陶都论坛

 找回密码
 注册会员

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

楼主: 薄荷清香

[亲宠交流] 名犬品种(纯种狗介绍)

[复制链接]

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:51:13 | 显示全部楼层


西里汉梗(Sealyham Terrier)美国AKC标准
西里汉梗是力量和决心的化身,永远热心而警惕,非常特别,毫不笨拙。
[身高]
肩高约10.5英寸。
[体重]
公狗体重约23~24磅,母狗略轻一些。其骨量是需要重点考虑的问题,比体重更重要。
[头部]
头部长、宽阔而有力,不显得粗糙。当然,它必须与身躯呈恰当的比例,与颈部平滑连接。头部的长度约为肩高的3/4,或比颈部长1英寸左右。两耳间的头部宽度约比头部长度的1/2小一些。头颅非常轻微的上拱,两眉毛间有一个非常浅的凹陷,头颅与口吻间是适中的止部。面颊平滑而平坦,颚部不能太重。颌部有力且呈方形。剪状咬合或钳状咬合。上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合属于缺陷。牙齿结实、白色、紧密。鼻镜为黑
色,大鼻孔。白色、粉色或蝴蝶状鼻镜属于缺陷。眼睛颜色非常深,位置深陷、距离还算比较宽,中等大小,卵形,构成梗类犬热情的表情。太大、突出或浅色的眼睛属于有缺陷。眼圈色素缺乏不算缺陷。耳朵的折痕位于头顶的水平面,前侧边缘贴近面颊。耳朵末端为圆角,长度约到外眼角。耳朵薄,不能呈皮革状,有足够的厚度,不会产生皱折。尖耳朵、郁金香耳、玫瑰耳、猎狗耳都属于缺陷。
[颈部]
长度略小于肩高的2/3。肌肉发达但不粗糙,伸展良好,喉部紧凑,牢固的与肩部结合。肩部角度良好,有力,但肌肉不能过于发达。有足够的宽度,能自由行动不受影 响。竖直的肩部或抗肩膀的情况不理想。
[腿部]
前肢结实、骨量充足;腿笔直,胸部深,位于两腿间。脚腕位置低,位于足爪上方,弯曲,肘部外翻属于缺陷。后肢比前肢略长,骨骼不能过于粗重,脚垫圆,趾甲结实。足尖圆拱,前指。前肢宽,虽然长度与后肢不完全一致。薄、张开或扁平的足爪属于缺陷。
[身躯]
结实、紧凑,具有巨大的柔韧性。胸深,肋骨扩张良好。
[背部]
马肩隆到尾部的距离约等于肩高或近似10.5英寸。背线水平,不倾斜。任何偏差都不符合要求。后躯非常有力,尾根后突出。第二节大腿结实,后膝关节角度恰当,飞节位置低。牛肢属于缺陷。断尾,尾巴垂直上举。位置靠前,使脊柱不会向下倾斜。
[被毛]
能抵御恶劣气候的被毛包括了柔软、浓密的底毛和硬质的刚毛,丝状毛或卷毛属于缺陷。
[颜色]
全白色,头部和耳朵或许带有柠檬色、棕色或獾色斑纹。身体上有过重的斑纹或有碎点都不理想。
[动作]
健康、强壮、快捷、自由、准确且水平

[评分情况]
总体外观,体型和比例 15
头部 5
眼睛 5
口 5
耳朵 5
颈部 5~25
肩部和胸部 10
身躯、肋骨和腰部 10
后躯 10
腿和足爪 10
被毛 10~50
尾巴 5
颜色(身上的斑纹和碎点) 5~10
总计 100
标准通过日期:1974年2月9日


[以下为西里汉梗(Sealyham Terrier)美国AKC标准英文原版]

Sealyham Terrier Breed Standard
The Sealyham should be the embodiment of power and determination, ever keen and alert, of extraordinary substance, yet free from clumsiness.

Height
At withers about 10½ inches.

Weight
23-24 pounds for dogs; bitches slightly less. It should be borne in mind that size is more important than weight.

Head
Long, broad and powerful, without coarseness. It should, however, be in perfect balance with the body, joining neck smoothly. Length of head roughly, three-quarters height at withers, or about an inch longer than neck. Breadth between ears a little less than one-half length of head. Skull - Very slightly domed, with a shallow indentation running down between the brows, and joining the muzzle with a moderate stop. Cheeks - Smoothly formed and flat, without heavy jowls. Jaws - Powerful and square. Bite level or scissors. Overshot or undershot bad faults. Teeth - Sound, strong and white, with canines fitting closely together. Nose - Black, with large nostrils. White, cherry or butterfly bad faults. Eyes - Very dark, deeply set and fairly wide apart, of medium size, oval in shape with keen terrier expression. Light, large or protruding eye bad faults. Lack of eye rim pigmentation not a fault. Ears - Folded level with top of head, with forward edge close to cheek. Well rounded at tip, and of length to reach outer corner of eye. Thin, not leathery, and of sufficient thickness to avoid creases. Prick, tulip, rose or hound ears bad faults.

Neck
Length slightly less than two-thirds of height of dog at withers. Muscular without coarseness, with good reach, refinement at throat, and set firmly on shoulders.

Shoulders
Well laid back and powerful, but not over-muscled. Sufficiently wide to permit freedom of action. Upright or straight shoulder placement highly undesirable.

Legs
Forelegs strong, with good bone; and as straight as is consistent with chest being well let down between them. Down on pasterns, knuckled over, bowed, and out at elbow, bad faults. Hind legs longer than forelegs and not so heavily boned. Feet - Large but compact, round with thick pads, strong nails. Toes well arched and pointing straight ahead. Forefeet larger, though not quite so long as hind feet. Thin, spread or flat feet bad faults.

Body
Strong, short-coupled and substantial, so as to permit great flexibility. Brisket deep and well let down between forelegs. Ribs well sprung.

Back
Length from withers to set-on of tail should approximate height at withers, or l0½ inches. Topline level, neither roached nor swayed. Any deviations from these measurements undesirable. Hindquarters - Very powerful, and protruding well behind the set-on of tail. Strong second thighs, stifles well bent, and hocks well let down. Cowhocks bad fault.

Tail
Docked and carried upright. Set on far enough forward so that spine does not slope down to it.

Coat
Weather-resisting, comprised of soft, dense undercoat and hard, wiry top coat. Silky or curly coat bad fault.

Color
All white, or with lemon, tan or badger markings on head and ears. Heavy body markings and excessive ticking should be discouraged.

Action
Sound, strong, quick, free, true and level.

Scale of Points

General character, balance and size  15
Head 5  
Eyes 5  
Mouth 5  
Ears 5  
Neck 5 25
Shoulders and brisket 10  
Body, ribs and loin 10  
Hindquarters 10  
Legs and Feet 10  
Coat 10 50
Tail 5  
Color (body marking and ticking) 5 10
Total  100


Approved February 9, 1974

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:51:58 | 显示全部楼层


苏格兰梗Scottish Terrier Breed Standard
[简介]
苏格兰梗是一种小巧的、紧凑的、短腿的、结构结实的、骨量充足的狗。头与身体相比,显得很长。他的被毛为刚毛,毛质硬,能抵御恶劣气候,浓密的被毛挂在身体两侧和短腿上。这些特征,加上他特有的非常热情、动人和“淘气鬼”的表情,竖立的耳朵和尾巴,构成了这一品种显著的特征。苏格兰梗的气质中勇敢、自信、威严的特点非常突出。

[体型]
苏格兰梗身体厚实,骨量充足。主要的要求是整体平衡、匀称,没有太夸张的地方。对肩高、体重、体长和头部长度都要考虑。不论公母,肩高都应该在约10英寸左右。从马肩隆到尾根的长度约11英寸。通常情况,比较匀称的成年苏格兰梗,公狗的体重约19~22磅,母狗的体重约18~21磅。
[头部]
从头部与狗的整个身体比例来看,头显得较长。从侧面观察,头颅和口吻应该呈两个彼此平行的平面。头颅应该比较长,中等宽度,略拱且头顶较短,毛发很硬。从侧面观察,头颅应该显得较平。止部轻微,但很清晰,位于头颅和口吻之间,与眼睛位于同一水平线,允许位于眼睛至眉毛间,以构成苏格兰梗特有的表情。头颅应该平滑,没有突起或凹陷的地方,且面颊也应该平而整洁。口吻的长度与头颅大致相等,从止部到鼻镜略呈轻微的锥形。口吻位于眼睛下方,不显得傲慢。普通男人的手应该正好能满握苏格兰梗的口吻。不管被毛是什么颜色,鼻镜都为黑色,大小适中,给人的印象是上颚比下颚略长一些。牙齿大而且整齐,呈剪状咬合或钳状咬合,前者比较理想。颌部方正、平而有力。上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合属于缺陷。
[颈部、背线和身躯]
颈部长度适中,结实,粗壮且肌肉发达,平滑的与肩部衔接。颈部不应该太短,以至于显得笨拙。身体适度的短,肋骨扩张良好,后面是短、结实的腰部,较深的侧腹和肌肉发达的后躯。肋骨扩张良好,从脊柱向两侧伸展,宽且结实,然后向下和向内弯曲,使其从横断面看象一个心形。背线稳固而且水平。胸应该很宽,非常深,位于两前肢中间。前胸应该向前扩张到腿前,向下扩张到胸底。胸不应该是平坦的或凹陷的,胸应该能精确的填满成年男子手心的凹陷。胸的最底点应该是一个成年男子的拳头正好能放在下面,没有空隙或空隙很小。尾巴长度约7英寸,无断尾。尾根位置高,竖直举着,它应该垂直向上或略向前曲,但不能翻卷在背后。尾巴根部粗壮,逐渐变细,覆盖着短而硬的毛发。
[前躯]
肩部与背部结合良好,与马肩隆的结合较紧凑。前肢的骨骼非常粗重,垂直或略有弯曲,肘部贴近身躯,位于肩胛之下,前胸明显的在它前面。苏格兰梗的肘部不能向外。前足爪应该比后足爪大,圆、厚实、紧凑,长有结实的趾甲。前足爪应该前指,但轻微的“外八字”也可以接受。可以切除狼爪。
[后躯]
对这样体型的狗而言,大腿的肌肉应该非常发达而且有力,后膝关节适当弯曲,从飞节到脚踝部分非常直。飞节位置较低,而且彼此平行。
[被毛]
苏格兰梗具有起伏不平的被毛。外层披毛为刚毛,毛质硬,内层底毛柔软浓密。被毛需要修剪整理,以明确地显示出苏格兰梗的轮廓。这种狗需要有足够的毛量,被毛的质地和密度决定了其品质。胡须、腿部、身体下方的被毛较长,也许会比身体上的被毛略软一些,但不能显得象绒毛。
[颜色]
黑色、小麦色或许带有其他颜色的斑点。有些黑色或斑点色的苏格兰梗的被毛带有少许白色或银色毛发是正常的。仅允许在胸部和下颌有小范围白色斑纹。
[步态]
苏格兰梗的步态非常有特点。不是直角的快步,也不是长腿品种那样的踱步。前腿不是在彼此平行的平面内运动;准确地说,迈步时,由于很宽很深的胸,前腿略向内*拢。动作应该流畅、敏捷、协调,前肢伸展良好而后躯驱动有力。后肢的动作呈直角、准确,快步走时,后膝关节和飞节都应该弯曲,动作有力。狗在行进中,背线保持水平和稳定。
[气质]
苏格兰梗应该时警惕而勇敢的,但同时也是稳定安详的。他是坚定而有主见的狗,“抬头、昂尾”的姿势表现出热情和理智。苏格兰梗对人友爱而温和,对其他狗则有攻击性。他有时也蛮横而且力气大,所以为自己赢得了“顽固分子”的雅号。
[缺陷]
被毛柔软;卷曲的被毛;圆形、突出或浅色的眼睛;上颚突出式或下颚突出式咬合;体型明显过大或过小;羞怯或胆怯;垂肩;前躯伸展不够或后躯驱动力不够;僵硬或不自然的步态;运动中,后躯分的太开或*的太近;前躯或后躯太窄;肘部向外;骨量不足;尾根位置低;鼻镜色素不足;粗头;在比赛中,抬头和昂尾的姿势不对也属于缺陷。
[评分标准]
头颅 5
口吻 5
眼睛 5
耳朵 10
颈部 5
胸部 5
身躯 15
腿和足爪 10
尾巴 5
被毛 15
体型 10
整体外观 10
总计 100

Scottish Terrier Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Scottish Terrier is a small, compact, short-legged, sturdily-built dog of good bone and substance. His head is long in proportion to his size. He has a hard, wiry, weather-resistant coat and a thick-set, cobby body which is hung between short, heavy legs. These characteristics, joined with his very special keen, piercing, \"varminty\" expression, and his erect ears and tail are salient features of the breed. The Scottish Terrier\'s bold, confident, dignified aspect exemplifies power in a small package.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The Scottish Terrier should have a thick body and heavy bone. The principal objective must be symmetry and balance without exaggeration. Equal consideration shall be given to height, weight, length of back and length of head. Height at withers for either sex should be about 10 inches. The length of back from withers to set-on of tail should be approximately 11 inches. Generally, a well-balanced Scottish Terrier dog should weigh from 19 to 22 pounds and a bitch from 18 to 21 pounds.

Head
The head should be long in proportion to the overall length and size of the dog. In profile, the skull and muzzle should give the appearance of two parallel planes. The skull should be long and of medium width, slightly domed and covered with short, hard hair. In profile, the skull should appear flat. There should be a slight but definite stop between the skull and muzzle at eye level, allowing the eyes to be set in under the brow, contributing to proper Scottish Terrier expression. The skull should be smooth with no prominences or depressions and the cheeks should be flat and clean. The muzzle should be approximately equal to the length of skull with only a slight taper to the nose. The muzzle should be well filled in under the eye, with no evidence of snippiness. A correct Scottish Terrier muzzle should fill an average man\'s hand. The nose should be black, regardless of coat color, and of good size, projecting somewhat over the mouth and giving the impression that the upper jaw is longer than the lower. The teeth should be large and evenly spaced, having either a scissor or level bite, the former preferred. The jaw should be square, level and powerful. Undershot or overshot bites should be penalized. The eyes should be set wide apart and well in under the brow. They should be small, bright and piercing, and almond-shaped not round. The color should be dark brown or nearly black, the darker the better. The ears should be small, prick, set well up on the skull and pointed, but never cut. They should be covered with short velvety hair. From the front, the outer edge of the ear should form a straight line up from the side of the skull. The use, size, shape and placement of the ear and its erect carriage are major elements of the keen, alert, intelligent Scottish Terrier expression.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck should be moderately short, strong, thick and muscular, blending smoothly into well laid back shoulders. The neck must never be so short as to appear clumsy. The body should be moderately short with ribs extending well back into a short, strong loin, deep flanks and very muscular hindquarters. The ribs should be well sprung out from the spine, forming a broad, strong back, then curving down and inward to form a deep body that would be nearly heart-shaped if viewed in cross-section. The topline of the back should be firm and level. The chest should be broad, very deep and well let down between the forelegs. The forechest should extend well in front of the legs and drop well down into the brisket. The chest should not be flat or concave, and the brisket should nicely fill an average man\'s slightly-cupped hand. The lowest point of the brisket should be such that an average man\'s fist would fit under it with little or no overhead clearance. The tail should be about seven inches long and never cut. It should be set on high and carried erectly, either vertical or with a slight curve forward, but not over the back. The tail should be thick at the base, tapering gradually to a point and covered with short, hard hair.

Forequarters
The shoulders should be well laid back and moderately well knit at the withers. The forelegs should be very heavy in bone, straight or slightly bent with elbows close to the body, and set in under the shoulder blade with a definite forechest in front of them. Scottish Terriers should not be out at the elbows. The forefeet should be larger than the hind feet, round, thick and compact with strong nails. The front feet should point straight ahead, but a slight \"toeing out\" is acceptable. Dew claws may be removed.

Hindquarters
The thighs should be very muscular and powerful for the size of the dog with the stifles well bent and the legs straight from hock to heel. Hocks should be well let down and parallel to each other.

Coat
The Scottish Terrier should have a broken coat. It is a hard, wiry outer coat with a soft, dense undercoat. The coat should be trimmed and blended into the furnishings to give a distinct Scottish Terrier outline. The dog should be presented with sufficient coat so that the texture and density may be determined. The longer coat on the beard, legs and lower body may be slightly softer than the body coat but should not be or appear fluffy.

Color
Black, wheaten or brindle of any color. Many black and brindle dogs have sprinklings of white or silver hairs in their coats which are normal and not to be penalized. White can be allowed only on the chest and chin and that to a slight extent only.

Gait
The gait of the Scottish Terrier is very characteristic of the breed. It is not the square trot or walk desirable in the long-legged breeds. The forelegs do not move in exact parallel planes; rather, in reaching out, the forelegs incline slightly inward because of the deep broad forechest. Movement should be free, agile and coordinated with powerful drive from the rear and good reach in front. The action of the rear legs should be square and true and, at the trot, both the hocks and stifles should be flexed with a vigorous motion. When the dog is in motion, the back should remain firm and level.

Temperament
The Scottish Terrier should be alert and spirited but also stable and steady-going. He is a determined and thoughtful dog whose \"heads up, tails up\" attitude in the ring should convey both fire and control. The Scottish Terrier, while loving and gentle with people, can be aggressive with other dogs. He should exude ruggedness and power, living up to his nickname, the \"Diehard.\"

Penalties
Soft coat; curly coat; round, protruding or light eyes; overshot or undershot jaws; obviously oversize or undersize; shyness or timidity; upright shoulders; lack of reach in front or drive in rear; stiff or stilted movement; movement too wide or too close in rear; too narrow in front or rear; out at the elbow; lack of bone and substance; low set tail; lack of pigment in the nose; coarse head; and failure to show with head and tail up are faults to be penalized.

NO JUDGE SHOULD PUT TO WINNERS OR BEST OF BREED ANY SCOTTISH TERRIER NOT SHOWING REAL TERRIER CHARACTER IN THE RING.

