over the eyes, on the legs and underneath the tail. The presence of a small white chest patch about the size of a quarter, or a few white hairs on the chest of a King Charles Spaniel are not to be penalized; other white markings are an extremely serious fault.

The Ruby is a self-colored, rich mahogany red. The presence of a small white chest patch about the size of a quarter, or a few white hairs on the chest of a Ruby Spaniel are not to be penalized. Other white markings are an extremely serious fault.

Gait
Elegant with good reach in the front, and sound, driving rear action. The gait as a whole is free and lively, evidencing stable character and correct construction. In profile, the movement exhibits a good length of stride, and viewed from front and rear it is straight and true, resulting from straight-boned fronts and properly made and muscled hindquarters.

Temperament
The English Toy Spaniel is a bright and interested little dog, affectionate and willing to please.

Approved June 13, 1989
Effective August 1, 1989

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中国冠毛犬AKC标准Chinese Crested Breed Standard

一、[简介]

玩具犬,纤巧、文雅且优美。在同一胎中会出现截然不同的两种外观,无毛型的仅在头顶、脚部和尾巴上长有饰毛,而粉扑型则全身有毛。这一品种适合作为家庭宠物和非常称职的玩伴。

二、[体型]

尺寸:理想的尺寸是11~13英寸。当然,如果略大或略小也可以考虑,但要从整体去看。比例:矩形比例,身体能自由活动。体长(肩至尾根)略大于肩高。骨骼纤细,身材苗条,属于虽然精致但不脆弱的情况,也不能出现下列情况:强壮或笨重。

三、[头部]

表情警惕而且热情。眼睛:杏仁状的眼睛分的很开。深色狗的眼睛颜色深,浅色狗的眼睛颜色也浅。眼圈的颜色和狗的颜色相称。耳朵大且竖立,未剪耳,耳朵位置是:耳根与外眼角对齐。脑袋:脑袋从两耳间到后脑的地方略呈拱形。从后脑到止部的距离等于从止部到鼻尖的距离。从上方或侧面看,头部都呈楔子形。止部轻微但很清楚。口吻:面颊逐渐变细,使口吻呈清楚的锥形。鼻镜:深色犬的鼻镜呈深色;浅色犬的鼻镜呈浅色,但颜色要求一致。唇:嘴唇干净、整齐。咬合:剪状咬合,粉扑型如果有缺齿现象被视为缺点,而无毛型有缺齿现象没有关系。

四、[颈部,背线,身躯]

颈部倾斜且干净,从肩部起向上支撑着头部,略呈弓形。背线略向臀部倾斜。身体:胸部深度与肘齐平。胸骨不明显。肋骨发育良好。从肩至腰,胸部的深度逐渐减小。腰细。尾巴:尾巴细长,尾尖处变的更细。尾巴的长度使它能碰到飞节。当狗走动时,尾巴欢快的运动或翻卷在背上。

五、[前躯]

肩甲骨向后呈45度角。肩部整洁且窄。使肘部紧*身体。腿长、细、直。腕部竖直、精致且强壮。狼爪也许已经被切除。脚呈兔形足,脚窄且脚趾细长。趾甲被修剪成中等长度。

六、[后躯]

角度:后膝关节呈适当的角度。从飞节到地面呈垂直状态。狼爪可能已被切除。足部同前肢。

七、[被毛]

无毛品种只在身体的几个部位有毛:头部(叫冠毛),尾巴(叫尾羽),前腕和后腕(叫短袜)。所有的毛发不论垂到什么长度,都象丝一样软。毛发的位置不如整体重要,有毛发的区域通常逐渐变细。身体上无论哪里都没有毛,皮肤柔软,且光滑。冠毛从止部开始,到头颅后开始稀疏,从头颅到后颈这段区域逐渐减少。无毛品种的脸和耳朵允许有毛,但为了整洁,两个品种都可能修剪这部分的毛。尾羽在尾巴下端。粉扑型覆盖着双层柔软的丝质被毛。仔细查看可以发现在短短的底毛外面还有一层长长的披毛。被毛的密度和长度适中,直。过多过重,扭曲的被毛或卷毛都属于严重缺陷。修饰是为了使外表看上去干净整洁。

八、[颜色]

任何颜色或颜色的组合。

九、[步态]