Scale of Points

Skull
Muzzle
Eyes
Ears
Neck
Chest
Body
Legs and Feet
Tail
Coat
Size
General Appearance
Total 5
5
5
10
5
5
15
10
5
15
10
10
100


Approved October 12, 1993
Effective November 30, 1993

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:53:35 | 显示全部楼层


Parson Russell Terrier Breed Standard

中 文 名: 帕尔森罗塞尔梗  

俗名别名: 杰克罗塞尔梗

英 文 名: Parson Russell Terrier、Jack Russell Terrier


原 产 地: 英国

繁殖方式: 胎生

品  种
历史起源 帕尔森罗塞尔梗原名为杰克罗塞尔梗(Jack Russell Terrier)。杰克罗塞尔梗是19世纪在英国南部培养的白色梗类犬,主要是为了在地面上和地下捕捉欧洲红狐狸。这种梗是由约翰.罗塞尔牧师培养出来的,并由此得名。直到2002才被AKC承认。他的名字也由杰克·罗塞尔梗(Jack Russell Terrier)变更成帕尔森·罗塞尔梗(Parson Russell Terrier)。 AKC改掉他的名字是因为他在英国官方注册的名字就是后者。
原 产 地 英国
习  性 友好而且冒失。聪明而好动。他在工作中显得有谋略、勇敢而固执。他在家中则爱玩耍、精力充沛而且无比温柔。他独立、精力旺盛,而且需要你的关注。不吵闹。
繁殖方式 胎生
体部描述
体  形公母肩高都在12~14英寸。成年母狗的理想肩高为13英寸,而成年公狗的理想肩高为14英寸。在比赛中,如果其他条件相同的情况下,特别是胸部符合品种要求的情况下,身高略高一些或略低一些,不算缺陷。其体重范围是13~17磅。其比例平衡,是梗类犬解剖的典范。需要重点考虑的是头颅与脸部的比例、头部和身躯的比例、肩高和体长的比例。肩高略大于体长,14英寸的狗差1~1.5英寸。肩高与体长的比例约为6:5。骨量—这一品种的骨量中等,骨骼既不能太重,显得粗笨;也不能太轻,显得柔弱。肩高低于12英寸或高于15英寸为失格。
头  部 结实,而且与身体的比例协调,以维持整体外观的协调。头颅平,耳朵间相当宽,向眼睛方向逐渐变窄。止部轮廓清晰但不突出。表情热情、直率、充满活力和聪慧。
耳  朵 纽扣耳。小,V字形,中等厚度,耳尖垂向眼睛的位置。折叠线与头顶齐平或略高。
眼  睛 杏仁状、颜色深、中等大小且不突出。眼圈颜色深。
鼻  子 鼻镜必须为黑色而且色素充分。
下  巴 口吻从鼻镜到止部的距离略短于从止部到后脑的距离。上下颌都很完美而且非常有力。牙齿大而且紧密,呈完美的剪状咬合。
四  肢 前肢结实而且笔直,骨骼健壮。后腿结实而肌肉发达。
足  掌 足爪圆,类似猫爪,非常紧凑,脚垫厚而且硬。脚趾适度上拱,不向内翻或向外翻。缺陷—兔足。
尾  巴 尾巴—位置高,结实,欢快地举着,但不能卷在背后。断尾,使尾尖与头颅处于同一水平线。缺陷—胸太浅;桶状肋骨。尾根低或卷在背后(所谓松鼠尾巴)。
披  毛平毛:双层毛。粗硬而且能抵御恶劣气候。平但结实,浓密,毛量丰厚,腹部和大腿下面不裸露。粗毛:双层毛。粗硬而且能抵御恶劣气候。短而浓密的底毛,粗硬、笔直的披毛紧密包裹着身躯和腿。除了眉毛和胡子,整个轮廓清晰。腹部和大腿下面不裸露。被毛不能显出明显的卷曲或波状。毛发不能修剪。这种梗应该保持天然的外貌,不能过度打扮。剪毛是属于严重缺陷。缺陷:软、丝质,卷毛。没有底毛。
毛  色 白色,有黑色或棕色斑纹,或三种颜色组合。颜色清晰。理想的颜色为只在头尾根处有斑纹。身躯上有太重的斑纹不太理想。灰色斑纹可以接受,但不能形成混乱的虎斑。失格—虎斑。
作为一种工作梗,其必须具备下列特征:身手敏捷、警惕和自信;体长和肩高保持平衡;中等体型和骨量,有爆发力和耐久力。本品种天然的外观也很重要:粗砺、能抵御恶劣气候的被毛,被毛结构紧密、外形轮廓简洁。被毛有粗毛和平毛两种。他的胸部小而柔软,使他能在地下追踪猎物,而且他的腿要有足够的长度,可以追捕猎物。:如果其在工作中留下伤疤或旧伤,将不影响其参加比赛,除非这些伤妨碍其正常活动或影响其工作能力 。

  颈部/背线/身躯:颈部—整洁且肌肉发达,略拱,长度适中,靠近肩部处逐渐变宽。背线—结实、笔直(包括在运动时)、腰部略拱。身躯—体长和肩高成比例,近似于正方形,比例匀称。背不太长或太短。不松弛,但横向柔韧,可以在跑动中任意转弯。收腹中等。胸窄而且深度中等,希望胸部有力,而不是沉重。必须柔韧而且紧凑。肋骨健康,卵形而不是圆形,深度不能达到肘部。

  前躯:肩部—长且倾斜,与背部结合良好,在马肩隆处相交。肩胛与上臂长度大致相等;前肢很好的位于身躯下。肘部—垂直挂在身体两侧,不妨碍运动。腿结实而且笔直,骨骼健壮。不向内翻或想外翻。脚腕—稳固,接近垂直。

  后躯:结实而肌肉发达,平滑,骨量充足,后膝关节角度合适,而且飞节靠近地面,相互垂直,在行动中提供推进力。

  步态:在比赛中,步态很关键。杰克罗素梗的步态应该是轻松、活泼、具有良好的协调性,前后肢保持笔直。驱动良好,步幅足够大。

  测量:用手可以从肘部后面紧紧地握住胸部。胸部的尺寸为用手很容易测出,为一扎宽。拇指能在脊柱处相会而中指能在胸部下相会。这是评判师判定的重要指标。不经过这道测试,就不能被正式认定。

  失格:肝色鼻镜。缺齿超过4颗。上颚突出式咬合和下颚突出式咬合及歪嘴。有斑点。有明显地攻击人和其他狗的倾向。

Parson Russell Terrier Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Parson Russell Terrier was developed in the south of England in the 1800’s as a white terrier to work European red fox both above and below ground. The terrier was named for the Reverend John Russell, whose terriers trailed hounds and bolted foxes from dens so the hunt could ride on. To function as a working terrier, he must possess certain characteristics: a ready attitude, alert and confident; balance in height and length; medium in size and bone, suggesting strength and endurance. Important to breed type is a natural appearance: harsh, weatherproof coat with a compact construction and clean silhouette. The coat is broken or smooth. He has a small, flexible chest to enable him to pursue his quarry underground and sufficient length of leg to follow the hounds. Old scars and injuries, the result of honorable work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice a terrier’s chance in the show ring, unless they interfere with movement or utility for work or breeding.

Size, Substance, Proportion
Size: The ideal height of a mature dog is 14” at the highest point of the shoulder blade, and bitches 13”. Terriers whose heights measure either slightly larger or smaller than the ideal are not to be penalized in the show ring provided other points of their conformation, especially balance, are consistent with the working aspects of the standard. Larger dogs must remain spannable and smaller dogs must continue to exhibit breed type and sufficient bone to allow them to work successfully. The weight of a terrier in hard working condition is usually between 13-17 lb. Proportion: Balance is the keystone of the terrier’s anatomy. The chief points of consideration are the relative proportions of skull and foreface, head and frame, height at withers and length of body. The height at withers is slightly greater than the distance from the withers to tail, i.e. by possibly 1 to 1 1/2 inches on a 14 inch dog. The measurement will vary according to height. Substance: The terrier is of medium bone, not so heavy as to appear coarse or so light as to appear racy. The conformation of the whole frame is indicative of strength and endurance.
Disqualification: Height under 12” or over 15”.

Head
Head: Strong and in good proportion to the rest of the body, so the appearance of balance is maintained. Expression: Keen, direct, full of life and intelligence. Eyes: Almond shaped, dark in color, moderate in size, not protruding. Dark rims are desirable, however where the coat surrounding the eye is white, the eye rim may be pink. Ears: Small “V”- shaped drop ears of moderate thickness carried forward close to the head with the tip so as to cover the orifice and pointing toward the eye. Fold is level with the top of the skull or slightly above. When alert, ear tips do not extend below the corner of the eye. Skull: Flat with muzzle and back skull in parallel planes. Fairly broad between the ears, narrowing slightly to the eyes. The stop is well defined but not prominent. Muzzle: Length from nose to stop is slightly shorter than the distance from stop to occiput. Strong and rectangular, measuring in width approximately 2/3 that of the backskull between the ears. Jaws: Upper and lower are of fair and punishing strength. Nose: Must be black and fully pigmented. Bite: Teeth are large with complete dentition in a perfect scissors bite, i.e., upper teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and teeth set square to the jaws. Faults: Snipey muzzle, weak or coarse head. Light or yellow eye, round eye. Hound ear, fleshy ear, rounded tips. Level bite, missing teeth. Four or more missing pre-molars, incisors or canines is a fault. Disqualifications: Prick ears. Liver color nose. Overshot, undershot or wry mouth.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck: Clean and muscular, moderately arched, of fair length, gradually widening so as to blend well into the shoulders. Topline: Strong, straight, and level in motion, the loin of moderate length. Body: In overall length to height proportion, the dog appears approximately square and balanced. The back is neither short nor long. The back gives no appearance of slackness but is laterally flexible, so that he may turn around in an earth. Tuck-up is moderate. Chest: Narrow and of moderate depth, giving an athletic rather than heavily-chested appearance; must be flexible and compressible. The ribs are fairly well sprung, oval rather than round, not extending past the level of the elbow. Tail: Docked so the tip is approximately level to the skull. Set on not too high, but so that a level topline, with a very slight arch over the loin, is maintained. Carried gaily when in motion, but when baiting or at rest may be held level but not below the horizontal. Faults: Chest not spannable or shallow; barrel ribs. Tail set low or carried low to or over the back, i.e. squirrel tail.

Forequarters
Shoulders: Long and sloping, well laid back, cleanly cut at the withers. Point of shoulder sits in a plane behind the point of the prosternum. The shoulder blade and upper arm are of approximately the same length; forelegs are placed well under the dog. Elbows hang perpendicular to the body, working free of the sides. Legs are strong and straight with good bone. Joints turn neither in nor out. Pasterns firm and nearly straight. Feet: Round, cat-like, very compact, the pads thick and tough, the toes moderately arched pointing forward, turned neither in nor out. Fault: Hare feet.

Hindquarters
Strong and muscular, smoothly molded, with good angulation and bend of stifle. Hocks near the ground, parallel, and driving in action. Feet as in front.

Coat
Smooth and Broken: Whether smooth or broken, a double coat of good sheen, naturally harsh, close and dense, straight with no suggestion of kink. There is a clear outline with only a hint of eyebrows and beard if natural to the coat. No sculptured furnishings. The terrier is shown in his natural appearance not excessively groomed. Sculpturing is to be severely penalized. Faults: Soft, silky, woolly, or curly topcoat. Lacking undercoat. Excessive grooming and sculpturing.

Color
White, white with black or tan markings, or a combination of these, tri-color. Colors are clear. As long as the terrier is predominantly white, moderate body markings are not to be faulted. Grizzle is acceptable and should not be confused with brindle. Disqualification: Brindle markings.

Gait
Movement or action is the crucial test of conformation. A tireless ground covering trot displaying good reach in front with the hindquarters providing plenty of drive. Pasterns break lightly on forward motion with no hint of hackney-like action or goose-stepping. The action is straight in front and rear.

Temperament
Bold and friendly. Athletic and clever. At work he is a game hunter, tenacious, courageous, and single minded. At home he is playful, exuberant and overwhelmingly affectionate. He is an independent and energetic terrier and requires his due portion of attention. He should not be quarrelsome. Shyness should not be confused with submissiveness. Submissiveness is not a fault. Sparring is not acceptable. Fault: Shyness. Disqualification: Overt aggression toward another dog.

Spanning: To measure a terrier’s chest, span from behind, raising only the front feet from the ground, and compress gently. Directly behind the elbows is the smaller, firm part of the chest. The central part is usually larger but should feel rather elastic. Span with hands tightly behind the elbows on the forward portion of the chest. The chest must be easily spanned by average size hands. Thumbs should meet at the spine and fingers should meet under the chest. This is a significant factor and a critical part of the judging process. The dog can not be correctly judged without this procedure.

Disqualifications:
Height under 12” or over 15”.
Prick ears, liver nose.
Overshot, undershot or wry mouth.
Brindle markings.
Overt aggression toward another dog.

Approved: July 13, 2004
Effective: September 29, 2004

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:54:09 | 显示全部楼层


挪威梗、诺里奇梗、罗威士梗(Norwich Terrier)AKC标准及介绍
[挪威梗简介]
挪威梗,勇敢而矮小壮实,灵敏的小耳朵竖着,表情略带狡猾,是最小的工作梗之一。主要的作用是培养来捕捉老鼠,他们喜欢单独或结伴去捕捉害兽,这种品种骨量充足,长有能抵御恶劣气候的被毛。在工作和狩猎中留下的疤痕是荣誉的标志,可以接受。

[体型]
最小的梗类犬之一,理想的肩高不应该超过10英寸。肩高与体长大致相等。骨量充足。体重约12磅。应该与狗的整体结构成合适的比例。能否承担其工作是首要考虑的问题。
[头部]
表情略显狡猾。眼睛,小、颜色深、卵形且带有黑色眼圈。两眼间距离恰当,眼睛明亮且眼神热情。耳朵,中等大小、立耳。两耳距离恰当,耳梢尖。警惕时,耳朵竖立。
头顶宽阔,略圆,两耳间距离恰当。口吻成楔形,且结实。长度为从后脑到清晰的止部间距离的1/3。下巴整洁而且结实。鼻镜和嘴唇为黑色。嘴巴通常紧闭,牙齿较大,剪状咬合。
[颈部、背线和身躯]
颈部中等长度,结实,与肩部结合良好。背线水平。身躯稍短。紧凑且深。胸宽较好。肋骨支撑良好且腰部较短。尾巴需要在总长度一半处断尾。出于梗类犬的工作需要,尾巴需要有足够的长度。尾根与背线处于同一水平,向上竖立。
[前躯]
肩向后斜。肘部*近身躯。短而有力的腿,绝对符合梗类犬喜欢挖掘的特点。脚腕结实。足爪圆,脚垫厚实。趾甲为黑色。站立时和行动时,足尖向前。 [后躯]
宽、结实且肌肉发达,后膝关节角度恰当。从后面看,飞节位置低,且垂直。足爪与前肢相同。
[被毛]
刚毛,毛质硬且直,紧贴身体,有一定的底毛。在颈部和肩部的被毛形成具有保护性的鬃毛。头部、耳朵、口吻部的毛发除了有一些眉毛和胡须外,都是短而平滑的毛发。这一品种的被毛应该尽可能显得自然。非常轻微的修整是允许的,但外形修剪是属于严重缺陷。
[颜色]
不同程度的红色、小麦色、黑色、棕色或灰色都可以。有白色斑纹则不理想。
[步态]
腿在运动中保持彼此平行,前肢充分伸展,后肢驱动力强。正确的后肢结构能提供足够的后躯驱动力。前肢动作轻松,足爪间与肘部间的距离一致,在步伐加快时,足爪略向内集中。后足爪的落点正好在前足爪的脚印上,后膝关节和飞节适度弯曲。背线保持水平。
[气质]
快乐、勇敢、忠诚而且富有爱心。适应性强,喜欢运动,他们能成为很好的伙伴。



[以下为挪威梗、诺里奇梗、罗威士梗(Norwich Terrier)AKC标准英文原版]
Norwich Terrier Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Norwich Terrier, spirited and stocky with sensitive prick ears and a slightly foxy expression, is one of the smallest working terriers. This sturdy descendent of ratting companions, eager to dispatch small vermin alone or in a pack, has good bone and substance and an almost weatherproof coat. A hardy hunt terrier-honorable scars from fair wear and tear are acceptable.

Size, Proportion, Substance
One of the smallest of the terriers, the ideal height should not exceed 10 inches at the withers. Distance from the top of the withers to the ground and from the withers to base of tail are approximately equal. Good bone and substance. Weight approximately 12 pounds. It should be in proportion to the individual dog\'s structure and balance. Fit working condition is a prime consideration.

Head
A slightly foxy expression. Eyes small, dark and oval shaped with black rims. Placed well apart with a bright and keen expression. Ears medium size and erect. Set well apart with pointed tips. Upright when alert.
The skull is broad and slightly rounded with good width between the ears. The muzzle is wedge shaped and strong. Its length is about one-third less than the measurement from the occiput to the well-defined stop. The jaw is clean and strong. Nose and lip pigment black. Tight-lipped with large teeth. A scissor bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck of medium length, strong and blending into well laid back shoulders. Level topline. Body moderately short. Compact and deep. Good width of chest. Well-sprung ribs and short loins. Tail medium docked. The terrier\'s working origin requires that the tail be of sufficient length to grasp. Base level with topline; carried erect.

Forequarters
Well laid back shoulders. Elbows close to ribs. Short, powerful legs, as straight as is consistent with the digging terrier. Pasterns firm. Feet round with thick pads. Nails black. The feet point forward when standing or moving.

Hindquarters
Broad, strong and muscular with well-turned stifles. Hocks low set and straight when viewed from the rear. Feet as in front.

Coat
Hard, wiry and straight, lying close to the body with a definite undercoat. The coat on neck and shoulders forms a protective mane. The hair on head, ears and muzzle, except for slight eyebrows and whiskers, is short and smooth. This breed should be shown with as natural a coat as possible. A minimum of tidying is permissible but shaping should be heavily penalized.

Color
All shades of red, wheaten, black and tan or grizzle. White marks are not desirable.

Gait
The legs moving parallel, extending forward, showing great powers of propulsion. Good rear angulation with a true, yet driving movement. The forelegs move freely with feet and elbows the same distance apart, converging slightly with increased pace. Hind legs follow in the track of the forelegs, flexing well at the stifle and hock. The topline remains level.

Temperament
Gay, fearless, loyal and affectionate. Adaptable and sporting, they make ideal companions.

Approved October 13, 1981
Reformatted March 23, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:54:45 | 显示全部楼层


Norfolk Terrier Breed Standard


[简介]
诺福克梗,勇敢而又莽撞,垂耳,体型最小的工作梗之一。它活泼而紧凑,动作流畅,骨量充足。其天生的,能抵御恶劣气候的被毛和短腿,使它获得了田野上“最完美恶棍”的称号。这种多才多艺,讨人喜欢的品种,能在野外追捕狐狸或其他害兽,它们可以单独行动或团队出击。工作中留下的疤痕是可以接受的。

[体型]
成年犬的肩高约在9~10英寸。母狗比公狗略小一些。从马肩隆到尾根处的长度要比肩高略长一些。骨量充足。体重在11~12磅,或根据狗的情况,在身体比较匀称的前提下,应当具有的体重。具有适当的工作能力是首先需要考虑的。
[头部]
眼睛小,颜色深,呈卵形,眼圈为黑色。两眼明亮,距离适中,眼神热切而聪慧。耳朵整洁地垂着,小,折叠线与头顶齐平,贴着脑袋,指向面颊,耳尖不应该低于外眼角。V字形,耳尖略圆,摸上去的感觉平滑、柔软。
脑袋宽阔,略圆,两耳间宽度恰当。口吻结实,呈楔形。程度约为后脑至止部距离的1/3,止部轮廓清晰。颌部整洁、结实。嘴巴紧闭,剪状咬合,牙齿巨大。
[颈部、背线和身躯]
颈部长度适中,结实,与肩部结合良好。背线水平。胸宽恰当。肋骨支撑良好。腰部结实。断尾,保留在总长度的1/2,确保有足够的长度,以形成完整的轮廓。尾巴直立,尾根位置高,尾根与背线齐平。不允许形成“松鼠尾”。
[前躯]
肩部位置合适。肘部*近肋骨。短而有力的腿,绝对符合梗类犬挖洞地要求。脚腕结实。足爪圆,脚垫厚实,结实的黑色趾甲。
[后躯]
非常结实,肌肉发达的大腿。后膝关节角度恰当。从后面观察,飞节位置低且垂直。足爪与前肢相同。
[被毛]
外层披毛硬,刚毛,而且很直,长度大约在1.5~2英寸。覆盖着身体,有适量底毛。肩部和颈部长有鬃毛,鬃毛比其他地方的被毛长一些,耳根和喉咙长有一圈毛领。腿部被毛质地粗糙,中等密度。头部和耳朵的毛发略短一些,平滑一些,除了少量的眉毛和胡须。适当的修饰,使狗的外观显得整洁是有必要的,但,修剪被毛属于严重缺陷。
[颜色]
不同程度的红色,小麦色,黑色和棕色,或灰色。允许有深色斑点,但白色斑纹则不符合要求。
[步态]
步态正确,底且驱动力强。从前面观察,前肢从肩部向前伸展。后膝关节的角度准确能产生强大的后躯驱动力。从侧面观察,后肢紧随前肢的脚印,动作流畅,后膝关节和飞节角度恰当。背线保持水平。
[气质]
警惕、爱交朋友、勇敢而忠诚。没有侵略性。



[以下为诺福克梗AKC标准英文原版]
Norfolk Terrier Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Norfolk Terrier, game and hardy, with expressive dropped ears, is one of the smallest of the working terriers. It is active and compact, free-moving, with good substance and bone. With its natural, weather-resistant coat and short legs, it is a \"perfect demon\" in the field. This versatile, agreeable breed can go to ground, bolt a fox and tackle or dispatch other small vermin, working alone or with a pack. Honorable scars from wear and tear are acceptable in the ring.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height at the withers 9 to 10 inches at maturity. Bitches tend to be smaller than dogs. Length of back from point of withers to base of tail should be slightly longer than the height at the withers. Good substance and bone. Weight 11 to 12 pounds or that which is suitable for each individual dog\'s structure and balance. Fit working condition is a prime consideration.

Head
Eyes small, dark and oval, with black rims. Placed well apart with a sparkling, keen and intelligent expression. Ears neatly dropped, small, with a break at the skull line, carried close to the cheek and not falling lower than the outer corner of the eye. V-shaped, slightly rounded at the tip, smooth and velvety to the touch.

Skull wide, slightly rounded, with good width between the ears. Muzzle is strong and wedge shaped. Its length is one-third less than a measurement from the occiput to the well-defined stop. Jaw clean and strong. Tight-lipped with a scissor bite and large teeth.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck of medium length, strong and blending into well laid back shoulders. Level topline. Good width of chest. Ribs well sprung, chest moderately deep. Strong loins. Tail medium docked, of sufficient length to ensure a balanced outline. Straight, set on high, the base level with the topline. Not a squirrel tail.

Forequarters
Well laid back shoulders. Elbows close to ribs. Short, powerful legs, as straight as is consistent with the digging terrier. Pasterns firm. Feet round, pads thick, with strong, black nails.

Hindquarters
Broad with strong, muscular thighs. Good turn of stifle. Hocks well let down and straight when viewed from the rear. Feet as in front.

Coat
The protective coat is hard, wiry and straight, about 1½ to 2 inches long, lying close to the body, with a definite undercoat. The mane on neck and shoulders is longer and also forms a ruff at the base of the ears and the throat. Moderate furnishings of harsh texture on legs. Hair on the head and ears is short and smooth, except for slight eyebrows and whiskers. Some tidying is necessary to keep the dog neat, but shaping should be heavily penalized.

Color
All shades of red, wheaten, black and tan, or grizzle. Dark points permissible. White marks are not desirable.

Gait
Should be true, low and driving. In front, the legs extend forward from the shoulder. Good rear angulation showing great powers of propulsion. Viewed from the side, hind legs follow in the track of the forelegs, moving smoothly from the hip and flexing well at the stifle and hock. Topline remains level.

Temperament
Alert, gregarious, fearless and loyal. Never aggressive.

Approved October 13, 1981
Reformatted March 23, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:55:22 | 显示全部楼层


迷你雪纳瑞的标准(AKC)
总体外形
迷你雪纳瑞是一种强健的、活泼的更类犬,和其近亲标准雪纳瑞在总体形态方面类似,并一样有机敏、活跃的性格。

性格
典型的迷你雪纳瑞应该是机警、勇敢,服从命令。他很友好,聪明,乐于取悦主人。不能表现出过度的攻击或胆怯。
缺陷
过于玩具化、精神不集中、畏缩胆小、粗鲁不聪慧。
体型比例
体形为12至14英寸。身体结实,差不多是正方形,身高和长差不多一样,骨量充足,不应有任何玩具犬的倾向。


头部
头部强壮、呈矩形,宽度从耳至眼逐渐缩小,至鼻尖近一步缩小。前额平坦。头顶骨平,而且长前脸与头顶骨一样长。口吻部结实,与头骨相称,端部略纯,胡须丰厚,加强了头部的矩形效果。
缺陷
头部粗犷,颊部圆、厚、突起。齿剪状咬合。剪状咬合指数:当嘴闭上时,上前齿与下前齿交迭,上门牙的内表面刚好与下门牙的外表面接触,下颚突出的,下兜齿或上颚突出;水平咬合。


眼睛
深褐色,深陷,椭圆形,表情丰富。
缺陷
眼睛过大或过圆。眼睛太细并且过窄。


耳朵
双耳外形和长度一样,尖角。与头部平衡,长度不能过度。位于头骨顶部,以内缘直立,沿外缘成尽量小的钟形。如果是剪了耳朵的犬就要两边的耳朵都要相称。同样大小和耳型也要有耳尖,和头部比例匀称,耳根应生头盖骨上方。
不剪耳时,耳朵小,呈V型,向前折向头骨。
缺陷
耳朵和头的比例过长


颈部、背线、躯干
颈部强壮、呈良好的弓形,与肩部混合,咽喉部皮肤紧绷。躯干短而深,胸部延伸至少至肘部。肋骨曲率良好,身,向后很好的伸展到短短的腰部。躯干下部在腰窝处不折起。背线直,从肩至尾跟略下倾。肩部为身体最高点。从胸到臀的总长与肩部高度一样。
缺陷
胸过高或过窄,凹背或拱背。
尾根高,直立。当犬的被毛长度合理时,尾部的长度只要在背线以上可以辨别出即可。尾根过低。


前身
从各个角度看,前腿均直而平行。掌骨强壮,骨量好。胸深,将双前腿分开,避免收拢的前部形态。肘部紧靠,肋从第一条肋骨逐渐延伸,使双肘可以紧靠身体活动。
肩有坡度,肌肉发达,但仍平坦而均称。肩的位置充分向后,从侧面看,肩胛顶端在肘部以上成垂直线。肩胛顶端紧靠在一起。肩胛斜向前向下成一角度,使前肢能充分前伸,没有粘滞。肩胛和上臂长,使胸有足够的深度。足短而圆,类似猫足,足垫黑色,厚。脚趾弓,紧凑。
缺陷
肘松。


后身
后半部肌肉强健,大腿倾斜。在膝关节处充分弯曲。有充分的角度,跗部延伸至尾以外。后半部不能过分高,不能高过肩。
缺陷
被毛太软,太光滑,丝绸质感。


颜色
认可的颜色有椒盐、黑银和纯黑。没有所谓的银色。三种颜色有相同的皮肤色素,比如说,在犬身上任何一处不能有白或粉红的皮肤点。
椒盐色
典型的椒盐色毛色是由黑白色纹状毛发(指从毛根到毛尖由深至浅再到深的色泽变化)和黑白色非纹状毛发结合而来得,纹状毛发占主导地位。所有深浅的椒盐都是可以接受的,在顶层毛发中,纹状毛发和非纹状毛发可以是从浅至深的各种色泽混合(棕褐色底纹也可以接受)。在椒盐色犬中,椒盐色的纹理在眉毛、胡须、颊部、咽喉下、耳朵内、胸毛、尾根下、腿部修饰毛、后退内侧等处淡化成浅灰色或银白色。在身下,毛发也许会淡化,但如果淡化,淡化毛发不能在身侧一边延伸向上至超过肘部。
黑银色
黑银色与椒盐色的色泽变化一样。整个椒盐色的部分必须是黑色。黑银色犬的黑色顶层毛发是非常厚重的黑色,内层毛发为黑色。拔毛的部分不会淡化,也不会有棕色色调,身体下的毛发颜色深。
黑色
黑色是唯一认可的纯色雪纳瑞。理想的黑色应该是:外层毛发色泽厚重有光泽,底层毛发可稍稀疏,消光的黑色色泽,这是很自然的,不应扣分。拔毛的部分不会淡化,也不会有棕色色调。剪毛和剔毛的区域会有较淡的黑色。在胸部有小白斑可以接受,在身体其它部位有单根的白毛也可以接受。
失格缺陷
纯白色或是在犬身上的有色部位有白色的条纹、杂色斑或白色斑点,黑色雪纳瑞在胸部可有小块的白色斑。在椒盐色、黑银色和纯黑色犬身上在咽喉下和胸部可淡化成灰色或银白色,在这些淡化区域之间应是自然的毛色。任何在这些部位出现的不均称、相连的白纹、白斑均视作白色杂斑,为失格。

步态
小跑时的步态被用来评审犬只的运动姿态。从前面看,前腿肘部紧靠身体,直向前,双腿既不靠得太拢,也不分得太开。从后面看,后腿直,与前腿在同一个平面内运动。
请注意:当小跑时,后腿与前腿在同一平面内持续运动这个说法虽然被普遍接受,但其实有非常小的内倾。内倾在前半部从肩开始,在后半部从髋关节开始,无论从前还是从后看,腿从这些点到足垫都是笔直的。步态正确的迷你雪纳瑞的脚步内倾几乎是察觉不到的。但脚步的内倾并不能说明跗部内转、脚趾前部并得太拢、交叉步、肘部外翻等姿态是正确的。
从侧面看,前腿步幅充分延伸,后腿驱动强有力,跗关节充分抬起。足即不内翻也不外翻。
缺陷
一字步、斜步、前肢划桨似的步态(肘和肩向内收拢,导致前肢沿一个生硬的圆弧,以划桨似姿势向前摆)、骑乘马步态(象马那样,前足抬得很高,腕部弯曲)、后驱动力不足。
[以下为迷你雪纳瑞AKC标准英文原版]
Miniature Schnauzer Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Miniature Schnauzer is a robust, active dog of terrier type, resembling his larger cousin, the Standard Schnauzer, in general appearance, and of an alert, active disposition. Faults - Type - Toyishness, ranginess or coarseness.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - From 12 to 14 inches. He is sturdily built, nearly square in proportion of body length to height with plenty of bone, and without any suggestion of toyishness. Disqualifications - Dogs or bitches under 12 inches or over 14 inches.

Head
Eyes - Small, dark brown and deep-set. They are oval in appearance and keen in expression. Faults - Eyes light and/or large and prominent in appearance. Ears - When cropped, the ears are identical in shape and length, with pointed tips. They are in balance with the head and not exaggerated in length. They are set high on the skull and carried perpendicularly at the inner edges, with as little bell as possible along the outer edges. When uncropped, the ears are small and V-shaped, folding close to the skull.

Head strong and rectangular, its width diminishing slightly from ears to eyes, and again to the tip of the nose. The forehead is unwrinkled. The topskull is flat and fairly long. The foreface is parallel to the topskull, with a slight stop, and it is at least as long as the topskull. The muzzle is strong in proportion to the skull; it ends in a moderately blunt manner, with thick whiskers which accentuate the rectangular shape of the head. Faults - Head coarse and cheeky. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. That is, the upper front teeth overlap the lower front teeth in such a manner that the inner surface of the upper incisors barely touches the outer surface of the lower incisors when the mouth is closed. Faults - Bite - Undershot or overshot jaw. Level bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck - strong and well arched, blending into the shoulders, and with the skin fitting tightly at the throat. Body short and deep, with the brisket extending at least to the elbows. Ribs are well sprung and deep, extending well back to a short loin. The underbody does not present a tucked up appearance at the flank. The backline is straight; it declines slightly from the withers to the base of the tail. The withers form the highest point of the body. The overall length from chest to buttocks appears to equal the height at the withers. Faults - Chest too broad or shallow in brisket. Hollow or roach back.

Tail set high and carried erect. It is docked only long enough to be clearly visible over the backline of the body when the dog is in proper length of coat. Fault - Tail set too low.

Forequarters
Forelegs are straight and parallel when viewed from all sides. They have strong pasterns and good bone. They are separated by a fairly deep brisket which precludes a pinched front. The elbows are close, and the ribs spread gradually from the first rib so as to allow space for the elbows to move close to the body. Fault - Loose elbows.

The sloping shoulders are muscled, yet flat and clean. They are well laid back, so that from the side the tips of the shoulder blades are in a nearly vertical line above the elbow. The tips of the blades are placed closely together. They slope forward and downward at an angulation which permits the maximum forward extension of the forelegs without binding or effort. Both the shoulder blades and upper arms are long, permitting depth of chest at the brisket.

Feet short and round (cat feet) with thick, black pads. The toes are arched and compact.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters have strong-muscled, slanting thighs. They are well bent at the stifles. There is sufficient angulation so that, in stance, the hocks extend beyond the tail. The hindquarters never appear overbuilt or higher than the shoulders. The rear pasterns are short and, in stance, perpendicular to the ground and, when viewed from the rear, are parallel to each other. Faults - Sickle hocks, cow hocks, open hocks or bowed hindquarters.

Coat
Double, with hard, wiry, outer coat and close undercoat. The head, neck, ears, chest, tail, and body coat must be plucked. When in show condition, the body coat should be of sufficient length to determine texture. Close covering on neck, ears and skull. Furnishings are fairly thick but not silky. Faults - Coat too soft or too smooth and slick in appearance.

Color
The recognized colors are salt and pepper, black and silver and solid black. All colors have uniform skin pigmentation, i.e. no white or pink skin patches shall appear anywhere on the dog.

Salt and Pepper - The typical salt and pepper color of the topcoat results from the combination of black and white banded hairs and solid black and white unbanded hairs, with the banded hairs predominating. Acceptable are all shades of salt and pepper, from light to dark mixtures with tan shadings permissible in the banded or unbanded hair of the topcoat. In salt and pepper dogs, the salt and pepper mixture fades out to light gray or silver white in the eyebrows, whiskers, cheeks, under throat, inside ears, across chest, under tail, leg furnishings, and inside hind legs. It may or may not also fade out on the underbody. However, if so, the lighter underbody hair is not to rise higher on the sides of the body than the front elbows.

Black and Silver - The black and silver generally follows the same pattern as the salt and pepper. The entire salt and pepper section must be black. The black color in the topcoat of the black and silver is a true rich color with black undercoat. The stripped portion is free from any fading or brown tinge and the underbody should be dark.

Black - Black is the only solid color allowed. Ideally, the black color in the topcoat is a true rich glossy solid color with the undercoat being less intense, a soft matting shade of black. This is natural and should not be penalized in any way. The stripped portion is free from any fading or brown tinge. The scissored and clippered areas have lighter shades of black. A small white spot on the chest is permitted, as is an occasional single white hair elsewhere on the body.

Disqualifications - Color solid white or white striping, patching, or spotting on the colored areas of the dog, except for the small white spot permitted on the chest of the black.

The body coat color in salt and pepper and black and silver dogs fades out to light gray or silver white under the throat and across the chest. Between them there exists a natural body coat color. Any irregular or connecting blaze or white mark in this section is considered a white patch on the body, which is also a disqualification.

Gait
The trot is the gait at which movement is judged. When approaching, the forelegs, with elbows close to the body, move straight forward, neither too close nor too far apart. Going away, the hind legs are straight and travel in the same planes as the forelegs.

Note - It is generally accepted that when a full trot is achieved, the rear legs continue to move in the same planes as the forelegs, but a very slight inward inclination will occur. It begins at the point of the shoulder in front and at the hip joint in the rear. Viewed from the front or rear, the legs are straight from these points to the pads. The degree of inward inclination is almost imperceptible in a Miniature Schnauzer that has correct movement. It does not justify moving close, toeing in, crossing, or moving out at the elbows.

Viewed from the side, the forelegs have good reach, while the hind legs have strong drive, with good pickup of hocks. The feet turn neither inward nor outward.

Faults - Single tracking, sidegaiting, paddling in front, or hackney action. Weak rear action.

Temperament
The typical Miniature Schnauzer is alert and spirited, yet obedient to command. He is friendly, intelligent and willing to please. He should never be overaggressive or timid.

Disqualifications
Dogs or bitches under 12 inches or over 14 inches.
Color solid white or white striping, patching, or spotting on the colored areas of the dog, except for the small white spot permitted on the chest of the black.
The body coat color in salt and pepper and black and silver dogs fades out to light gray or silver white under the throat and across the chest. Between them there exists a natural body coat color. Any irregular or connecting blaze or white mark in this section is considered a white patch on the body, which is also a disqualification.

Approved January 15, 1991
Effective February 27, 1991

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:56:10 | 显示全部楼层


迷你牛头梗AKC标准

[迷你牛头梗简介]
迷你牛头梗的身体结构必须结实,匀称,而且充满活力。具有热烈、坚定和聪明的表情。他应该是充满热情、勇敢、性格平和、驯服。
[迷你牛头梗的体型]
身高在10~14英寸间,超出这一范围的狗都属于失格。体重与身高成比例。迷你牛头梗的身体呈正方形。
[迷你牛头梗的头部]
头部长、结实且深,一直延伸到口吻末端,但不粗糙。整个面部轮廓呈卵形,饱满;呈光滑的平面,没有任何凹陷或突起的地方,即所谓的蛋形。从头顶到鼻尖形成轻微向下的弧线。前额位于两耳间,平坦。从鼻尖到眼睛的距离远远大于从眼睛到头顶的距离。下颌深,完美。眼睛适当下陷、颜色尽可能深、眼睛中射出明亮的光芒,表现出热情、坚定且聪明的表情。眼睛很小,呈三角形,位置有点斜。耳朵小,薄,距离很近,耳尖向上时,耳朵保持竖立。鼻镜为黑色,鼻孔适当张开,鼻尖略向下弯。嘴唇紧且整洁。牙齿为钳状咬合或剪状咬合。剪状咬合时,上端的门牙与下端的牙齿紧密贴合。牙齿应该结实、坚实且非常整齐。
[迷你牛头梗的颈部、背线和身躯]
颈部肌肉非常发达,长且呈拱形;从肩部到头部逐渐变细,皮肤松弛。背部短而结实,腰部以上略拱。马肩隆后部不能松弛,马肩隆不应该下陷。肋骨扩张良好。后肋骨深。从前方观察,胸部宽。从马肩隆到肋骨底的深度非常深,所以,肋骨底比腹部更接近地面。从肋骨底部到腹部形成优雅的曲线。尾巴短,尾根位置低,尾巴平举。与身体结合的部分粗壮,向末端逐渐变细。
[迷你牛头梗的前躯]
肩部应该结实、肌肉发达,但不显得笨重。肩胛宽阔、平坦,从底边到顶边部分向后倾斜地非常厉害。腿部骨量充足,但不粗糙。前肢长度适中,非常直,稳固地支撑着身体。肘部既不能内翻也不能外翻。脚腕应该结实,笔直。
[迷你牛头梗的后躯]
从后面看,两条后腿相互平行。大腿肌肉非常发达,飞节适当靠下。后膝关节在与第二节大腿结合处形成合适的角度。后脚腕应该短且直。足爪:足爪圆且紧凑,足趾适当上拱,类似猫足。
[迷你牛头梗的被毛]
被毛短,平且摸上去感觉粗糙,有光泽。狗的皮肤松紧适中。

[迷你牛头梗的颜色]
白色,纯白色,头部和皮肤上长有斑纹是允许的。
彩色,允许是任何颜色。
[迷你牛头梗的步态]
这种狗的步态流畅,能适应各种地形,步幅大。从前面或后面观察,前腿或后腿都应该彼此平行。前躯导向良好,后躯驱动有力,臀步动作流畅,后膝关节和飞节适度弯曲。具有典型的自信、活泼及有力的特点。
  
[迷你牛头梗的气质]
气质应该是充满热情和勇敢,但性格平和,驯服。
标准通过日期:1991年5月14日
标准执行日期:1992年1月1日

Miniature Bull Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Miniature Bull Terrier must be strongly built, symmetrical and active, with a keen, determined and intelligent expression. He should be full of fire, having a courageous, even temperament and be amenable to discipline.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height 10 inches to 14 inches. Dogs outside these limits should be faulted. Weight in proportion to height. In proportion, the Miniature Bull Terrier should give the appearance of being square.