活泼、敏捷,流畅且没有不自然或平庸。来或者去都用小跑并保持直线运动。

十、[气质]

快乐,而又警惕。
标准通过日期:1990年6月12日

标准执行日期:1991年4月1日

[以下为中国冠毛犬AKC标准英文原版]
Chinese Crested Breed Standard
General Appearance
A toy dog, fine-boned, elegant and graceful. The distinct varieties are born in the same litter. The Hairless with hair only on the head, tail and feet and the Powderpuff, completely covered with hair. The breed serves as a loving companion, playful and entertaining.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - Ideally 11 to 13 inches. However, dogs that are slightly larger or smaller may be given full consideration. Proportion - rectangular-proportioned to allow for freedom of movement. Body length from withers to base of tail is slightly longer than the height at the withers. Substance - Fine-boned and slender but not so refined as to appear breakable or alternatively, not a robust, heavy structure.

Head
Expression - Alert and intense. Eyes - Almond-shaped, set wide apart. Dark-colored dogs have dark-colored eyes, and lighter-colored dogs may have lighter-colored eyes. Eye rims match the coloring of the dog. Ears - Uncropped large and erect, placed so that the base of the ear is level with the outside corner of the eye. Skull - The skull is arched gently over the occiput from ear to ear. Distance from occiput to stop equal to distance from stop to tip of nose. The head is wedge-shaped viewed from above and the side. Stop - Slight but distinct. Muzzle - Cheeks taper cleanly into the muzzle. Nose - Dark in dark-colored dogs; may be lighter in lighter-colored dogs. Pigment is solid. Lips - Lips are clean and tight. Bite - Scissors or level in both varieties. Missing teeth in the Powderpuff are to be faulted. The Hairless variety is not to be penalized for absence of full dentition.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck - Neck is lean and clean, slightly arched from the withers to the base of the skull and carried high. Topline - Level to slightly sloping croup. Body - Brisket extends to the elbow. Breastbone is not prominent. Ribs are well developed. The depth of the chest tapers to a moderate tuck-up at the flanks. Light in loin. Tail - Tail is slender and tapers to a curve. It is long enough to reach the hock. When dog is in motion, the tail is carried gaily and may be carried slightly forward over the back. At rest the tail is down with a slight curve upward at the end resembling a sickle. In the Hairless variety, two-thirds of the end of the tail is covered by long, flowing feathering referred to as a plume. The Powderpuff variety\'s tail is completely covered with hair.

Forequarters
Angulation - Layback of shoulders is 45 degrees to point of shoulder allowing for good reach. Shoulders - Clean and narrow. Elbows - Close to body. Legs - Long, slender and straight. Pasterns - Upright, fine and strong. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet - Hare foot, narrow with elongated toes. Nails are trimmed to moderate length.

Hindquarters
Angulation - Stifle moderately angulated. From hock joint to ground perpendicular. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet - Same as forequarters.

Coat
The Hairless variety has hair on certain portions of the body: the head (called a crest), the tail (called a plume) and the feet from the toes to the front pasterns and rear hock joints (called socks). The texture of all hair is soft and silky, flowing to any length. Placement of hair is not as important as overall type. Areas that have hair usually taper off slightly. Wherever the body is hairless, the skin is soft and smooth. Head Crest begins at the stop and tapers off between the base of the skull and the back of the neck. Hair on the ears and face is permitted on the Hairless and may be trimmed for neatness in both varieties. Tail Plume is described under Tail. The Powderpuff variety is completely covered with a double soft and silky coat. Close examination reveals long thin guard hairs over the short silky undercoat. The coat is straight, of moderate density and length. Excessively heavy, kinky or curly coat is to be penalized. Grooming is minimal-consisting of presenting a clean and neat appearance.

Color
Any color or combination of colors.

Gait
Lively, agile and smooth without being stilted or hackneyed. Comes and goes at a trot moving in a straight line.

Temperament
Gay and alert.