Head
The head should be long, strong and deep, right to the end of the muzzle, but not coarse. The full face should be oval in outline and be filled completely up, giving the impression of fullness with a surface devoid of hollows or indentations, i.e., egg shaped. The profile should curve gently downwards from the top of the skull to the tip of the nose. The forehead should be flat across from ear to ear. The distance from the tip of the nose to the eyes should be perceptibly greater than that from the eyes to the top of the skull. The underjaw should be deep and well defined.

To achieve a keen, determined and intelligent expression, the eyes should be well sunken and as dark as possible with a piercing glint. They should be small, triangular and obliquely placed, set near together and high up on the dog\'s head. The ears should be small, thin and placed close together, capable of being held stiffly erect when they point upwards. The nose should be black, with well developed nostrils bent downwards at the tip. The lips should be clean and tight. The teeth should meet in either a level or scissor bite. In the scissor bite, the top teeth should fit in front of and closely against the lower teeth. The teeth should be sound, strong and perfectly regular.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck should be very muscular, long, and arched; tapering from the shoulders to the head, it should be free from loose skin. The back should be short and strong with a slight arch over the loin. Behind the shoulders there should be no slackness or dip at the withers. The body should be well rounded with marked spring of rib. The back ribs deep. The chest should be broad when viewed from in front. There should be great depth from withers to brisket, so that the latter is nearer to the ground than the belly. The underline, from the brisket to the belly, should form a graceful upward curve. The tail should be short, set on low, fine, and should be carried horizontally. It should be thick where it joins the body, and should taper to a fine point.

Forequarters
The shoulders should be strong and muscular, but without heaviness. The shoulder blades should be wide and flat and there should be a very pronounced backward slope from the bottom edge of the blade to the top edge. The legs should be big boned but not to the point of coarseness. The forelegs should be of moderate length, perfectly straight, and the dog must stand firmly up on them. The elbows must turn neither in nor out, and the pasterns should be strong and upright.

Hindquarters
The hind legs should be parallel when viewed from behind. The thighs are very muscular with hocks well let down. The stifle joint is well bent with a well developed second thigh. The hind pasterns should be short and upright.

Feet - The feet are round and compact with well arched toes like a cat.

Coat - The coat should be short, flat and harsh to the touch with a fine gloss. The dog\'s skin should fit tightly.

Color - For white, pure white coat. Markings on head and skin pigmentation are not to be penalized. For colored, any color to predominate.

Gait - The dog shall move smoothly, covering the ground with free, easy strides. Fore and hind legs should move parallel to each other when viewed from in front or behind, with the forelegs reaching out well and the hind legs moving smoothly at the hip and flexing well at the stifle and hock. The dog should move compactly and in one piece but with a typical jaunty air that suggests agility and power.

Temperament
The temperament should be full of fire and courageous, but even and amenable to discipline.

Faults
Any departure from the foregoing points shall be considered a fault, and the seriousness of the fault shall be in exact proportion to its degree.

Approved May 14, 1991
Effective January 1, 1992

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:57:21 | 显示全部楼层


曼彻斯特梗-Manchester Terrier AKC标准

[历史]
曼彻斯特梗也含有目前已经绝种的黑褐梗的血统。18世纪时,在曼彻斯特由一个名叫约翰修姆的饲养者改良出曼彻斯特梗,使用善于捕鼠且敏捷,硕壮的黑褐梗配上惠比特犬产生出来的品种,后来又加入西部高低梗的品种。1959年,和此犬种近似的玩具犬种单独进行登记的品种,现在只有小型的曼彻斯特梗得到承认.

[简介]
小体型,黑色的短毛狗,特点是长有褐色斑纹和尖细的尾巴。这一品种的结构显示出流线形,结实、优雅的外观,头部呈楔形,长且干净,具有敏捷、快乐和警惕的表情。流线型、紧凑、肌肉发达的身体使曼彻斯特梗具有强大的爆发力和敏捷度,是培养了用来捕杀害虫、老鼠的品种。除了尺寸和耳朵外,标准曼彻斯特梗与玩具曼彻斯特梗之间没什么两样。玩具曼彻斯特梗是将标准曼彻斯特梗缩小后的改良品种。

[体型]
玩具曼彻斯特梗的体重不超过12磅。俱乐部考虑按体重将美国品种和开放标准品种区分开:7磅或更轻;7磅~12磅。
标准曼彻斯特梗的体重范围限定在12~22磅。俱乐部考虑按体重将美国品种和开放品种区分开:体重在12~16磅;体重在16~22磅。超过22磅的狗将不被承认。
曼彻斯特梗总体外观是体长略大与身高。就是说,从马肩隆到地面的垂直距离比从肩到后腿的水平距离略小。骨量充足、肌肉发达,以保证有足够的灵敏度和耐久力。

[头部]
曼彻斯特梗具有敏捷、警惕的表情。杏仁状的眼睛,几乎是黑色的,眼睛小,明亮而闪光。位置适当接近,外眼角略向上斜。眼睛既不突出也不深陷。颜色必须是黑色的。 标准曼彻斯特梗的耳朵允许是立耳、剪耳或纽扣耳。几种耳型没有优劣之分。立耳和纽扣耳应该位于头顶上恰当的位置,耳根宽而耳尖细。宽、张开,耳尖钝和铃铛状的耳朵属于严重缺陷。剪耳应该长,尖而且竖立。 玩具曼彻斯特梗的耳朵只有立耳,应该位于头顶上恰当的位置,耳根宽而耳尖细。宽、张开,耳尖钝和铃铛状的耳朵属于严重缺陷,剪耳属于失格。 头部长,窄,皮肤紧贴头骨,几乎是平的,除了前额略向后缩。从正面或侧面看都象是钝的楔子。 口吻与头部的长度相等。口吻在眼睛下面,饱满,但看不到面颊的肌肉。下颌饱满,轮廓清晰,鼻镜是黑色的。 黑色嘴唇紧贴下颌。颌部丰满有力,牙床丰满,整齐。牙齿呈白色,剪状咬合,钳状咬合也可以接受。

[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部长度适中,细长、优雅,略呈拱形。*近肩膀的地方变粗,与肩膀平滑结合。吊喉属于缺陷。 腰部结实,*尾端略向下倾,使背线略呈拱形。平背或塌背都属于严重缺陷。 胸部位于两腿间,窄,胸前半部分深。前胸轮廓中等。肋骨扩张良好,为了使前腿活动自如,前胸肋骨下端变的比较平。 腹部向上收,形成弧线。 尾巴尖细,长度不超过飞节。位于后躯末端。尾巴与身体结合处比较粗,末端变细。尾巴略向上巧,但决不能卷在背上。

[前躯]
肩胛长度与前臂长度大致相等。就是说从肘到马肩隆的长度等于从肘到地面的长度。 肘部贴近前胸。肩部位置恰当。 前肢直,长度适中,位于前胸下方。腕部垂直。 足爪紧凑,呈拱形。中间两个脚趾比其他脚趾长。脚垫厚实,趾甲是黑色的。

[后躯]
大腿肌肉发达,且上半部分与下半部分长度一致。后膝关节角度恰当。 从后面看,飞节既不向里弯,也不向外弯。身体流畅地延伸到后腿。 后足爪类似猫爪,脚垫厚实,黑趾甲。

[被毛]
被毛应该是平滑、短、密、紧且有光泽。不能是柔软的。


[颜色]
被毛的颜色是黑色带丰富的桃花芯木的棕色,但两种颜色边界清晰,不能搀和着一起。两眼上方各有一个很小的棕色斑点,两颊也各有一个很小的棕色斑点。 在头部,口吻至鼻镜部分是棕色的。鼻镜和鼻梁是黑色的。棕色会延伸到喉咙下面,形成V字形。耳朵里面有部分棕色。 前腿上方,前胸的位置各有一个棕色斑点,叫“玫瑰花节”。这些特征在小狗身上比在成年狗身上明显。 前脚腕部分有黑色“拇指斑”。前腿其他部分应该都是棕色。 四个脚趾上方都有所谓“铅笔纹”的黑色条纹。 后腿的棕色部分在内侧,从脚趾的铅笔纹延伸到后膝关节下面一点。后腿外侧应该是黑色的。 尾部只有尾巴下面和肛门是棕色的,棕色只分布在这些被遮盖的部分。 被毛出现任何白色都属于严重缺陷,如果有最长端超过1/2英寸的白色斑纹,就属于失格。如果出现除了棕色和黑色以外的颜色,都属于失格。颜色和斑纹的分数不影响体型或其他部分的分数。

[步态]
步态轻松,不费力,前肢步伐正确,不能出现马式步伐。后躯驱动力强。两条后腿都应该与相应的前腿处于同一直线,不能向内或向外歪。快步走时,落脚点身体下重心点集中。
[气质]
曼彻斯特梗不能有攻击性或胆怯。他非常严谨,忠实但能分清敌我。属于不爱吵闹的品种,对其他狗也很友善。过度好斗或胆怯都应该考虑取消比赛资格。

[失格]
标准型体重超过22磅;玩具型剪耳;被毛出现超过1/2英寸的白色斑纹,出现除黑色和棕色外的其他颜色。

[以下为曼彻斯特梗(Manchester Terrier)AKC标准英文原版]
General Appearance
A small, black, short-coated dog with distinctive rich mahogany markings and a taper style tail. In structure the Manchester presents a sleek, sturdy, yet elegant look, and has a wedge-shaped, long and clean head with a keen, bright, alert expression. The smooth, compact, muscular body expresses great power and agility, enabling the Manchester to kill vermin and course small game.

Except for size and ear options, there are no differences between the Standard and Toy varieties of the Manchester Terrier. The Toy is a diminutive version of the Standard variety.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The Toy variety shall not exceed 12 pounds. It is suggested that clubs consider dividing the American-bred and Open classes by weight as follows: 7 pounds and under, over 7 pounds and not exceeding 12 pounds.

The Standard variety shall be over 12 pounds and not exceeding 22 pounds. Dogs weighing over 22 pounds shall be disqualified. It is suggested that clubs consider dividing the American-bred and Open classes by weight as follows: over 12 pounds and not exceeding 16 pounds, over 16 pounds and not exceeding 22 pounds.

The Manchester Terrier, overall, is slightly longer than tall. The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, is slightly less than the length, measured horizontally from the point of the shoulders to the rear projection of the upper thigh. The bone and muscle of the Manchester Terrier is of sufficient mass to ensure agility and endurance.

Head
The Manchester Terrier has a keen and alert expression. The nearly black, almond shaped eyes are small, bright, and sparkling. They are set moderately close together, slanting upwards on the outside. The eyes neither protrude nor sink in the skull. Pigmentation must be black.

Correct ears for the Standard variety are either the naturally erect ear, the cropped ear, or the button ear. No preference is given to any of the ear types. The naturally erect ear, and the button ear, should be wider at the base tapering to pointed tips, and carried well up on the skull. Wide, flaring, blunt tipped, or \"bell\" ears are a serious fault. Cropped ears should be long, pointed and carried erect.

The only correct ear for the Toy variety is the naturally erect ear. They should be wider at the base tapering to pointed tips, and carried well up on the skull. Wide, flaring, blunt tipped, or \"bell\" ears are a serious fault. Cropped, or cut ears are a disqualification in the Toy variety.

The head is long, narrow, tight skinned, and almost flat with a slight indentation up the forehead. It resembles a blunted wedge in frontal and profile views. There is a visual effect of a slight stop as viewed in profile.

The muzzle and skull are equal in length. The muzzle is well filled under the eyes with no visible cheek muscles. The underjaw is full and well defined and the nose is black.

Tight black lips lie close to the jaw. The jaws should be full and powerful with full and proper dentition. The teeth are white and strongly developed with a true scissors bite. Level bite is acceptable.

Neck, Topline, Body
The slightly arched neck should be slim and graceful, and of moderate length. It gradually becomes larger as it approaches, and blends smoothly with the sloping shoulders. Throatiness is undesirable.

The topline shows a slight arch over the robust loins falling slightly to the tail set. A flat back or roached back is to be severely penalized. The chest is narrow between the legs and deep in the brisket. The forechest is moderately defined. The ribs are well sprung, but flattened in the lower end to permit clearance of the forelegs. The abdomen should be tucked up extending in an arched line from the deep brisket. The taper style tail is moderately short reaching no further than the hock joint. It is set on at the end of the croup. Being thicker where it joins the body, the tail tapers to a point. The tail is carried in a slight upward curve, but never over the back.

Forequarters
The shoulder blades and the upper arm should be relatively the same length. The distance from the elbow to the withers should be approximately the same as the distance from the elbow to the ground. The elbows should lie close to the brisket. The shoulders are well laid back.

The forelegs are straight, of proportionate length, and placed well under the brisket. The pasterns should be almost perpendicular.

The front feet are compact and well arched. The two middle toes should be slightly longer than the others. The pads should be thick and the toenails should be jet black.

Hindquarters
The thigh should be muscular with the length of the upper and lower thighs being approximately equal. The stifle is well turned. The well let down hocks should not turn in nor out as viewed from the rear. The hind legs are carried well back. The hind feet are shaped like those of a cat with thick pads and jet black nails.

Coat
The coat should be smooth, short, dense, tight, and glossy; not soft.

Color The coat color should be jet black and rich mahogany tan, which should not run or blend into each other, but abruptly form clear, well defined lines of color. There shall be a very small tan spot over each eye, and a very small tan spot on each cheek. On the head, the muzzle is tanned to the nose. The nose and nasal bone are jet black. The tan extends under the throat, ending in the shape of the letter V. The inside of the ears are partly tan. There shall be tan spots, called \"rosettes,\" on each side of the chest above the front legs. These are more pronounced in puppies than in adults. There should be a black \"thumbprint\" patch on the front of each foreleg at the pastern. The remainder of the foreleg shall be tan to the carpus joint. There should be a distinct black \"pencil mark\" line running lengthwise on the top of each toe on all four feet. Tan on the hind leg should continue from the pencilling on the toes up the inside of the legs to a little below the stifle joint. The outside of the hind legs should be black. There should be tan under the tail, and on the vent, but only of such size as to be covered by the tail.

White on any part of the coat is a serious fault, and shall disqualify whenever the white shall form a patch or stripe measuring as much as one half inch at its longest dimension.

Any color other than black and tan shall be disqualified.

Color and/or markings should never take precedence over soundness and type.

Gait
The gait should be free and effortless with good reach of the forequarters, showing no indication of hackney gait. Rear quarters should have strong, driving power to match the front reach. Hocks should fully extend. Each rear leg should move in line with the foreleg of the same side, neither thrown in nor out. When moving at a trot, the legs tend to converge towards the center of gravity line beneath the dog.

Temperament
The Manchester Terrier is neither aggressive nor shy. He is keenly observant, devoted, but discerning. Not being a sparring breed, the Manchester is generally friendly with other dogs. Excessive shyness or aggressiveness should be considered a serious fault.

Disqualifications
Standard variety-Weight over 22 pounds.
Toy variety-Cropped or cut ears.
Both varieties--White on any part of the coat whenever the white shall form a patch or stripe measuring as much as one half inch at its longest dimension.
Any color other than black and tan.

Approved June 10, 1991
Effective July 31, 1991

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:58:27 | 显示全部楼层


湖畔梗(Lakeland Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

湖畔梗是在英国北部培育出来的,重要用来在崎岖不平的岩石山上捕猎害虫。它是一种小巧的、精致的犬,身体结构结实、呈正方形。它的身躯深而且较窄,使它能顺利地钻进石洞,完成工作。它有足够长的腿,使它能适应各种崎岖的地形。它的颈部长,光滑,背线短,尾根位置高。它的性格是快乐的、友好的、自信的,但没有强烈的攻击性。它有警惕性,并时刻准备出发。它的步态柔软而优雅,步幅适中,轻松。它的头部呈矩形,颌部有力,耳朵呈V字形。被毛为浓密的刚毛,口吻和腿部的饰毛长一些。

[历史]

湖畔梗是最古老的一种工作梗,至今仍被人们所熟识。在成立养犬俱乐部或有官方记载之前,湖畔梗被饲养训化,劳作于英格兰的湖泊地区,这种犬工作能力十分强。“湖畔”这个名字,其实是现代的一种叫法,在古代叫做Patterdale梗。

    据记载很久以来,约翰彼尔大帝时代或者是大颊梗的猎犬狩猎出现以前,莱克兰山区的农场主就逐渐形成用猎犬和梗进行狩猎,它们工作的性质是阻止躐狐和海獭。那里盛行饲养犬,从来没有一个小犬被弄死,朋友间和猎户间流行送犬,犬被训练成为最好的劳动者,并在传统中保存了下来。

    这种本地梗最伟大之处在于地下远程狩猎。据记载,1871年Lord lonsdale有一头湖畔梗在岩石下爬行了7米多追踪一海獭。为了解救湖畔梗,必须进行大规模的挖掘。最终,经过3天的工作,人们找到了这只犬,它被解救出来,没有别的犬比它的经历更艰难了。这种类型的犬破封锁在地面下10~12天,再解救上来仍活着。而其他种犬就不可能了。

    约在1896年,整个大湖地区的农业展览中做出了湖畔梗与其他外形相似的梗犬(如狐狸犬和猎水獭犬)的鉴别标准。人们对这一古老的品种表现了极为浓厚的兴趣,猎犬的主人或其他有经验的猎人是其评判者。当时主要有蓝灰色、黑褐色、红色或土黄色和少量白色的湖畔梗,后来,颜色这种分类法被取代,主要分成白色和杂色的工作犬两类。总之,工作能力始终是要考虑的方面。

白色湖畔梗一般与猎水獭犬一起工作,因为在很多时候都是猎犬兴奋地将水獭从树根下或排水管中赶出而颜色深的梗犬在泥浆中将其拖出。

    经验丰富的梗犬饲养者认为湖畔梗的远祖在某种程度上与边境梗的祖先相似。实际上,有明显的证据表明湖畔梗是与丹迪丁蒙梗密切相关,后来被认作是伯灵顿梗的后代。

    约在1830年,英国北部的一些郡,诸如诺森伯兰郡、坎伯兰耶和威斯特摩兰郡等地均发现了大量的以其奉地区命名的梗犬。自从这些品种得到认可以来,它们的古老的名字很多已经被人遗忘,每当有专门的俱乐部成立时,它们的名字都会变更,而且育种人员也不愿意再认同其旧时的名称。当然,这样的情况下就产生了拥有许多名字的同一种犬的例子。

    坎伯兰郡是湖畔梗的发源地,坎伯兰郡风景特别美丽,尤其在其南部湖泊众多。伯灵顿梗起源于邻郡――诺森伯兰郡,因此不难推测当时有很多犬的交流。

    1912年,Kersurck的一家梗犬俱乐部成立时,湖畔梗这一坎伯兰郡的品种才引起人们的足够重视。在第一次世界大战前的两年,这家新成立的俱乐部做了大量的准备工作。随着一战的爆发,一切文明的活动均告中断,直到1921年,人们方再度记起湖畔梗。那一年饲养的人集合于坎伯兰郡的Whitehaven,根据Thomas Nosking(当时出席集合的人之一,后来移居到美国)说,湖畔梗这一名称是当时会议一致决定的。同时又制定了湖畔梗的评判标准,不久以后,英国的养犬俱乐部在犬种谱系中给予了注册。1934年, AKC的犬种谱系正式收录湖畔梗。