Approved June 12, 1990
Effective April 1, 1991

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吉娃娃犬种AKC标准及介绍

吉娃娃犬的整体概述

一种优雅,机警,迅速,带有活泼表情的小型犬。体型紧凑,拥有梗犬[原:terrier]一样易激动的性情。

吉娃娃犬的大小,比例,实质描述
体重:一种均衡的小型犬,体重不超过6磅。比例:身体近似正方形;从肩点到臀端的长度略微长于肩胛隆的高度[注:即身长略长于身高];在公犬中,拥有较短躯干是最理想的。失格:任何犬只的体重超过6磅。



吉娃娃犬的头部
适当圆拱形的“苹果头”颅骨,有或没有头洞[原:molera]。表情:愉悦,活泼。双眼:圆,但不突出,均衡,适当地远离,呈现明亮的深黑色或深红色。(浅黄色或白色毛发的犬,允许有较浅色的眼睛。)耳朵:大,竖立的双耳。当警惕的时候,会保持更垂直地竖立,但静止的时候,会张开形成45度的角度[注:与头部中心线],形成两耳之间的宽度。口吻:适度的短,略尖,双颊及下颚瘦削。鼻子:在金黄色系的犬中,鼻色要与自身毛色相对应,或者呈暗黑色。在云石[原:moles],蓝色,巧克力色的犬中,鼻色应于自身颜色一致;在浅色系中[注:指拥有浅色毛发的犬中],淡红色的鼻子是允许的。咬合:应水平或剪状。上超或下超咬合,以及任何扭曲的咬合或颚部,将被视为严重缺点而受到处罚[注:指比赛当中]。失格:破损下折或裁剪过的双耳


吉娃娃犬的 颈部,背线[原:topline],躯干
颈部:微微拱形,优雅地连接到倾斜的肩部。背线[原:topline]:水平。躯干:肋骨圆弧型伸展(但不能太过,成桶装),且有良好的弹性。尾巴:适度长,以形成镰刀状向上或者向外,或在背上形成圈状,同时尾尖刚好触背。(决不能夹在两腿之间)失格:裁剪过的尾巴,天生的短尾。

吉娃娃犬的前驱
肩部:倾斜,有弧度地渐宽,以支撑肩部以上的部分,将前肢连接并固定好,使肘部运动不受制约。肩部应该表现得平衡,健全,倾斜地连接至水平的背部,(决不向下或降低)。这样一来,前胸发育良好,使得前驱有力,但不能有斗牛犬[原:bulldog]样式的胸部。脚:小巧精致的脚部,脚趾间分离但不叉开,脚垫有肉垫。既不象兔足也不象猫足。胶部:发育良好。


吉娃娃犬的后驱
强健,跗关节间间距理想,既不向外也不向内,良好伸展,稳固强健。后肢双脚如同前脚。


吉娃娃犬的披毛
短毛犬,披毛应该质地柔软,细致紧密,光滑而有光泽。(允许有较厚的底毛。)披毛均匀覆盖全身,在颈部形成环状较理想。[相比之下,]头部和耳朵的披毛略显不足。尾部披毛最好丰厚。长毛犬,披毛应该质地柔软,平直或轻微卷曲,有底毛者佳。双耳有饰毛。(拥有大量饰毛的双耳,可能会由于饰毛或耳朵软弱无力的关系,造成耳尖轻微下垂,但决不向下。)尾部:饰毛丰富而长[羽状尾]。饰毛也分布在脚和腿。后腿饰毛成裤腿状,拥有丰厚的环状领毛的犬较理想。失格:长毛犬披毛稀疏近乎光秃。

吉娃娃犬的颜色
认可任何颜色,单一色,带标记或带斑块的。


吉娃娃犬的步态
吉娃娃的行进应该迅速而平稳,动作坚定,前驱良好步幅所形成的驱动力,与后驱相等。[行进时]从后面看,后腿跗关节之间保持平行,后脚的落点紧跟前脚之后。当速度加快时,前后脚都会轻微向中心线靠拢。从侧面观察应展现出良好步幅,提供强大驱动力的后驱与前驱间形成相当大的步区,头部保持高昂。当犬只行进的时候,整个完整背线[原:topline]应保持平稳,同时背部线条[原:backline]保持水平。

吉娃娃犬的性格:
警惕,拥有梗犬[原:terrier]的特质

吉娃娃犬的失格:
任何犬只体重超过6磅。
破损下折或裁剪过的双耳。
修剪过的尾,天生短尾。
长毛犬披毛稀疏近乎光秃。


1990-09-11  通过认可
1990-10-30  开始实施

敬请留意:[ ];[注:]为译者添加。[原:]为原文词汇。
VINSON 2006年9月译

[以下为吉娃娃(Chihuahua)犬种AKC标准英文原版]

Chihuahua Breed Standard

General Appearance
A graceful, alert, swift-moving little dog with saucy expression, compact, and with terrier-like qualities of temperament.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Weight - A well balanced little dog not to exceed 6 pounds. Proportion - The body is off-square; hence, slightly longer when measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, than height at the withers. Somewhat shorter bodies are preferred in males. Disqualification - Any dog over 6 pounds in weight.

Head
A well rounded \"apple dome\" skull, with or without molera. Expression - Saucy. Eyes - Full, but not protruding, balanced, set well apart-luminous dark or luminous ruby. (Light eyes in blond or white-colored dogs permissible.) Ears - Large, erect type ears, held more upright when alert, but flaring to the sides at a 45 degree angle when in repose, giving breadth between the ears. Muzzle - Moderately short, slightly pointed. Cheeks and jaws lean. Nose - Self-colored in blond types, or black. In moles, blues, and chocolates, they are self-colored. In blond types, pink nose permissible. Bite - Level or scissors. Overshot or undershot bite, or any distortion of the bite or jaw, should be penalized as a serious fault. Disqualifications - Broken down or cropped ears.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck - Slightly arched, gracefully sloping into lean shoulders. Topline - Level. Body - Ribs rounded and well sprung (but not too much \"barrel-shaped\"). Tail - Moderately long, carried sickle either up or out, or in a loop over the back, with tip just touching the back. (Never tucked between legs.) Disqualifications - Cropped tail, bobtail.

Forequarters
Shoulders - Lean, sloping into a slightly broadening support above straight forelegs that set well under, giving a free play at the elbows. Shoulders should be well up, giving balance and soundness, sloping into a level back. (Never down or low.) This gives a chestiness, and strength of forequarters, yet not of the \"Bulldog\" chest. Feet - A small, dainty foot with toes well split up but not spread, pads cushioned. (Neither the hare nor the cat foot.) Pasterns - Fine.

Hindquarters
Muscular, with hocks well apart, neither out nor in, well let down, firm and sturdy. The feet are as in front.

Coat
In the Smooth Coats, the coat should be of soft texture, close and glossy. (Heavier coats with undercoats permissible.) Coat placed well over body with ruff on neck preferred, and more scanty on head and ears. Hair on tail preferred furry. In Long Coats, the coat should be of a soft texture, either flat or slightly curly, with undercoat preferred. Ears - Fringed. (Heavily fringed ears may be tipped slightly if due to the fringes and not to weak ear leather, never down.) Tail - Full and long (as a plume). Feathering on feet and legs, pants on hind legs and large ruff on the neck desired and preferred. Disqualification - In Long Coats, too thin coat that resembles bareness.

Color
Any color-Solid, marked or splashed.

Gait
The Chihuahua should move swiftly with a firm, sturdy action, with good reach in front equal to the drive from the rear. From the rear, the hocks remain parallel to each other, and the foot fall of the rear legs follows directly behind that of the forelegs. The legs, both front and rear, will tend to converge slightly toward a central line of gravity as speed increases. The side view shows good, strong drive in the rear and plenty of reach in the front, with head carried high. The topline should remain firm and the backline level as the dog moves.

Temperament
Alert, with terrier-like qualities.

Disqualifications
Any dog over 6 pounds in weight.
Broken down or cropped ears.
Cropped tail, bobtail.
In Long Coats, too thin coat that resembles bareness.

Approved September 11, 1990
Effective October 30, 1990

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查理士王小猎犬(Cavalier King Charles Spaniel)

一、[简介]

查理士王小猎犬是一种活泼、文雅、匀称的玩具犬,非常华丽而且大方。具有喜欢运动、勇敢的特点,同时又是文雅、可爱的动物。在这一品种种,这种典型的贵族气质非常重要,它包含了真正的高贵和王室的外貌。这一品种的本质是天然的,不需要经过修整、雕琢或人为改变。

二、[体型]

肩高12~13英寸;体重与身高相当,体重13~18磅。一个小小的,比例协调的狗当然让人满意,但这只是理想的身高和体重,因此有些轻微的出入是可以被接受的。比例--身体的比例接近正方形,不过,从肩到臀的长度略大于肩高,从肘尖到地的距离等于肩高的一半。宗旨-骨量中等、比例匀称。杂乱和粗糙都被视为缺陷。