    虽然湖畔梗世代为工作犬,但却拥有一副较好的外表。湖畔梗被毛浓密防水,上下颌中等长度、强壮有力,后躯有力,背短而强壮,腿脚发育良好。除不屈不挠和勇敢以外,湖畔梗还有吸引人的安静的性格。

[体型]

成年犬的理想肩高为36.8厘米,误差范围为2.5~1.3厘米,母犬的理想身高比公犬矮2.5厘米。平衡良好,在比较严格的比赛中,成年公犬的平均体重为7.71千克。肩高略高一些或矮一些的犬的体重与之成正比。平衡和协调是最重要的。短腿、体重过种、过于纤细的犬都不符合要求,属于有缺陷。它应该有足够的骨量,显得结实,精致但不粗糙。

[头部]

表情与犬的情绪密切相关;虽然它的典型表情为警惕,但有时显得热情而坚定,有时显得快乐甚至有些顽皮。眼睛-偏小,有些呈卵形,位于头颅的拐角,距离比较远。肝色或肝色和棕色的犬,其眼睛的颜色为较深的褐色到柔和的棕色,眼圈为棕色。其他颜色的犬的眼睛是柔和色棕色到黑色,眼圈颜色为黑色。耳朵小,V字形,在头颅上方折叠,内边贴近脑袋,而外边靠近外眼角。头顶平坦,宽度适中,面颊可能平坦而光滑。止部勉强可见。口吻结实,鼻梁直,位于眼睛下方。头部匀称,矩形,头颅的长度与口吻的长度一致。头部的比例很关键。过长、过短的面部和楔形头颅都不合适,属于缺陷。鼻镜为黑色。\"冬天\"鼻镜或褪色的鼻镜可以接受,但不理想。只有肝色的犬允许肝色的鼻镜和嘴唇。粉色鼻镜或鼻镜上有明显斑点属于严重缺陷。嘴唇为黑色。颌部有力。牙齿较大,钳壮咬合或剪状咬合。上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合为失格。

[颈、背线、身躯]

颈部-长;精致但结实;喉部没有赘肉;略呈拱形,靠肩部平滑的、逐步变宽。马肩隆明显的高于脊背。背线-从马肩隆至尾巴的部分,短而水平。身躯--结实而且柔韧。胸部偏窄,深,呈卵形,胸深到肘部。肋骨扩张良好。湖畔梗属于中体型品种。桶状胸、身躯过大、过厚及过纤细的犬都不理想,属于有缺陷。腰部-紧而短,虽然母犬可能略长一些。适度收腹。尾巴-尾根位置高。按照惯例需要断尾,使犬在展示时,高举尾巴的尾尖与后脑齐平。尾巴的姿势是竖直的,并略弯向头部。尾巴紧紧卷在后背上属于缺陷。

[四肢]

肩部角度恰当。假设有一条线从肩胛顶端引出,将穿过肘部。上面的肩胛与前臂相比,显得较长,有一定的角度,使前臂垂直,以维持\"梗类犬前部\"的外观。肩部肌肉平滑。肘部挂在身体两侧,能自由活动。从前面或侧面看,前肢结实、整洁、笔直。脚腕几乎看不出来。足爪圆,向前指,足趾紧凑而且结实。脚垫厚实,黑色或深灰色,肝色的犬的脚垫为棕色。趾甲结实,黑色或与犬的体色一致。狼爪被切除。

大腿肌肉发达,而且有力。后腿角度恰当,但不能过份,以至影响前后肢的平衡,以能够平滑的行走为好。后膝关节既不内翻也不外翻。飞节相当短,从侧面看,飞节垂直。从后面看,飞节相互垂直。足爪与前肢相同。如果有狼爪,则切除。

[尾巴]

[被毛]

双层毛,外层披毛为粗硬的刚毛,内层的底毛紧贴皮肤,柔软,不能伸到披毛外面。湖畔梗需要剥毛,来维持其轮廓(剃毛不符合比赛要求)。外观整洁、精致。脑袋、耳朵,前胸、肩部和尾巴后面的毛发需要剪短,显得平滑。身体上的被毛略长(约1.3~2.5厘米),可能呈轻微的波状或笔直。面部和腿上的饰毛丰厚,但不多余,显得很整齐。毛发松软。腿部呈圆筒壮。脸部毛发将按传统方式修剪,眼睛上方的毛发留的较长,使头部从任何角度看都是矩形的。从前面看,眼睛十分明显,给予湖畔梗十分独特的淘气表情。

[颜色]

湖畔梗有很多种颜色,纯色包括:兰色、黑色、肝色、红色和小麦色。马鞍斑的犬是在背部、颈部后面、尾巴上方及身体两侧有马鞍形斑纹覆盖,马鞍斑的颜色有兰色、黑色、该色或不同程度的灰色。犬的其他部分(头、咽喉、肩和腿)是小麦色或金棕色。灰色是在红色或小麦色中搀杂了不同程度的黑色、兰色或肝色。

[步态]

步态保持正直和轻松,良好的前躯导向和后躯驱动。步态平滑,高效而且适应不同地形。来和去的时候,腿保持笔直,足爪既不内翻,也不外翻;肘部紧铁身体,飞节垂直。当犬飞奔时,足爪会向重心靠拢。

[性格]

典型的湖畔梗应该大胆,快活而友好,自信。胆怯,尤其是非常胆怯,对成年湖畔梗而言属于严重缺陷,反之,具有强烈攻击性倾向也属于严重缺陷。

[失格]

牙齿过长或过短。

[评分]





标准通过日期:1991年1月15日

标准执行日期:1991年2月27日


Lakeland Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Lakeland Terrier was bred to hunt vermin in the rugged shale mountains of the Lake District of northern England. He is a small, workmanlike dog of square, sturdy build. His body is deep and relatively narrow, which allows him to squeeze into rocky dens. He has sufficient length of leg under him to cover rough ground easily. His neck is long, leading smoothly into high withers and a short topline ending in a high tail set. His attitude is gay, friendly, and self-confident, but not overly aggressive. He is alert and ready to go. His movement is lithe and graceful, with a straight-ahead, free stride of good length. His head is rectangular, jaws are powerful, and ears are V-shaped. A dense, wiry coat is finished off with longer furnishings on muzzle and legs.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The ideal height of the mature dog is 14½ inches from the withers to the ground, with up to a one-half inch deviation either way permissible. Bitches may measure as much as one inch less than dogs. The weight of the well balanced, mature male in hard show condition averages approximately 17 pounds. Dogs of other heights will be proportionately more or less. The dog is squarely built, and bitches may be slightly longer than dogs. Balance and proportion are of primary importance. Short-legged, heavy-bodied dogs or overly refined, racy specimens are atypical and should be penalized. The dog should have sufficient bone and substance, so as to appear sturdy and workmanlike without any suggestion of coarseness.

Head
The expression depends on the dog\'s mood of the moment; although typically alert, it may be intense and determined, or gay and even impish. The eyes, moderately small and somewhat oval in outline, are set squarely in the skull, fairly wide apart. In liver or liver and tan dogs, the eyes are dark hazel to warm brown and eye rims are brown. In all other colors, the eyes are warm brown to black and eye rims are dark. The ears are small, V-shaped, their fold just above the top of the skull, the inner edge close to the side of the head, and the flap pointed toward the outside corner of the eye.

The skull is flat on top and moderately broad, the cheeks flat and smooth as possible. The stop is barely perceptible. The muzzle is strong with straight nose bridge and good fill-in beneath the eyes. The head is well balanced, rectangular, the length of skull equaling the length of the muzzle when measured from occiput to stop, and from stop to nose tip. The proportions of the head are critical to correct type. An overlong foreface or short, wedge shaped head are atypical and should be penalized. The nose is black. A \"winter\" nose with faded pigment is permitted, but not desired. Liver colored noses and lips are permissible on liver coated dogs only. A pink or distinctly spotted nose is very undesirable. The lips are dark. Jaws are powerful. The teeth, which are comparatively large, may meet in either a level, edge to edge bite, or a slightly overlapping scissors bite. Specimens with teeth overshot or undershot are to be disqualified.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is long; refined but strong; clean at the throat; slightly arched, and widening gradually and smoothly into the shoulders. The withers, that point at the back of the neck where neck and body meet, are noticeably higher than the level of the back. The topline, measured from the withers to the tail, is short and level. The body is strong and supple. The moderately narrow oval chest is deep, extending to the elbows. The ribs are well sprung and moderately rounded off the vertebrae. The Lakeland Terrier is a breed of moderation. A barrel-chested, big-bodied dog or one which is slab-sided and lacking substance is atypical and should be penalized. The loins are taut and short, although they may be slightly longer in bitches. There is moderate tuck-up. The tail is set high on the back. It is customarily docked so that when the dog is set up in show position, the tip of the tail is level with the occiput. In carriage, it is upright and a slight curve toward the head is desirable. Behind the tail is a well-defined, broad pelvic shelf. It is more developed in dogs than in bitches. The tail tightly curled over the back is a fault.

Forequarters
The shoulders are well angulated. An imaginary line drawn from the top of the shoulder blade should pass through the elbow. The shoulder blade is long in proportion to the upper arm, which allows for reasonable angulation while maintaining the more upright \"terrier front.\" The musculature of the shoulders is flat and smooth. The elbows are held close to the body, standing or moving. The forelegs are strong, clean and straight when viewed from the front or side. There is no appreciable bend at the pasterns. The feet are round and point forward, the toes compact and strong. The pads are thick and black or dark gray, except in liver colored dogs where they are brown. The nails are strong and may be black or self-colored. Dewclaws are removed.

Hindquarters
The thighs are powerful and well muscled. The hind legs are well angulated, but not so much as to affect the balance between front and rear, which allows for smooth efficient movement. The stifles turn neither in nor out. The distance from the hock to the ground is relatively short and the line from the hock to toes is straight when viewed from the side. From the rear the hocks are parallel to each other. Feet same as front. Dewclaws, if any, are removed.

Coat
Two-ply or double, the outer coat is hard and wiry in texture, the undercoat is close to the skin and soft and should never overpower the wiry outer coat. The Lakeland is hand stripped to show his outline. (Clipping is inappropriate for the show ring.) The appearance should be neat and workmanlike. The coat on the skull, ears, forechest, shoulders and behind the tail is trimmed short and smooth. The coat on the body is longer (about one-half to one inch) and may be slightly wavy or straight. The furnishings on the legs and foreface are plentiful as opposed to profuse and should be tidy. They are crisp in texture. The legs should appear cylindrical. The face is traditionally trimmed, with the hair left longer over the eyes to give the head a rectangular appearance from all angles, with the eyes covered from above. From the front, the eyes are quite apparent, giving the Lakeland his own unique mischievous expression.

Color
The Lakeland Terrier comes in a variety of colors, all of which are equally acceptable. Solid colors include blue, black, liver, red, and wheaten. In saddle marked dogs, the saddle covers the back of the neck, back, sides and up the tail. A saddle may be blue, black, liver, or varying shades of grizzle. The remainder of the dog (head, throat, shoulders, and legs) is a wheaten or golden tan. Grizzle is a blend of red or wheaten intermixed in varying proportions with black, blue or liver.

Gait
Movement is straightforward and free, with good reach in front and drive behind. It should be smooth, efficient and ground-covering. Coming and going, the legs should be straight with feet turning neither in nor out; elbows close to the sides in front and hocks straight behind. As the dog moves faster he will tend to converge toward his center of gravity. This should not be confused with close movement.

Temperament
The typical Lakeland Terrier is bold, gay and friendly, with a confident, cock-of-the-walk attitude. Shyness, especially shy-sharpness, in the mature specimen is to be heavily penalized. Conversely, the overly aggressive, argumentative dog is not typical and should be strongly discouraged.

Disqualifications
Teeth overshot or undershot.

Approved January 15, 1991
Effective February 27, 1991

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:59:30 | 显示全部楼层


凯利蓝梗(Kerry Blue Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

典型的凯利蓝梗应该是高大、紧凑,而且平衡良好的,显得发育正常而且肌肉发达,带有明显的梗类犬的性格和特征。矮个子的凯利蓝梗不符合要求。

[历史]

凯利蓝梗又叫爱尔兰梗,属于爱尔兰国犬。这类犬的产地不详,据说1588年,曾经逃离遇难的西班牙无敌舰队之后,一直漂流到了爱尔兰沿海,成为了西班牙犬种的后代。也有人认为,它是通过体型非常大的爱尔兰系列狼犬改良而成的凯利蓝梗。据说,凯利蓝梗是正宗的爱尔兰原产品种。18世纪时,在爱尔兰这种犬被作为斗犬,猎犬,牧羊犬,家庭守门犬等。之后被列入了短脚长身梗及贝灵顿梗的品种。世界的首次大战之后,凯利蓝梗被美国肯内尔犬俱乐部认可。   

[体型]

凯利蓝梗的理想肩高为:公犬47厘米、母犬略矮一些。在评判凯利蓝梗的时候,肩高为45.7~49.5厘米的公犬或44.6~48.6厘米的母犬会首先给评委留下一个好印象。此外,来自较高纬度的凯利蓝梗往往占有明显的优势。公犬决不能高于50.8厘米或低于44.6厘米、母犬决不能高于43.2厘米或低于49.5厘米。最低身高的指标对幼犬无效。发育正常的公犬的最理想体重范围是:14.97~19.96千克,母犬略轻一些。发育良好,肌肉发达。腿部长度适中,骨量充足,肌肉发达。

[头部]

长,但不夸张,与身体的比例协调。平衡良好。眼睛―颜色深、小、不突出、位置恰当,显示出梗类犬的热烈眼神。任何趋向于黄色的眼睛都属于严重缺陷。耳朵―呈V字形,小,但与犬的整体比例协调。中等厚度,向前垂于面颊两侧,耳朵折叠线略高于头颅。“死耳朵”―类似猎犬的垂耳属于严重缺陷。头颅―平坦,止部轻微,头颅在两耳间的宽度中等,向眼睛方向逐渐变窄。面部平直,眼睛前面的部分不能突然向下落,面部略显楔状。头颅和面部的长度只有很小的差别。颌部结实、深而且肌肉发达。面颊―简洁、平整,不显得高低不平。鼻镜―黑色,鼻孔大而宽。牙齿―结实,洁白而且呈剪状咬合。下颚突出式咬合为严重缺陷。

[颈、背线、身躯]

颈部―整洁、中等长度,靠肩部逐渐变宽,骄傲地昂起。背部―短、结实而且笔直(所谓背线平直),不显得松弛。胸部―深,相当结实。肋骨扩张良好,深而不圆。腰部―轻微上翘。短而有力。尾巴―位置高,中等长度,欢快地举着,直立的尾巴最好。

[四肢]

肩部精致,长、倾斜,与背部结合良好。肘部垂直挂在身体两侧,能自由运动。从前面和侧面看,前肢都保持笔直。脚腕短、直而且不显著。足爪结实、紧凑、相当圆、稍小;脚垫厚度恰当,没有裂纹;足尖上拱,足尖既不内翻也不外翻。趾甲为黑色。

结实、肌肉发达,行动自如,能很好的趴下和蹲下,大腿长而有力,后膝关节适度弯曲,既不内翻也不外翻,飞节靠近地面,从后面看,垂直,而且相互平行,很好地支撑着犬的身躯。失格:后腿有狼爪。足爪与前肢相同。

[尾巴]

断尾,中等长度。尾跟位置高,呈直立状。

[被毛]

柔软、浓密、呈波状。粗硬的被毛、刚毛、或鬃毛状的被毛都属于严重缺陷。为了显得整齐,全身都应该被毛发覆盖,除了头部需要修整(除了胡须),耳朵面颊需要修饰。

[颜色]

成年犬的正确颜色为浓淡不一的兰灰色或灰兰色,从深石板兰到浅兰灰色都可以。除了口吻、头部、耳朵、尾巴和足爪允许是黑色的,其他地方的颜色十分均匀。凯利蓝梗的颜色的“回归”过程,从出生时的黑色到成年后的兰灰色或灰兰色,中间经过一次或数次变化―包括非常深的兰色(比深石板色还深),深浅不同的棕色或这些颜色的混合,逐渐转化成正确的颜色。18个月之前,应该对这些有偏差的颜色一视同仁。以后出现偏差则属于严重缺陷。纯黑色在比赛中是不允许的。在任何年龄,口吻、头部、耳朵、尾巴及足爪都可以是黑色。

[步态]

动作不拘束。肘部垂直挂在身体两侧,动作简洁。行动中,前后肢都保持笔直,后膝关节既不内翻也不外翻。

[性格]

凯利兰梗温和而忠诚,且充满活力,同时具有顽固的个性。要成为优秀的家庭犬,则必须进行严格的训练,这种狗很喜欢整洁。卷曲的被毛具有不脱毛也不换毛的优点。用来展示的凯利兰梗,需要进行精心的修剪以及适当的装饰。

[失格]

纯黑色,后肢有狼爪。

[评分]




标准通过日期:1992年11月10日

标准执行日期:1992年12月31日

Kerry Blue Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The typical Kerry Blue Terrier should be upstanding well knit and in good balance, showing a well-developed and muscular body with definite terrier style and character throughout. Correct coat and color are important.  A low-slung Kerry is not typical.  


Size, Proportion, Substance
The ideal Kerry should be 18½ inches at the withers for a dog, slightly less for a bitch. In judging Kerries, a height of 18-19½ inches for a dog, and 17½-19 inches for a bitch, should be given primary preference. Only where the comparative superiority of a specimen outside of the ranges noted clearly justifies it should greater latitude be taken. In no case should it extend to a dog over 20 inches or under 17½ inches, or to a bitch over 19½ inches or under 17 inches. The minimum limits do not apply to puppies. The most desirable weight for a fully developed dog is from 33-40 pounds, bitches weighing proportionately less. A well-developed and muscular body. Legs moderately long with plenty of bone and muscle.

Head


Long, but not exaggerated, and in good proportion to the rest of the body. Well balanced. Eyes-Dark, small, not prominent, well placed and with a keen terrier expression. Anything approaching a yellow eye is very undesirable. Ears-V-shaped, small but not out of proportion to the size of the dog, of moderate thickness, carried forward close to the cheeks with the top of the folded ear slightly above the level of the skull. A \"dead\" ear, houndlike in appearance, is very undesirable. Skull-Flat, with very slight stop, of moderate breadth between the ears, and narrowing very slightly to the eyes. Foreface full and well made up, not falling away appreciably below the eyes but moderately chiseled out to relieve the foreface from wedginess. Little apparent difference between the length of the skull and foreface. Jaws deep, strong and muscular. Cheeks-Clean and level, free from bumpiness. Nose-Black, nostrils large and wide. Teeth-Strong, white and either level or with the upper (incisors) teeth slightly overlapping the lower teeth. An undershot mouth should be strictly penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck-Clean and moderately long, gradually widening to the shoulders upon which it should be well set and carried proudly. Back short, strong and straight (i.e., level), with no appearance of slackness. Chest deep and of moderate breadth. Ribs fairly well sprung, deep rather than round. A slight tuck-up. Loin short and powerful. Tail should be set on high, of moderate length and carried gaily erect, the straighter the tail the better.