三、[头部]

与身体的比例匀称,看起来既不显得太大,也不显得太小。表情-甜蜜、文雅、温柔的表情是这一品种的重要特征。眼睛-大且圆,但不突出,距离适中;颜色是温和的、非常深的褐色。看起来清澈明亮。眼圈是黑色的。当它温柔的看着你的时候,你能感觉到它眼神中的柔情。缺点-小,杏仁状,突出或颜色浅的眼睛;白眼圈。耳朵-耳朵位置高,但两耳距离不能太近,在头部上方。长有许多饰毛的,宽宽长长的垂耳,所以当狗警惕时,耳朵会向脸部轻微煽动。脑袋-稍稍有点圆,但不象圆屋顶或山包那样隆起;由于耳朵位置的关系,看起来应该显得比较平坦。止端(脸上的凹点)适中,既不太浅,也不太深。口吻-整个口吻是呈轻微的锥状,从止端到鼻尖的长度约1.5英寸。眼睛则恰到好处的添满脸上的其他位置。任何倾向于SINPINESS都不被接受。鼻镜应该是纯黑色,不应该出现肉色斑纹,鼻孔发达。嘴唇发达但不下垂,末端干净利落。缺点-尖锐或过细的口吻。咬合-正确、整齐且完美的剪状咬合当然是首选,不然的话,上齿与下齿接近重叠并且位于颌部内恰当的位置,也能接受。缺点-下颚突出式咬合,不牢固的或弯曲的牙齿,歪的颌部。

四、[颈部,背线,身躯]

颈部-长短恰当,没有松弛的喉部,肌肉发达并形成轻微的弧度。与肩精巧的衔接,使外观显得文雅。背线-行动时和站立时都保持水平。身体-躯干短,肋骨紧密结合,结实而有力,但不能是桶状胸。胸深适度,与肘部齐平,使胸腔有足够的空间。身体在最后一根肋骨以后的部分略细,但没有明显的收腹。尾巴-位置靠前,恰当的支撑着,但大部分时间是不卷在背上的,当狗在运动时,尾巴不动是它的典型特征。可以断尾。如果断尾,断去的长度不得超过总长度的三分之一。

五、[前肢]

肩与背衔接良好,前肢直且肘部紧贴身体侧面,腕部强壮,趾爪紧凑,脚垫厚实,狼爪可能已被切除。

六、[后肢]

整个后躯应该拥有宽度合适的骨盆和恰当的肌肉;后膝关节角度恰当且飞节在后膝关节下同一直线上。从背后看,两条后肢自飞节至脚跟部分相互平行。缺点:牛肢或镰刀腿。

七、[被毛]

中等长度、丝质、卷曲的被毛。轻微的波浪形也可以接受。耳朵、胸部、腿上和尾巴上长有长长的饰毛,而且脚上的饰毛是这一品种特有的。被毛修剪是不允许的。比赛中,修剪被毛、修理被毛或造假都会受到严厉的惩罚甚至取消比赛资格。但修剪脚底毛是可以的。

八、[颜色]

双色(布伦海姆)-浓重的栗色上,分布着珍珠白的斑块。耳朵必须是栗色的,颜色均匀的分布在头上和两眼周围。脸中间有白色筋,白筋也许呈菱形或\"布伦海姆斑\"。菱形白筋是最理想的,虽然不是布伦海姆色所特有的和必须的。三色-浓黑色上,分布着珍珠白的斑块。耳朵必须是黑色的,颜色均匀的分布在头上和两眼周围。脸中间有白色筋,眼睛上,在脸颊上,耳朵上和尾根处有许多褐色斑块。火红色-清一色的深红,眼睛上,脸颊上,耳朵上,胸部,腿和尾根处有亮褐色的斑块。缺点:双色和三色颜色过重,在红色、黑色或褐色位置出现白斑。

九、[步态]

文雅而且不费力,前肢舒展、结实,后躯推动力强。从侧面看时,步幅恰当,从正面和后面看时,行走呈直线,这是因为具有健全的骨骼及肌肉的原因。

十、[性格]

快乐,友好,不会因为神经质或胆怯而具有攻击性。比赛中,具有坏脾气、胆怯、粗鲁的狗都要坚决取消比赛资格。

标准通过日期 : 1995年1月10日

标准执行日期 : 1995年4月30日

[以下为查理士王小猎犬AKC标准英文原版]

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is an active, graceful, well-balanced toy spaniel, very gay and free in action; fearless and sporting in character, yet at the same time gentle and affectionate. It is this typical gay temperament, combined with true elegance and royal appearance which are of paramount importance in the breed. Natural appearance with no trimming, sculpting or artificial alteration is essential to breed type.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - Height 12 to 13 inches at the withers; weight proportionate to height, between 13 and 18 pounds. A small, well balanced dog within these weights is desirable, but these are ideal heights and weights and slight variations are permissible. Proportion - The body approaches squareness, yet if measured from point of shoulder to point of buttock, is slightly longer than the height at the withers. The height from the withers to the elbow is approximately equal to the height from the elbow to the ground. Substance - Bone moderate in proportion to size. Weedy and coarse specimens are to be equally penalized.

Head
Proportionate to size of dog, appearing neither too large nor too small for the body. Expression - The sweet, gentle, melting expression is an important breed characteristic. Eyes - Large, round, but not prominent and set well apart; color a warm, very dark brown; giving a lustrous, limpid look. Rims dark. There should be cushioning under the eyes which contributes to the soft expression. Faults - small, almond-shaped, prominent, or light eyes; white surrounding ring. Ears - Set high, but not close, on top of the head. Leather long with plenty of feathering and wide enough so that when the dog is alert, the ears fan slightly forward to frame the face. Skull - Slightly rounded, but without dome or peak; it should appear flat because of the high placement of the ears. Stop is moderate, neither filled nor deep. Muzzle - Full muzzle slightly tapered. Length from base of stop to tip of nose about 1½ inches. Face well filled below eyes. Any tendency towards snipiness undesirable. Nose pigment uniformly black without flesh marks and nostrils well developed. Lips well developed but not pendulous giving a clean finish. Faults - Sharp or pointed muzzles. Bite - A perfect, regular and complete scissors bite is preferred, i.e. the upper teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and set square into the jaws. Faults - undershot bite, weak or crooked teeth, crooked jaws.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck - Fairly long, without throatiness, well enough muscled to form a slight arch at the crest. Set smoothly into nicely sloping shoulders to give an elegant look. Topline - Level both when moving and standing. Body - Short-coupled with ribs well spring but not barrelled. Chest moderately deep, extending to elbows allowing ample heart room. Slightly less body at the flank than at the last rib, but with no tucked-up appearance. Tail - Well set on, carried happily but never much above the level of the back, and in constant characteristic motion when the dog is in action. Docking is optional. If docked, no more than one third to be removed.

Forequarters
Shoulders well laid back. Forelegs straight and well under the dog with elbows close to the sides. Pasterns strong and feet compact with well-cushioned pads. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters construction should come down from a good broad pelvis, moderately muscled; stifles well turned and hocks well let down. The hindlegs when viewed from the rear should parallel each other from hock to heel. Faults - Cow or sickle hocks.

Coat
Of moderate length, silky, free from curl. Slight wave permissible. Feathering on ears, chest, legs and tail should be long, and the feathering on the feet is a feature of the breed. No trimming of the dog is permitted. Specimens where the coat has been altered by trimming, clipping, or by artificial means shall be so severly penalized as to be effectively eliminated from competition. Hair growing between the pads on the underside of the feet may be trimmed.

Color
Blenheim - Rich chestnut markings well broken up on a clear, pearly white ground. The ears must be chestnut and the color evenly spaced on the head and surrounding both eyes, with a white blaze between the eyes and ears, in the center of which may be the lozenge or \"Blenheim spot.\" The lozenge is a unique and desirable, though not essential, characteristic of the Blenheim. Tricolor - Jet black markings well broken up on a clear, pearly white ground. The ears must be black and the color evenly spaced on the head and surrounding both eyes, with a white blaze between the eyes. Rich tan markings over the eyes, on cheeks, inside ears and on underside of tail. Ruby - Whole-colored rich red. Black and Tan - Jet black with rich, bright tan markings over eyes, on cheeks, inside ears, on chest, legs, and on underside of tail. Faults - Heavy ticking on Blenheims or Tricolors, white marks on Rubies or Black and Tans.