Forequarters
Shoulders fine, long and sloping, well laid back and well knit. The elbows hanging perpendicularly to the body and working clear of the side in movement. The forelegs should be straight from both front and side view. The pasterns short, straight and hardly noticeable. Feet should be strong, compact, fairly round and moderately small, with good depth of pad free from cracks, the toes arched, turned neither in nor out, with black toenails.

Hindquarters
Strong and muscular with full freedom of action, free from droop or crouch, the thighs long and powerful, stifles well bent and turned neither in nor out, hocks near the ground and, when viewed from behind, upright and parallel with each other, the dog standing well up on them.


Coat
Correct coat is important it is to be soft, dense and wavy. A harsh, wire or bristle coat should be severely penalized. In show trim the body should be well covered but tidy, with the head (except for the whiskers) and the ears and cheeks clear.

Color
Color is important.  The correct mature color is any shade of blue gray or gray blue from the deep slate to light blue gray, of a fairly uniform color throughout except that distinctly darker to black parts may appear on the muzzle, head, ears, tail and feet. Kerry color, in its process of \"clearing,\" changes from an apparent black at birth to the mature gray blue or blue gray. The color passes through one or more transitions--involving a very dark blue (darker than deep slate), shades or tinges of brown, and mixtures of these, together with a progressive infiltration of the correct mature color.   The time needed for this “clearing” process varies with each dog.  Small white markings are permissible.  Black on the muzzle, head, ears, tail and feet is permissible at any age.  A black dog 18 months of age or older is never permissible in the show ring and is to be disqualified. Disqualification - A black dog 18 months of age or older is to be disqualified. (White markings on a black dog 18 months of age or older does not constitute clearing or mature color and the dog is to be disqualified.)

Gait
Full freedom of action. The elbows hanging perpendicularly to the body and working clear of the sides in movement; both forelegs and hind legs should move straight forward when traveling, the stifles turning neither in nor out.

Disqualifications
A black dog 18 months of age or older is to be disqualified. (White markings on a black dog 18 months of age or older does not constitute clearing or mature color and the dog is to be disqualified.)

Approved October 10, 2005
Effective January 1, 2006

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 13:00:19 | 显示全部楼层


爱尔兰梗(Irish Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

爱尔兰梗的一般外观十分重要。整体外观的分数比例比其他各部分分数的总和还大。必须将其当成一个整体,对称、比例和协调对整体平衡而言,十分重要。此外,还有性格特征。这种梗在活动中必须是有活力的、有韧性而又坚强,而且非常有生气;身体结构结实、强壮,骨量充足,同时不能笨拙,速度、力量和耐力都很好。不\"娇气\",其身体轮廓是适合奔跑的流线形。

[历史]

爱尔兰梗历史久远,其来源有争议,但有一个不争的事实,即它是梗类中最早品种之一。从它漂亮的红色皮毛中可见它的敏捷和整洁,它是梗类中勇敢的化身。

被认可的爱尔兰梗的第一次记录可上溯至1875年,那时在格斯瓦有一专门为其举行的犬展。1879年冠军Erin和Killney Boy出现。它们经培育后,其后代出现许多冠军,从而在爱尔兰梗历史上建立起此品种鼻祖的称号。19世纪80年代,爱尔兰梗成为英国第四大流行品种。

1889年,英国爱尔兰梗俱乐部规定任何在该年以后出生的爱尔兰梗,在参加由英国养犬俱乐部管理的任何犬展时,必须没有裂耳。此后该规定引起争论,最终导致英国展览的任何品种的犬必须没有裂耳。

爱尔兰梗于1881年传入美国,美国爱尔兰梗俱乐部也于1896年成立,并采纳英国的标准,到1929年此品种在AKC当时认可的79类犬中排名第13。

爱尔兰梗的外形比较特殊,与梗类中其他犬明显不同。它的身体比猎狐梗长,更趋向于线条型,但又不缺乏肌肉或牢固的骨结构。做另一个比较也是有帮助的,爱尔兰梗的外形类似于老爱尔兰猎狼犬,其实一个只不过是另一个的小型化,它们在性格上有许多相似之处。

无论在乡村、城市公寓或野营地,爱尔兰梗是一个无可比拟的朋友。爱尔兰梗是一个有趣的玩伴,喜欢接近小孩,它能与小孩分享快乐。在它们的服务中,尤其是针对主人,它会面对任何恐吓的行为,天生就适合做。“保护神”。

爱尔兰梗是一种有名的运动犬。有时掠杀小动物,有时参加其他游戏,如追兔子。一头识水性的犬经训练后它在水中和在陆地上一样灵活。其实,爱尔兰梗拥有许多运动天赋。它在遥远的北部和热带地区能成功地捕捉到巨鼠。

爱尔兰梗在第一次世界大战中被作为军犬,作为信使和哨卫,它将其一直拥有的美称即不可比拟的精神和临危不惧的品性表现得淋漓尽致。下面这篇摘要是从英国军犬学校长官写的一篇文章中摘录的,他回忆了爱尔兰梗的服务生涯。

我可以强调爱尔兰梗的服务胜过它的同伴们。许多人上年能活到今年正是因为爱尔兰梗的服务。当一堵石墙将士兵与他们的总部完全隔开时,电话和通信员也无法帮助,此刻信使犬就是他们惟一能寻求救助的对像。我认为这个品种的确十分高贵。它们极度敏感,乐于争斗。我们中那些喜欢有此类性格犬的人一定会发现爱尔兰梗是它们中的典型代表,它们非常聪明、忠贞和诚实。一个人只要拥有这样的一头伴侣犬将会感到拥有一个真正的朋友。

作为一头参展犬,爱尔兰梗的样式和姿态是很独特的。比赛中它无畏的精神给人留下深刻印像。它被分类作为循环展览赛的D类犬。

[体型]

在比赛中,最理想的体重为:公犬12.2千克/母犬11.3千克。肩高大约45.7厘米。这些数字对繁殖者和评判来说,是标准尺寸。然而在比赛中,评判是根据形态和一般外观来鉴别体型偏大或偏小的爱尔兰梗。体重并非是评判的最后标准。体型正常的爱尔兰梗具有其他很多重要特征。

[头部]

长,但与身体其他部分比例协调;头颅平坦,两耳间较窄;没有皱纹,轮廓中,止部不明显。颌部必须很结实而且肌肉发达,但面颊不丰满,而且长度要求要求严格。脸部在两眼间,但不能太低;事实上,造型十分精致。夸张的脸部或明显短的脸部,都会破坏头部的整体平衡,属于有缺陷。面部与头颅以止部为界,其长度大致相等。口吻或面颊的肌肉过度发达、两鬓骨骼过度发达,这些情况被专业人士称为\"厚脸皮\"、\"过度发达的头\"、\"厚脑壳\",都属于缺陷。上下颌的毛发长度和质地与身体上的毛发一样,有足够的长度使脸部显得结实、完整。不能太多,像山羊胡子,也不能太少,太多或太少都属于缺陷。牙齿应该结实、整齐,颜色洁白而且健康;上颚突出式咬合和下颚突出式咬合都属于缺陷。 嘴唇紧闭,颜色为黑色。鼻镜必须为黑色 眼睛颜色为深褐色;小,而不突出;充满精力、热情和聪慧,显示出热情的眼神。浅色或黄色眼睛是严重缺陷,最要不得。 耳朵小而且呈V字形;中等厚度;位置恰当,向前折叠,垂在眼角边。耳朵的折叠线应该比头顶略高。\"死了\"的耳朵--像猎犬那样的垂耳属于严重缺陷。耳朵上的毛发必须很短,而且比身体上的毛发颜色略暗。

[颈、背线、身躯]

颈部长度适中,靠近肩部逐渐变宽;骄傲地高高昂起,喉部没有赘肉。脖子两边的毛发略有卷曲,延伸到耳角。身躯长度中等。短背不是爱尔兰梗的特点,而且属于缺陷。后背结实而且笔直,在肩膀后方不能出现松弛或\"塌陷\"的情况。腰部结实而且肌肉发达,略拱,肋骨健康、深而不圆,深度与肘齐平。母犬也许比公犬长一些。肩部精致、长而且向背部倾斜。胸部深而且肌肉发达,但不突出或宽阔。

[四肢]

后躯结实而且肌肉发达;大腿有力;飞节靠近地面;后膝关节适度弯曲。 足爪结实,相当圆,而且偏小;足尖上拱,不向内翻也不向外翻,趾甲颜色深。脚垫深,必须非常结实而且没有龟裂。单个裂纹不说明脚垫不健康,事实上,所有品种的脚垫都会因为各种原因,而偶然出现裂纹。腿部长度适中,与肩部结合良好,相当直,骨量充足、肌肉发达;肘部在身体两侧;腕部短、直,不明显。当跑动时,前躯和后躯都笔直向前;后膝关节不能向外翻。\"牛肢\"是指飞节向内翻而足爪向外翻,属于严重缺陷。腿部不应该有饰毛,腿部毛发与身体上毛发的质地相似。

[尾巴]

断尾,去掉总长度的1/4。尾根位置高,但不卷曲;毛发长度适中、被毛粗硬。

[被毛]

浓密而且呈金属丝状的刚毛,毛量丰厚,看起来不太平整,其实是非常紧密的贴在身上,毛发如此紧密而粗壮,所以用手指拨开毛发,皮肤几乎不可见;没有柔软或丝状被毛,不能长到改变身体轮廓外形,尤其是后躯。身体两侧的毛发不像脊背或腿部的毛发那么粗硬,但也应该丰厚而且质地良好。在粗硬的被毛下面,有一层精致、柔软的毛发,颜色略浅,称为底毛。单层毛(没有底毛)、波浪状被毛属于缺陷;卷曲和纠缠的被毛属于严重缺陷。

[颜色]

应该是整个都是有色的;火红色、金红色、麦红色或小麦色。胸部有白色斑纹,这在纯色品种中经常出现,是允许的,但不理想。身体其他地方出现白色毛发都属于缺陷。有时,小犬出生时身上会有黑色毛发,到成年后就没有了。

[步态]

[性格]

爱尔兰梗的气质反映出其早期背景:他曾经作为家庭宠物、护卫犬和猎犬。他脾气好、精力旺盛、喜欢游戏。爱尔兰梗最大的特点是其显示出来的热情和活力。爱尔兰梗最大的特点是粗心大意,而且喜欢不顾后果地、冒失地向前冲,去袭击对手,从而为这一品种挣得了\"冒失鬼\"的光荣称号。他脾气好,对人类完全忠诚。这些粗鲁、冒失的家伙,以他们的爱和体贴,来保护他们的主人、女主人和孩子们,从来不怕任何危险。他的一生都充满了忠诚、忠实和献身精神。他可以使他的家庭远离危险。

[失格]

[评分]





标准通过日期:1968年12月10日


Irish Terrier Breed Standard

Head
Long, but in nice proportion to the rest of the body; the skull flat, rather narrow between the ears, and narrowing slightly toward the eyes; free from wrinkle, with the stop hardly noticeable except in profile. The jaws must be strong and muscular, but not too full in the cheek, and of good punishing length. The foreface must not fall away appreciably between or below the eyes; instead, the modeling should be delicate. An exaggerated foreface, or a noticeably short foreface, disturbs the proper balance of the head and is not desirable. The foreface and the skull from occiput to stop should be approximately equal in length. Excessive muscular development of the cheeks, or bony development of the temples, conditions which are described by the fancier as \"cheeky,\" or \"strong in head,\" or \"thick in skull\" are objectionable. The \"bumpy\" head, in which the skull presents two lumps of bony structure above the eyes, is to be faulted. The hair on the upper and lower jaws should be similar in quality and texture to that on the body, and of sufficient length to present an appearance of additional strength and finish to the foreface. Either the profuse, goat-like beard, or the absence of beard, is unsightly and undesirable.

Teeth
Should be strong and even, white and sound; and neither overshot nor undershot.

Lips
Should be close and well-fitting, almost black in color.

Nose
Must be black.

Eyes
Dark brown in color; small, not prominent; full of life, fire and intelligence, showing an intense expression. The light or yellow eye is most objectionable, and is a bad fault.

Ears
Small and V-shaped; of moderate thickness; set well on the head, and dropping forward closely toward the outside corner of the eye. The top of the folded ear should be well above the level of the skull. A \"dead\" ear, hound-like in appearance, must be severely penalized. It is not characteristic of the Irish Terrier. The hair should be much shorter and somewhat darker in color than that on the body.

Neck
Should be of fair length and gradually widening toward the shoulders; well and proudly carried, and free from throatiness. Generally there is a slight frill in the hair at each side of the neck, extending almost to the corner of the ear.

Shoulders and Chest
Shoulders must be fine, long, and sloping well into the back. The chest should be deep and muscular, but neither full nor wide.

Body
The body should be moderately long. The short back is not characteristic of the Irish Terrier, and is extremely objectionable. The back must be strong and straight, and free from an appearance of slackness or \"dip\" behind the shoulders. The loin should be strong and muscular, and slightly arched, the ribs fairly sprung, deep rather than round, reaching to the level of the elbow. The bitch may be slightly longer than the dog.

Hindquarters
Should be strong and muscular; thighs powerful; hocks near the ground; stifles moderately bent.

Stern
Should be docked, taking off about one quarter. It should be set on rather high, but not curled. It should be of good strength and substance; of fair length and well covered with harsh, rough hair.

Feet and Legs
The feet should be strong, tolerably round, and moderately small; toes arched and turned neither out nor in, with dark toenails. The pads should be deep, and must be perfectly sound and free from corns. Cracks alone do not necessarily indicate unsound feet. In fact, all breeds have cracked pads occasionally, from various causes.

Legs moderately long, well set from the shoulders, perfectly straight, with plenty of bone and muscle; the elbows working clear of the sides; pasterns short, straight, and hardly noticeable. Both fore and hind legs should move straight forward when traveling; the stifles should not turn outward. \"Cowhocks\"--that is, the hocks turned in and the feet turned out--are intolerable. The legs should be free from feather and covered with hair of similar texture to that on the body to give proper finish to the dog.

Coat
Should be dense and wiry in texture, rich in quality, having a broken appearance, but still lying fairly close to the body, the hairs growing so closely and strongly together that when parted with the fingers the skin is hardly visible; free of softness or silkiness, and not so long as to alter the outline of the body, particularly in the hindquarters. On the sides of the body the coat is never as harsh as on the back and quarters, but it should be plentiful and of good texture. At the base of the stiff outer coat there should be a growth of finer and softer hair, lighter in color, termed the undercoat. Single coats, which are without any undercoat, and wavy coats are undesirable; the curly and the kinky coats are most objectionable.

Color
Should be whole-colored: bright red, golden red, red wheaten, or wheaten. A small patch of white on the chest, frequently encountered in all whole-colored breeds, is permissible but not desirable. White on any other part of the body is most objectionable. Puppies sometimes have black hair at birth, which should disappear before they are full grown.

Size
The most desirable weight in show condition is 27 pounds for the dog and 25 pounds for the bitch. The height at the shoulder should be approximately 18 inches. These figures serve as a guide to both breeder and judge. In the show ring, however, the informed judge readily identifies the oversized or undersized Irish Terrier by its conformation and general appearance. Weight is not the last word in judgment. It is of the greatest importance to select, insofar as possible, terriers of moderate and generally accepted size, possessing the other various characteristics.

General Appearance
The over-all appearance of the Irish Terrier is important. In conformation he must be more than a sum of his parts. He must be all-of-a piece, a balanced vital picture of symmetry, proportion and harmony. Furthermore, he must convey character. This terrier must be active, lithe and wiry in movement, with great animation; sturdy and strong in substance and bone structure, but at the same time free from clumsiness, for speed, power and endurance are most essential. The Irish Terrier must be neither \"cobby\" nor \"cloddy,\" but should be built on lines of speed with a graceful, racing outline.

Temperament
The temperament of the Irish Terrier reflects his early background: he was family pet, guard dog, and hunter. He is good tempered, spirited and game. It is of the utmost importance that the Irish Terrier show fire and animation. There is a heedless, reckless pluck about the Irish Terrier which is characteristic, and which, coupled with the headlong dash, blind to all consequences, with which he rushes at his adversary, has earned for the breed the proud epithet of \"Daredevil.\" He is of good temper, most affectionate, and absolutely loyal to mankind. Tender and forebearing with those he loves, this rugged, stout-hearted terrier will guard his master, his mistress and children with utter contempt for danger or hurt. His life is one continuous and eager offering of loyal and faithful companionship and devotion. He is ever on guard, and stands between his home and all that threatens.

Approved December 10, 1968

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 13:02:30 | 显示全部楼层


峡谷型依马尔犬(GLEN OF IMAAL TERRIER)

别名/常用名:  暂无
   
英文名:  GLEN OF IMAAL TERRIER
   
品种:  犭更犬
   
性格特征:  适合城市生活;能适应寒冷的气候;不容易与别的犬相处,会麻烦;只需少量的身体训练;是优秀的守门犬
   
用途变化:  起源时期:18世纪,起初用途:擒获害兽,现在用途:伴侣  
   
产地血统:  谷型依马尔犬在爱尔兰的犬种中是最稀有的品种,它与那个孤立岛屿的其他“农民犬类”分享着一种非常顽强的精神。在选种改进该犬的群居习惯以前,它们曾是一种可怕的狐狸和獾的搜捕者,它紧凑得足以到地下追逐猎物,并与之拼搏直至将其置于死地。该品种过去常常用来斗犬,爱尔兰斗犬多在露天野外进行,但在大不列颠却相反,斗犬被搬上室内舞台。该犬首先于1933年展出,而如今它们虽然不可能放弃作为斗犬的要求,但已显得相对轻松自如,能够充当富有感情的伴侣犬。该品种古老,无人知晓它的起源。该犬在爱尔兰东部威克洛县(WICKLOW)的一个山谷发现后才被命名。该犬性格坚强,体质结实,适应性强,而且它是峡谷地带擒获狐狸和獾的理想猎犬。
   
体型体重:  身高:35厘米~36厘米  体重:15公斤~16公斤
   
寿命:  13-14年
   
毛色特征:  金色长毛;蓝色长毛;栗红白相间长毛;黑色斑纹长毛
   
体态特征:  玫瑰形的耳朵,相当小,自然垂下,但能半竖起,强大的头部阻隔明显,嘴鼻部呈锥形,粗糙、中等长度、整齐的上层被毛覆盖着保暖性好而纤细的底层绒毛,脚有力,稍向外弯曲,并有黑色的趾甲和坚实的肉垫,体长大于体高
   
优缺点点评:  暂无
   
市场参考价:  通常人民币1,000元以下

Glen of Imaal Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Glen of Imaal Terrier, named for the region in the Wicklow Mountains of Ireland where it was developed long ago, is a medium sized working terrier. Longer than tall and sporting a double coat of medium length, the Glen possesses great strength and should always convey the impression of maximum substance for size of dog. Unrefined to this day, the breed still possesses \"antique\" features once common to many early terrier types; its distinctive head with rose or half-prick ears, its bowed forequarters with turned out feet, its unique outline and topline are hallmarks of the breed and essential to the breed type.

Size, Proportion Substance
Height - The maximum height is 14 inches with a minimum of 12½ inches, measured at the highest point of the shoulder blades. Weight - Weight is approximately 35 pounds, bitches somewhat less; however, no Glen in good condition and otherwise well-balanced shall be penalized for being slightly outside the suggested weight. Length - The length of body, measured from sternum to buttocks, and height measured from the highest point of the shoulder blades to ground, to be in a ratio of approximately 5 (length) to 3 (height). The overall balance is more important than any single specification.

Head
Head - The head must be powerful and strong with no suggestion of coarseness. Impressive in size yet in balance with, and in proportion to, the overall size and symmetry of the dog. Eyes - Brown, medium size, round and set well apart. Light eyes should be penalized. Ears - Small, rose or half pricked when alert, thrown back when in repose. Set wide apart and well back on the top outer edge of the skull. Full drop or prick ears undesirable. Skull - Broad and slightly domed; tapering slightly towards the brow. Of fair length, distance from stop to occiput being approximately equal to distance between ears. Muzzle - Foreface of power, strong and well filled below the eyes, tapering toward the nose. Ratio of length of muzzle to length of skull is approximately three (muzzle) to five (skull.) Bottlehead or narrow foreface undesirable. Stop - Pronounced. Nose - Black. Teeth - Set in a strong jaw, sound, regular, and of good size. Full dentition. Scissors bite preferred; level mouth accepted.

Neck, Topline and Body
Neck - Very muscular and of moderate length. Topline - Straight, slightly rising to a very strong well-muscled loin with no drop-off at the croup. Body - Deep, long and fully muscled. Longer than high with the ideal ratio of body length to shoulder height approximately five (length) to three (height). Chest - Wide, strong and deep, extending below the elbows. Ribs - Well sprung with neither a flat nor a barrel appearance. Loin - Strong and well muscled. Tail - Docked to approximately half-length, in balance with the overall dog and long enough to allow a good handhold. Strong at root, well set on and carried gaily. Dogs with undocked tails not to be penalized.

Forequarters
Shoulder - Well laid back, broad and muscular. Forelegs - Short, bowed and well boned. Forearm should curve slightly around the chest. Upper arm (humerus) nearly equal in length to the shoulder blades (scapula). Feet to turn out slightly but perceptibly from pasterns. Feet - Compact and strong with rounded pads.

Hindquarters
Strong and well muscled, with ample bone and in balance with forequarters. Good bend of stifle and a well-defined second thigh. Hocks turn neither in nor out, are short, well let down and perpendicular from hock to ground. Feet - As front, except they should point forward.

Coat
Medium length, of harsh texture with a soft undercoat. The coat may be tidied to present a neat outline characteristic of a rough-and-ready working terrier. Over trimming of dogs is undesirable.

Color
Wheaten, blue or brindle. Wheaten includes all shades from cream to red wheaten. Blue may range from silver to deepest slate, but not black. Brindle may be any shades but is most commonly seen as blue brindle, a mixture of dark blue, light blue, and tan hairs in any combination or proportion.

Gait
The action should be free and even, covering the ground effortlessly with good reach in front and good drive behind. This is a working terrier, which must have the agility, freedom of movement and endurance to do the work for which it was developed.

Temperament
Game and spirited with great courage when called upon, otherwise gentle and docile. Although generally less easily excited than other terriers, the Glen is always ready to give chase. When working they are active, agile, silent and dead game.

Faults
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.

Approved: June 11, 2001
Effective: September 1, 2001

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 13:03:22 | 显示全部楼层


丹迪丁蒙梗(Dandie Dinmont Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

丹迪丁蒙梗又叫短脚狄文梗是早期驯养用来在陆地工作的梗类犬,这种犬身体又长又矮,整体轮廓形成弯曲状的工作梗。具有巨大而像绸缎一样的头鬓,但整个身体看上去还是比较匀称的。眼睛呈深色,且大而圆,充满着温柔而聪明的眼神。身体结构结实而柔软,尾巴形成弯月状,胡椒色或芥末色的双层被毛。

[历史]

丹迪丁蒙梗是从英格兰和苏格兰之间的切维厄特丘陵地区的边境猎犬的众多本土梗中选育出的品种,约在1700年首次被认作一种不同的品种。以其出色的猎水獭和獾的能力而闻名,这种犬在泰沃德勒 (Teviotdele)丘陵地区直系传下来,当瓦特?斯考特(Walter scott)先生旅行经过此地时发现了该品种,并通过其1814年出版的《Guy Mennering》一书使其闻名于世。有关于丹迪丁蒙梗的记载为:一位叫Jams Davidson的先生,保留了最初的6只犬:“Auld Pepper”、“Auld Mustard”、“Young Pepper“Young Mustard”、“Little Pepper,和“Little Mustard”。瓦特先生在其作品中对其勇气进行了极好的描述,随着《Guy Mannering》流传至今,该品种作为“丹迪丁蒙梗”闻名于世。

公认的丹迪丁蒙梗出现于Ansdell和Landseer 1850年前的美术作品中。1845年,法国国王路易?菲利普(Louis Philippe)有一对丹迪丁蒙梗。

今天,丹迪丁蒙梗已经不再有狩措的价值了,但它所具有的其他优秀品质使其成为优秀的看家犬。它聪明,喜欢接近儿童,具有优秀的守卫能力等特点。它有自己的主见并且有时不愿服从命令,给人一副“我会去作,但不要强迫我”的样子。

丹迪丁蒙梗与一般的梗犬不同的是它不具有直的线条。头大,呈完全半球形;眼大而明亮,呈深褐色,较好者为黑色;下颌长,深而且显得很笨重,躯干长,肩部较低,依次向腰和尾根部有一缓和的斜度,胸宽,深而有力,前腿短,稍向外弯而利于其挖掘,后腿长而显得不很笨重;尾低垂并且上呈45?弯曲,呈弯刀状。有两种不同的颜色;胡椒色――蓝灰至亮银色带有黑褐色或银色斑点,亮灰色或白色的冠毛;芥末色――暗土黄色至奶油色带有。

白色的斑点和冠毛。在每种颜色之间有暗影更好。丹迪丁蒙梗具有粗糙的双重被毛。由成比例的粗毛和绒毛构成。这种组成的被毛摸上去可感到明显的分界。不像硬毛犬摸上去感到粗糙。头部覆盖有柔软的丝状被毛,这种被毛不仅限于冠毛。经过整洁机适当的美容,这一形态是丹迪丁蒙梗的典型特征之一。

丹迪丁蒙梗需进行正规的皮毛护理。经常的拔毛有助于改善毛质和毛色。应摘除最长的被毛,以保持其双重的被毛和有明显线条的外观。如果长时间不对被毛进行护理,可能就得紧贴皮肤将其剪掉。这样因为仅剩底毛而呈现白色。剪掉的被毛要经过几个月才能长到合适的长度和毛质。

丹迪丁蒙梗适合于生活在任何地方,在室外或城市内的楼房均有。它们具有理想的形态,体重8.16~10.89千克,大小也适合小的房间饲养。

[体型]

丹迪丁蒙梗的肩高约为20~28厘米。体长是肩高的两倍再加上2.5~5厘米。在正常工作的状况下,这类犬的体重约为8.16~10.89千克。其结实的身躯、充足的骨量、肌肉发达、且不粗糙。整体的平衡与单一的特征比起来,前者更重要一些。

[头部]

丹迪丁蒙梗结实的头部很大,且与身体成适当的比例。肌肉发达,尤其是脸部的肌肉非常发达。显示出果断、聪明而高贵的表情。大大的眼睛圆而明亮,且不突出。两眼间距很清晰,位置略低,并注视前方。眼睛呈深褐色。深??色的眼圈。耳朵位于面颊两侧较低的位置,且向后靠,折叠处稍微突起,两耳间距略远。耳根宽且逐渐变尖。耳朵略薄。耳朵为7.6~10.2厘米的长度。头颅位于两耳间,且比较宽,越向眼睛的方向越逐步变窄,从止部到后脑间的距离与两耳间的距离相等。额头(眉)成半球的形状,止部轮廓明显。呈锥形的面颊,经过耳朵向口吻方向延伸,面颊与头颅所形成的比例相同。结实的口吻很深。口吻与头颅成3/5的比例。呈黑色或深色的鼻镜稍大。嘴唇和嘴巴的里面呈黑色或深色。呈剪状咬合且很紧密。牙齿很结实,特别是犬齿,对于小型的丹迪丁蒙梗来说,这种尺寸是十分夸张的。犬齿互相啮合的很好。上下均为六颗的门牙很整齐。

[颈、背线、身躯]

丹迪丁蒙梗结实的颈部肌肉很发达,显得非常有力。与肩部完美的结合,且中等长度。背线比肩部低,呈轻微的向下弧线,对应的腰部略呈拱形。从腰的最高点向尾根的方向,略向下倾斜。脊椎的两侧肌肉发达。从颈部的上端到尾尖的间距,显得如此流畅,形成一道优美的曲线。身体长而结实而且柔韧性很好。肋骨伸展良好、很健康。胸部深而肌肉发达,位于两只前腿中间的位置。腹部低,且所形成的曲线与背线相对应。尾巴的长度约为20.3~25.4厘米,尾根粗壮,粗壮部分的长度约为10厘米,越朝尾尖的方向越逐步变细。尾巴位于臀部曲线延伸线略向下的位置。尾巴在身后举着,比背部水平线略高,略微弯曲呈新月状。当丹迪丁蒙梗兴奋时,尾巴有可能垂直于身体。

[四肢]

丹迪丁蒙梗的肩部完全的向后倾斜,使前方有充分的空间。与后躯所形成的角度呈平衡状态。上臂长度等于肩胛长度,肘部靠近肋骨,并活动自如,不受任何限制。前腿短、肌肉发达、充足的骨量且位置明显。足尖略微的向外指。从侧面观察,前脚腕大致为直的。属于缺陷的是前腿弯曲和提琴。

丹迪丁蒙梗的后躯略长于前躯,距离很明显,看起来很自然。大腿略有些圆润,且肌肉发达,长度几乎一样;后膝关节适度的弯曲,所形成的角度与前躯相对应。飞节低,且后脚腕大致垂直与地面。

丹迪丁蒙梗圆圆的足爪,脚垫厚而结实。切除前躯的狼爪为佳。后足爪小于前足爪,且后躯没有狼爪。结实的趾甲颜色深。趾甲与被毛的颜色一样。白色趾甲是可以。属于缺陷的是平脚板。

[尾巴]

[被毛]

丹迪丁蒙梗的被毛是十分重要。毛发的长度约为5厘米;由2/3的硬毛与1/3的软毛,形成质地松软的被毛。硬毛与金属丝状的刚毛不同。其被毛需要经过剥毛的方式进行修短。被毛是由绒毛与铅笔毛构成,也就是这两种毛发能够形成被毛的效果。身体下部分与身体上部分的毛发比起来,前者的毛发比较柔软。像丝一样的柔软毛发紧贴在头上,若近似于绢就更完美了。头部上的毛发除了头髻,还包括了眼睛周围,耳朵上部且包括折叠的地方。耳朵顶端部分的毛发,其长度约为2厘米,耳朵上的饰毛稀少,其毛发的颜色和质地与头髻几乎相似,使耳朵形成了非常独特的外观。短而柔软的饰毛覆盖在耳朵上,且像天鹅的绒毛一样。口吻部与前躯上的毛发几乎一样。但口吻上部的毛发略短。鼻镜后的毛发稀少,其毛发长度是1厘米。后躯与前躯毛发的质地相同,但毛发很稀少。尾巴上部的毛发与身体上的毛发比起来,其前者的毛发比较松软,柔软的饰毛覆盖在尾巴的下部,其长度约为2厘米,越向尾尖方向越逐步变短,且尾尖略呈新月状。需要进行修整,但一定要在感觉自然的前提下,其夸张的模样是不会受到欢迎的。

[颜色]

丹迪丁蒙梗的毛色为胡椒色或芥末色。允许很深的蓝黑色到亮银灰色为胡椒色,其中间部分的??色是比较理想的。银白色的头髻与耳朵,稍亮的颜色是最理想的。棕色的腿与足爪,允许其??色为,从深棕色到浅黄褐色之间的范围。允许稍有红色的褐色到浅黄褐色为芥末色,奶油色的头髻与耳朵。腿和足爪的颜色与头髻和耳朵的颜色比起来,前者比较深一些。两种??色的肩与臀逐步向腿过度。身体下部与上部的??色不同,下部的??色相对要浅一些。口吻部长有胡须,其颜色比头髻的颜色深。耳朵与身体的颜色大致相同。尾巴上部与身体看来,则尾巴上部的??色较深,而下部略浅,与腿的颜色相同。胸部带有白色的毛发并不罕见。

[步态]

丹迪丁蒙梗的步态正确,且显得轻松而自然,前躯导向与后躯驱动都十分良好。腿部都在同一平面内运动。属于缺陷的是步态显得僵硬、不自然、呈跳跃式、晃动以及后躯驱动力不充分。

[性格]

丹迪丁蒙梗具有很强的独立性、性格坚定、十分聪明且有所保留的特征。其拥有的天性与神情和尊严完美的结合,在工作当中,则显得大胆且坚韧不拔。

[失格]

[评分]






1991年2月9日批准

1991年3月27日生效

Dandie Dinmont Terrier Breed Standard


General Appearance
Originally bred to go to ground, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier is a long, low-stationed working terrier with a curved outline. The distinctive head with silken topknot is large but in proportion to the size of the dog. The dark eyes are large and round with a soft, wise expression. The sturdy, flexible body and scimitar shaped tail are covered with a rather crisp double coat, either mustard or pepper in color.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height is from 8 to 11 inches at the top of the shoulders. Length from top of shoulders to root of tail is one to two inches less than twice the height. For a dog in good working condition, the preferred weight is from 18 to 24 pounds. Sturdily built with ample bone and well developed muscle, but without coarseness. The overall balance is more important than any single specification.

Head
The head is strongly made and large, but in proportion to the dog\'s size. Muscles are well developed, especially those covering the foreface. The expression shows great determination, intelligence and dignity. The eyes are large, round, bright and full, but not protruding. They are set wide apart and low, and directly forward. Color, a rich dark hazel. Eye rims dark. The ears are set well back, wide apart and low on the skull, hanging close to the cheek, with a very slight projection at the fold. The shape is broad at the base, coming almost to a point. The front edge comes almost straight down from base to tip; the tapering is primarily on the back edge. The cartilage and skin of the ear are rather thin. The ear\'s length is from three to four inches.

The skull is broad between the ears, gradually tapering toward the eyes, and measures about the same from stop to occiput as it does from ear to ear. Forehead (brow) well domed. Stop well defined. The cheeks gradually taper from the ears toward the muzzle in the same proportion as the taper of the skull. The muzzle is deep and strong. In length, the proportions are a ratio of three (muzzle) to five (skull). The nose is moderately large and black or dark colored. The lips and inside of the mouth are black or dark colored. The teeth meet in a tight scissors bite. The teeth are very strong, especially the canines, which are an extraordinary size for a small dog. The canines mesh well with each other to give great holding and punishing power. The incisors in each jaw are evenly spaced and six in number.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is very muscular, well developed and strong, showing great power of resistance. It is well set into the shoulders and moderate in length. The topline is rather low at the shoulder, having a slight downward curve and a corresponding arch over the loins, with a very slight gradual drop from the top of the loins to the root of the tail. Both sides of the backbone well muscled. The outline is a continuous flow from the crest of the neck to the tip of the tail. The body is long, strong and flexible. Ribs are well sprung and well rounded. The chest is well developed and well let down between the forelegs. The underline reflects the curves of the topline. The tail is 8 to 10 inches in length, rather thick at the root, getting thicker for about four inches, then tapering off to a point. The set-on of the tail is a continuation of the very slight gradual drop over the croup. The tail is carried a little above the level of the body in a curve like a scimitar. Only when the dog is excited may the tip of the tail be aligned perpendicular to its root.

Forequarters
There should be sufficient layback of shoulder to allow good reach in front; angulation in balance with hindquarters. Upper arms nearly equal in length to the shoulder blades, elbows lying close to the ribs and capable of moving freely. The forelegs are short with good muscular development and ample bone, set wide apart. Feet point forward or very slightly outward. Pasterns nearly straight when viewed from the side. Bandy legs and fiddle front are objectionable.

Hindquarters
The hind legs are a little longer than the forelegs and are set rather wide apart, but not spread out in an unnatural manner. The upper and lower thighs are rounded and muscular and approximately the same length; stifles angulated, in balance with forequarters. The hocks are well let down and rear pasterns perpendicular to the ground.

Feet
The feet are round and well cushioned. Dewclaws preferably removed on forelegs. Rear feet are much smaller than the front feet and have no dewclaws. Nails strong and dark; nail color may vary according to the color of the dog. White nails are permissible. Flat feet are objectionable.

Coat
This is a very important point: The hair should be about two inches long; the body coat is a mixture of about 2/3 hardish hair with about 1/3 soft hair, giving a sort of crisp texture. The hard is not wiry. The body coat is shortened by plucking. The coat is termed pily or pencilled, the effect of the natural intermingling of the two types of hair. The hair on the underpart of the body is softer than on the top.

The head is covered with very soft, silky hair, the silkier the better. It should not be confined to a mere topknot but extends to cover the upper portion of the ears, including the fold, and frames the eyes. Starting about two inches from the tip, the ear has a thin feather of hair of nearly the same color and texture as the topknot, giving the ear the appearance of ending in a distinct point. The body of the ear is covered with short, soft, velvety hair. The hair on the muzzle is of the same texture as the foreleg feather. For presentation, the hair on the top of the muzzle is shortened. The hair behind the nose is naturally more sparse for about an inch.

The forelegs have a feather about two inches long, the same texture as the muzzle. The hind leg hair is of the same texture but has considerably less feather. The upper side of the tail is covered with crisper hair than that on the body. The underside has a softer feather about two inches long, gradually shorter as it nears the tip, shaped like a scimitar. Trimming for presentation is to appear entirely natural; exaggerated styling is objectionable.

Color
The color is pepper or mustard.

Pepper ranges from dark bluish black to a light silvery gray, the intermediate shades preferred. The topknot and ear feather are silvery white, the lighter the color the better. The hair on the legs and feet should be tan, varying according to the body color from a rich tan to a very pale fawn.
Mustard varies from a reddish brown to a pale fawn. The topknot and ear feather are a creamy white. The hair on the legs and feet should be a darker shade than the topknot.

In both colors the body color comes well down the shoulders and hips, gradually merging into the leg color. Hair on the underpart of the body is lighter in color than on the top. The hair on the muzzle (beard) is a little darker shade than the topknot. Ear color harmonizes with the body color. The upper side of the tail is a darker shade than the body color, while the underside of the tail is lighter, as the legs. Some white hair on the chest is common.

Gait
Proper movement requires a free and easy stride, reaching forward with the front legs and driving with evident force from the rear. The legs move in a straight plane from shoulder to pad and hip to pad. A stiff, stilted, hopping or weaving gait and lack of drive in the rear quarters are faults to be penalized.

Temperament
Independent, determined, reserved and intelligent. The Dandie Dinmont Terrier combines an affectionate and dignified nature with, in a working situation, tenacity and boldness.