Gait
Free moving and elegant in action, with good reach in front and sound, driving rear action. When viewed from the side, the movement exhibits a good length of stride, and viewed from front and rear it is straight and true, resulting from straight-boned fronts and properly made and muscled hindquarters.

Temperament
Gay, friendly, non-aggressive with no tendency towards nervousness or shyness. Bad temper, shyness, and meanness are not to be tolerated and are to be severely penalized as to effectively remove the specimen from competition.

Approved Date: January 10, 1995
Effective Date: April 30, 1995

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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布鲁塞尔粗毛猎犬(比利时粗毛犬、布鲁塞尔格里芬犬)Brussels Griffon Breed Standard
[简介]
这是一种聪明、警惕而且强壮的玩具犬,身材粗短、矮小、身手敏捷。具有引人注意的类似人类的面貌。有两种不同的被毛:刚毛和短毛。除了被毛不同外,两个品种在其他地方完全一样。

[身躯及比例]
体重在8~10磅之间,不能超过12磅。但其他方面的标准比体重重要的多,一只体重不到规格的小狗,只要是身体健壮,比例匀称,就可以不被视为有缺陷。身躯比例呈正方形,就是指从肩部到大腿上部的距离与肩高相等。身躯浑圆、比例协调、骨骼粗壮。

[头部]
头部特征非常重要,它应该具有类似人类的面貌。两眼间距离适中,眼睛很大,眼珠是黑色的,向外突出,很醒目。睫毛黑且长,长有黑眼圈。耳朵小且位于颅骨较高的位置,有可能修剪过或保持自然形状。如果是自然形状,应该是半立耳。头骨大且圆,有一个半球形的前额。鼻端厚,鼻子很黑,非常短,深藏于两眼下方。鼻孔大。 达德利鼻或蝴蝶鼻属于失格。嘴唇边缘为黑色,不下垂且正好能完全闭合,有一个完美的嘴形。咬合必须是下颌突出式咬合,就是说,下颌的门牙必须比上颌的门牙向前突出一些。下颌突出,向上包(地包天)。当嘴闭着时,牙齿和舌头应该是看不见的。缺齿或牙齿不齐是严重缺陷。挂舌属于失格。
[脖子、背线、身躯]
脖子长度适中,略呈弓形。背线向后保持水平且较短。胸宽且深,肋骨突出比较好,连接处短。尾根位置高,在约1/3处断尾。
[前肢]
前肢长度适中,骨骼笔直,肌肉发达,从前面看,两腿间呈中等距离,且从胸部起笔直向下。踝骨与爪之间距离较短,且很强壮。足爪呈圆穹,小且团紧,既不向内也不外玩。足趾呈拱形,脚垫和指甲以黑色为首选。
[后肢]
后肢结构正确,大腿有力且肌肉发达,膝部无偏向,与地面垂直,既不向内也不外弯。
[被毛]
刚毛型 的被毛粗硬且浓密,被毛越硬、刚毛越多越好。狗身上任何地方都不能感觉象羊毛织物也不能有象绢或头发的感觉。但被毛不应该很长,所以被毛显得粗硬。在整体上与短毛型被毛完全不同。头部被刚毛所覆盖,眼睛、鼻子、脸颊和下巴周围有稍长的毛包围。
用手反撸被毛后,不显得凌乱。身体上的被毛长度刚好能显示出毛发质地。在参赛前,被毛也许被整理过,但用剪刀或推子修剪是被严
格禁止的。短毛型 被毛是直、短、紧且有光泽的,看不出任何刚毛的痕迹。
[颜色]
1)红色:在胡须和下巴有一些红褐色和黑色是允许的;2)杂色:黑色和红褐色混合,脸和胡子通常是黑色的;3)黑色和棕色:黑色,在下巴下面、腿上、眼睛上方、耳朵周围带有均匀的红褐色条纹;4)黑色:纯黑色,任何地方的白毛都属于严重缺陷,除了老年狗在嘴角出现的“白霜”是属于正常的。失格:被毛的任何地方出现白色斑点或条纹。
[步态]
步态呈直线前进,步伐迅速,但显得柔和及可驾御,行进过程中,背线保持水平。
[气质]
聪明、机警和灵敏,充满自信
[评分重点]
头部~35
颅骨..................................5
鼻和鼻镜.............................10
咬合、下巴及颌骨.....................10
耳朵...............................5
被毛~25
颜色................................12
构造.............................13
身躯及整体外观~40
身躯...............................15
步态...............................10
腿和爪..............................5
整体外观(脖子、背线和姿态)....10
总计:100
[失格]
达德利鼻,或者蝴蝶鼻
上颌突出式咬合
挂舌
被毛有白色斑点或条纹


[以下为布鲁塞尔粗毛猎犬(比利时粗毛犬、布鲁塞尔格里芬犬)AKC标准英文原版]
Brussels Griffon Breed Standard

General Appearance
A toy dog, intelligent, alert, sturdy, with a thickset, short body, a smart carriage and set-up, attracting attention by an almost human expression. There are two distinct types of coat: rough or smooth. Except for coat, there is no difference between the two.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - Weight usually 8 to 10 pounds, and should not exceed 12 pounds. Type and quality are of greater importance than weight, and a smaller dog that is sturdy and well proportioned should not be penalized. Proportion - Square, as measured from point of shoulder to rearmost projection of upper thigh and from withers to ground. Substance - Thickset, compact with good balance. Well boned.

Head
A very important feature. An almost human expression. Eyes set well apart, very large, black, prominent, and well open. The eyelashes long and black. Eyelids edged with black. Ears small and set rather high on the head. May be shown cropped or natural. If natural they are carried semi-erect. Skull large and round, with a domed forehead. The stop deep. Nose very black, extremely short, its tip being set back deeply between the eyes so as to form a lay-back. The nostrils large. Disqualifications - Dudley or butterfly nose. Lips edged with black, not pendulous but well brought together, giving a clean finish to the mouth. Jaws must be undershot. The incisors of the lower jaw should protrude over the upper incisors. The lower jaw is prominent, rather broad with an upward sweep. Neither teeth nor tongue should show when the mouth is closed. A wry mouth is a serious fault. Disqualifications - Bite overshot. Hanging tongue.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck medium length, gracefully arched. Topline - Back level and short. Body - A thickset, short body. Brisket should be broad and deep, ribs well sprung. Short-coupled. Tail - set and held high, docked to about one-third.

Forequarters
Forelegs medium length, straight in bone, well muscled, set moderately wide apart and straight from the point of the shoulders as viewed from the front. Pasterns short and strong. Feet round, small, and compact, turned neither in nor out. Toes well arched. Black pads and toenails preferred.

Hindquarters
Hind legs set true, thighs strong and well muscled, stifles bent, hocks well let down, turning neither in nor out.

Coat
The rough coat is wiry and dense, the harder and more wiry the better. On no account should the dog look or feel woolly, and there should be no silky hair anywhere. The coat should not be so long as to give a shaggy appearance, but should be distinctly different all over from the smooth coat. The head should be covered with wiry hair, slightly longer around the eyes, nose, cheeks, and chin, thus forming a fringe. The rough coat is hand-stripped and should never appear unkempt. Body coat of sufficient length to determine texture. The coat may be tidied for neatness of appearance, but coats prepared with scissors and/or clippers should be severely penalized. The smooth coat is straight, short, tight and glossy, with no trace of wiry hair.

Color
Either 1) Red: reddish brown with a little black at the whiskers and chin allowable; 2) Belge: black and reddish brown mixed, usually with black mask and whiskers; 3) Black and Tan: black with uniform reddish brown markings, appearing under the chin, on the legs, above each eye, around the edges of the ears and around the vent; or 4) Black: solid black. Any white hairs are a serious fault, except for \"frost\" on the muzzle of a mature dog, which is natural. Disqualification - White spot or blaze any where on coat.

Gait
Movement is a straightforward, purposeful trot, showing moderate reach and drive, and maintaining a steady topline.

Temperament
Intelligent, alert and sensitive. Full of self-importance.

Scale of Points

Head   
  Skull 5  
  Nose and stop 10  
  Eyes 5  
  Bite, chin and jaw 10  
  Ears 5 35
Coat   
  Color 12  
  Texture 13 25
Body and General Conformation   
  Body (brisket and rib) 15  
  Gait 10  
  Legs and feet 5  
  General appearance (neck,
  topline and tail carriage) 10 40
Total  100


Disqualifications
Dudley or butterfly nose.
Bite overshot.
Hanging tongue.
White spot or blaze anywhere on coat.

Approved September 11, 1990
Effective October 30, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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