Approved February 9, 1991
Effective March 27, 1991

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 13:04:13 | 显示全部楼层


凯恩梗(Cairn Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

这是一种活跃的、爱玩的、勇敢的、小型工作梗,属于短腿类;其动作轻松、有力,身体结构不沉重,从前面看,腿很好地支撑着身体,肋骨深,与后躯结合良好,显得结实而且比例匀称,背长中等,具有粗硬而且能抵抗恶劣气候的被毛;头部比其他梗类犬短且宽,长有浓密的毛发,使表情显得狡猾。

[历史]

凯恩梗是深受人们宠爱且非常活泼的小型梗。这种犬的历史则可追回到500年前,凯恩梗来自斯开岛和其它高地上的苏格兰梗、白梗等是同一个祖先。这种犬除了捕捉食物以外,一般还用来猎兔、鼹鼠、水獭等。1912年,在英国的肯内尔犬俱乐部,这类品种被正式的确立。在当时,有很多饲养者将这种犬和西部高地的白梗进行配种,而改良出深色的凯恩梗,且流着白梗的血统,被登记为凯安梗。1924年,由于英国肯内尔犬俱乐部为了区别于这两类品种,所以拒绝登记通过改良的后

[体型]

包括体重、肩高、体长。母犬体重为6.35千克;公犬体重为5.90千克。母犬肩高约24.1厘米;公犬肩高为25.4厘米。体长约36.2~38.1厘米。必须比例匀称,腿既不能太长,也不能太短。这一体重标准是对成年犬(2岁)而言,年龄大的犬也许更重些或年龄更小些的犬也许轻一些。

[头部]

头颅与长度相比,显得宽阔,止部明确,头顶长有许多毛发,毛发也许比身体上的被毛软一些。口吻结实,但不能太长,或太重。牙齿大,不能是上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合。鼻镜为黑色。眼睛位置分的很开,下陷,长有浓密的眉毛。眼睛大小中等,浅褐色或深褐色,或与身体颜色匹配,具有梗类犬典型的热情眼神。耳朵小,立耳,位置分的很开,位于头部两侧。从长长的毛发中露出来。

[颈、背线、身躯]

肩部倾斜,肌肉发达、结实、有活力,身体健康,肋骨深,与结实的后躯结合,背部水平,中等长度,给人的印象是结实、有活力而不沉重。

[四肢]

腿长度中等,骨量充足但不厚重;前肢的肘部不外翻,应该是非常完美的垂直,但前足爪也许略呈外八字。后足爪比前足爪大一些。腿上必须长满粗硬的毛发。脚垫应该厚且结实,牢固地支撑着犬的全身。

[尾巴]

与头部比例恰当,长有大量毛发,但没有饰毛。尾巴欢快地举着,但不能卷在背上。尾根位置与背平面齐平。

[被毛]

坚硬且能抵抗恶劣的天气。必须有两层毛:浓密、粗糙的披毛和短、柔软、浓密的底毛。

[颜色]

可以是除了白色以外的任何颜色。耳朵、口吻及尾尖必须为深色。

[步态]

行走时,腿向前伸得笔直。当前进时,前腿形成了一个连续不断的直线。两脚的距离和两跗关节之间的距离一样长。当向前直线行走时,后腿是主要的推动力量。前腿向前运步良好,但抬的并不太高。整个运动可以这样描述:活泼,毫不费力,呈现出一种流畅的画面。

[性格]

凯恩梗聪明伶俐、活泼可爱、忠诚、友善,是家庭犬最理想的选择。自然的外形深受人们的喜爱。身上丰厚的上毛需要定期的修剪,纤细的下毛也要进行特殊的整理。

[失格]

肉色或棕色的鼻子不符合要求。

[评分]





1990年2月10日批准

1990年3月28日生效

Cairn Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
That of an active, game, hardy, small working terrier of the short-legged class; very free in its movements, strongly but not heavily built, standing well forward on its forelegs, deep in the ribs, well coupled with strong hindquarters and presenting a well-proportioned build with a medium length of back, having a hard, weather-resisting coat; head shorter and wider than any other terrier and well furnished with hair giving a general foxy expression.

Head
Skull - Broad in proportion to length with a decided stop and well furnished with hair on the top of the head, which may be somewhat softer than the body coat. Muzzle - Strong but not too long or heavy. Teeth - Large, mouth neither overshot nor undershot. Nose - Black. Eyes - Set wide apart, rather sunken, with shaggy eyebrows, medium in size, hazel or dark hazel in color, depending on body color, with a keen terrier expression. Ears - Small, pointed, well carried erectly, set wide apart on the side of the head. Free from long hairs.

Tail
In proportion to head, well furnished with hair but not feathery. Carried gaily but must not curl over back. Set on at back level.

Body
Well-muscled, strong, active body with well-sprung, deep ribs, coupled to strong hindquarters, with a level back of medium length, giving an impression of strength and activity without heaviness.

Shoulders, Legs and Feet
A sloping shoulder, medium length of leg, good but not too heavy bone; forelegs should not be out at elbows, and be perfectly straight, but forefeet may be slightly turned out. Forefeet larger than hind feet. Legs must be covered with hard hair. Pads should be thick and strong and dog should stand well up on its feet.

Coat
Hard and weather-resistant. Must be double-coated with profuse harsh outer coat and short, soft, close furry undercoat.

Color
May be of any color except white. Dark ears, muzzle and tail tip are desirable.

Ideal Size
Involves the weight, the height at the withers and the length of body. Weight for bitches, 13 pounds; for dogs, 14 pounds. Height at the withers-bitches, 9½ inches; dogs, 10 inches. Length of body from 14¼ to 15 inches from the front of the chest to back of hindquarters. The dog must be of balanced proportions and appear neither leggy nor too low to ground; and neither too short nor too long in body. Weight and measurements are for matured dogs at two years of age. Older dogs may weigh slightly in excess and growing dogs may be under these weights and measurements.

Condition
Dogs should be shown in good hard flesh, well muscled and neither too fat or thin. Should be in full good coat with plenty of head furnishings, be clean, combed, brushed and tidied up on ears, tail, feet and general outline. Should move freely and easily on a loose lead, should not cringe on being handled, should stand up on their toes and show with marked terrier characteristics.

Faults
1. Skull - Too narrow in skull.
2. Muzzle - Too long and heavy a foreface; mouth overshot or undershot.
3. Eyes - Too large, prominent, yellow, and ringed are all objectionable.
4. Ears - Too large, round at points, set too close together, set too high on the head; heavily covered with hair.
5. Legs and Feet - Too light or too heavy bone. Crooked forelegs or out at elbow. Thin, ferrety feet; feet let down on the heel or too open and spread. Too high or too low on the leg.
6. Body - Too short back and compact a body, hampering quickness of movement and turning ability. Too long, weedy and snaky a body, giving an impression of weakness. Tail set on too low. Back not level.
7. Coat - Open coats, blousy coats, too short or dead coats, lack of sufficient undercoat, lack of head furnishings, lack of hard hair on the legs. Silkiness or curliness. A slight wave permissible.
8. Nose - Flesh or light-colored nose.
9. Color - White on chest, feet or other parts of body.

Approved May 10, 1938

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 13:05:19 | 显示全部楼层


牛头梗 (Bull Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




[简介]

    此犬貌似凶猛精悍,实际上该犬性格顺从,待小孩和善友好。然而,此犬因争斗心强烈,可能经常伤害其他犬,必须严加看管。1865年,一只名叫\"宾查\"的斑纹牛头梗曾做出了在36分钟26秒的时间里驱除500只老鼠的纪录。

[历史]

    18世纪时,用牛头犬与梗类配种产生叫\"bull and terrier\"的牛头梗斗犬,后来与英国的玩具梗和惠比特犬品种,产生出具凶猛性,快速敏捷的犬种来。1860年,犬商詹姆士喜克斯将此犬加上英国猎梗,大麦町犬,西班牙波音达的品种,经过多次品种改良后,产生了现在的白色,平脸,强壮,四肢比祖先短小的牛头梗。1920年,因为白色品种遗传了听觉上的缺陷,被毛被加上了其他颜色。19世纪,白色牛头梗在热爱斗牛犬的人中间深受好评。

[体型]

    牛头梗应身体强壮,肌肉发达,身体匀称,有活力,有一副坚定而聪明的外表,充满活力,性情温和而且守纪律。

[头部]

    头部长,至口吻末端止都结实而且深,但不粗糙。面部丰满呈卵形,整个面部轮廓都很丰满而且向上,而且没有任何凹陷或中断的地方,既呈蛋形。从侧面看,从头顶到鼻尖呈轻微向下的拱形曲线。额头在两耳间,平坦。可以看见从鼻尖到眼睛的距离大于眼睛到头顶的距离。下颚应该深而且轮廓清晰。嘴唇]整洁、紧。牙齿钳状咬合或剪状咬合。如果是剪状咬合,前端的上下齿紧密结合,牙齿健康、结实而且整齐。耳朵小、薄而且位置靠近。当它们向上指时,应该有足够的硬度保持竖立。 眼睛应该下陷,而且颜色尽可能深,闪烁着敏锐的光芒。眼睛小,三角形,位置歪斜;在头部比较靠近的位置。兰色眼睛属于失格。 鼻镜颜色为黑色,鼻孔大而且鼻尖向下。

[颈、背线、身躯]

    颈部]应该肌肉非常发达,长,拱形而且整洁,从肩膀到头部逐渐变细,不受松弛的皮肤影响。 胸部从前面看,胸应该很宽,而且非常深,比腹部更接近地面。 身躯肋骨健康,背部短而结实。后边的肋骨很深。在腰部形成轻微的拱形。肩部结实、肌肉发达,但不沉重。肩宽而平,而且肩胛骨从下到上非常明显的向后倾斜。但后面的肩胛不突出或下沉。从胸后部到腹部呈优美的上收曲线。

[四肢]

    腿骨骼粗壮但不尖利或粗糙;前肢长度适中,笔直,牢固地支撑身体。肘部不向内或外翻,腕部结实而垂直。从后面看,从后面看,后腿彼此平行。大腿肌肉非常发达,飞节靠下。后脚腕短而垂直。后大腿与第二节大腿间的后膝关节角度恰当。 足爪圆而紧凑,恰当地上拱,类似猫足。

[尾巴]

    短,位置低,细,理想状态为平举。与身体结合部分粗,然后逐渐变细。

[被毛]

    短、平、摸上去粗硬而且有光泽。皮肤紧裹身体。

[颜色]

    白色牛头梗,头部允许长有斑纹。其他任何地方出现斑纹都属于严重缺陷。皮肤上有颜色属于正常。有色牛头梗在除头部以外的地方生有白毛则视为不足。皮肤允许有色素沉着。

[步态]

    步态平滑,轻松,步幅大,从前面或后面看,前腿和后腿彼此平行。前腿导向良好,后腿动作平滑,膝关节和飞节角度恰当。行动紧凑,而且带有典型的愉快心情,机敏而有力

[性格]

    待人亲切,体贴耐心,尽管对其他犬具有攻击性,照顾得当,充分活动,可成为忠实的家庭犬。

[失格]

    兰色眼睛。大部分地方都是白色。

[评分]





标准通过日期:1974年7月9日


Bull Terrier Breed Standard

White

The Bull Terrier must be strongly built, muscular, symmetrical and active, with a keen determined and intelligent expression, full of fire but of sweet disposition and amenable to discipline.

Head
Should be long, strong and deep right to the end of the muzzle, but not coarse. Full face it should be oval in outline and be filled completely up giving the impression of fullness with a surface devoid of hollows or indentations, i.e., egg shaped. In profile it should curve gently downwards from the top of the skull to the tip of the nose. The forehead should be flat across from ear to ear. The distance from the tip of the nose to the eyes should be perceptibly greater than that from the eyes to the top of the skull. The underjaw should be deep and well defined.

Lips
Should be clean and tight.

Teeth
Should meet in either a level or in a scissors bite. In the scissors bite the upper teeth should fit in front of and closely against the lower teeth, and they should be sound, strong and perfectly regular.

Ears
Should be small, thin and placed close together. They should be capable of being held stiffly erect, when they should point upwards.

Eyes
Should be well sunken and as dark as possible, with a piercing glint and they should be small, triangular and obliquely placed; set near together and high up on the dog\'s head. Blue eyes are a disqualification.

Nose
Should be black, with well-developed nostrils bent downward at the tip.

Neck
Should be very muscular, long, arched and clean, tapering from the shoulders to the head and it should be free from loose skin.

Chest
Should be broad when viewed from in front, and there should be great depth from withers to brisket, so that the latter is nearer the ground than the belly.

Body
Should be well rounded with marked spring of rib, the back should be short and strong. The back ribs deep. Slightly arched over the loin. The shoulders should be strong and muscular but without heaviness. The shoulder blades should be wide and flat and there should be a very pronounced backward slope from the bottom edge of the blade to the top edge. Behind the shoulders there should be no slackness or dip at the withers. The underline from the brisket to the belly should form a graceful upward curve.

Legs
Should be big boned but not to the point of coarseness; the forelegs should be of moderate length, perfectly straight, and the dog must stand firmly upon them. The elbows must turn neither in nor out, and the pasterns should be strong and upright. The hind legs should be parallel viewed from behind. The thighs very muscular with hocks well let down. Hind pasterns short and upright. The stifle joint should be well bent with a well-developed second thigh.

Feet
Round and compact with well-arched toes like a cat.

Tail
Should be short, set on low, fine, and ideally should be carried horizontally. It should be thick where it joins the body, and should taper to a fine point.

Coat
Should be short, flat, harsh to the touch and with a fine gloss. The dog\'s skin should fit tightly.

Color
Is white though markings on the head are permissible. Any markings elsewhere on the coat are to be severely faulted. Skin pigmentation is not to be penalized.

Movement
The dog shall move smoothly, covering the ground with free, easy strides, fore and hind legs should move parallel each to each when viewed from in front or behind. The forelegs reaching out well and the hind legs moving smoothly at the hip and flexing well at the stifle and hock. The dog should move compactly and in one piece but with a typical jaunty air that suggests agility and power.

Faults
Any departure from the foregoing points shall be considered a fault and the seriousness of the fault shall be in exact proportion to its degree, i.e. a very crooked front is a very bad fault; a rather crooked front is a rather bad fault; and a slightly crooked front is a slight fault.

Disqualification
Blue eyes.

Colored

The Standard for the Colored Variety is the same as for the White except for the sub head \"Color\" which reads: Color. Any color other than white, or any color with white markings. Other things being equal, the preferred color is brindle. A dog which is predominantly white shall be disqualified.

Disqualifications
Blue eyes.
Any dog which is predominantly white.

Approved July 9, 1974

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 13:08:39 | 显示全部楼层


边境梗(Border Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

这是一种中等骨量的、活跃的品种,结实、耐力持久而且很敏捷,但肩膀、身躯和后肢都很窄。被毛有点起伏不平,但很贴身而且非常硬。具有特别的\"水獭\"头和热情的眼神。这一品种有一些独有的特征:身躯平衡、保持警惕、勇敢和坚毅的决心。由于边境梗是一种用于野外工作的工作梗,比如追踪马匹等,所以他被培养出乐于完成自己工作的天性。背离这种天性是不允许的,这将损害其作用。为了完成工作,他必须警惕、积极、敏捷,而且能钻过任何狭窄的缝隙并能穿越任何地形。他的头像\"水獭\",是他的特征,他的气质属于典型的梗类犬气质。他的天性是和气、感情细腻、顺从而且容易训练。在野外,他的意志像钉子一样坚强,玩\"他们过来\"的游戏并进行驱赶。边界梗不需要在某一个特点上特别突出和夸张,关键是平衡。

[历史]

是英格兰的边境的bodazu地方的chebioto丘陵附近的tain河,和绵羊养在一起的,猎人所养的小害兽猎用犬。极为旧的犬种,是丹第丁蒙梗和贝林登梗和旧的工作梗的混血。可是初次在文献出现是1882年,工作特性是从洞穴中赶出狐狸。

一般认为朴素的外表下具有勇气,不知道疲劳的犬种,在bodazu地方家庭也被养。因为不被重视,故直至1920方被公认。出生故乡的名成为了犬种名。

边境梗是一种单纯而名副其实的犬种。虽然它们被繁育成为小到足以追踪一只狐狸到狭窄的洞穴,且长腿足以赶上马背上的骑手,但它们从未像其他犬种那样在展览会上受到欢迎。因此,它们仍保留其其实的原种体形和功能。

[体型]

边境梗在努力工作的情况下,比较理想的体重约5.90~7.03千克、母犬体重约5.22~6.35千克。肩高略大于体长,6.35千克的犬的肩高比体长多大约2.5~3.8厘米。骨量中等,结实,有耐久力,身躯、肩膀和后躯窄一些比较理想。

[头部]

与水獭相似。眼睛深榛色,充满火焰和聪慧。大小适中,既不突出也不像露珠那样小。耳朵小,V形,中等厚度,比较理想的颜色为深色。耳朵位于头顶,位置不高,而是有一点靠边。垂耳,贴近面颊。折叠线与头顶不在同一水平线,头颅中等宽度、平坦。眼睛和耳朵间距离足够宽。止部浅,呈中等弧度的曲线,明显的止部反而不理想。面颊略显丰满。口吻短而充实。深色口吻是其特有的,而且是必须的。这一品种天生长有连鬓胡子。鼻镜为黑色,大小合适。牙齿结实,剪状咬合,与身体比较,牙齿显得很大。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部整洁,肌肉发达,长度适中,能恰好使整体外观显得匀称。到肩部逐渐变宽。后背结实但横向比较柔韧。腰部结实。身躯深、相当窄,具有足够的长度以保持敏捷。身躯能以人的手掌测量。

[四肢]

肩部长度恰当,与背部结合良好。肩胛会聚于马肩隆,但不显得过深或过窄。前躯笔直,骨量适中,前躯的间距比猎狐梗略宽。足爪小而紧凑。脚趾前指,略呈拱形,脚垫厚实。后躯肌肉发达,大腿长而且形状令人满意。后膝关节角度恰当,飞节低。足爪同前躯。

[尾巴]

[被毛]

短而密的底毛和金属丝状的披毛紧密地覆盖全身,显得不很平整,但不能卷曲或呈波浪状。边境梗的被毛应该保持自然的样子,除了将头部、颈部和足爪修理整洁外,其他不需要任何修剪。过厚的和松弛的被毛需要掩饰。

[颜色]

红色、灰色和棕色、兰色和棕色或小麦色。胸部有少量白色是允许的,但出现白色足爪属于缺陷。深色口吻是其特有的,而且是必须的。

[步态]

行进路线笔直,有节奏,步幅适中,后膝关节和飞节角度恰当。犬对牵犬师的反馈是轻松、敏捷和迅速的步态。

[性格]

他的气质属于典型的梗类犬气质。他的天性是和气、感情细腻、顺从而且容易训练。在野外,他的意志像钉子一样坚强,玩\"他们过来\"的游戏并进行驱赶。

[失格]

[评分情况]

头部、耳朵、颈部和牙齿 20

腿和足 15

被毛和皮肤10

肩部和胸部 10

眼睛和表情 10

背和腰 10

后躯 10

尾巴5

整体外观 10

总计 100





标准通过日期:1950年3月14日

标准执行日期:1990年7月13日


Border Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
He is an active terrier of medium bone, strongly put together, suggesting endurance and agility, but rather narrow in shoulder, body and quarter. The body is covered with a somewhat broken though close-fitting and intensely wiry jacket. The characteristic \"otter\" head with its keen eye, combined with a body poise which is \"at the alert,\" gives a look of fearless and implacable determination characteristic of the breed. Since the Border Terrier is a working terrier of a size to go to ground and able, within reason, to follow a horse, his conformation should be such that he be ideally built to do his job. No deviations from this ideal conformation should be permitted, which would impair his usefulness in running his quarry to earth and in bolting it therefrom. For this work he must be alert, active and agile, and capable of squeezing through narrow apertures and rapidly traversing any kind of terrain. His head, \"like that of an otter,\" is distinctive, and his temperament ideally exemplifies that of a terrier. By nature he is good-tempered, affectionate, obedient, and easily trained. In the field he is hard as nails \"game as they come\" and driving in attack. It should be the aim of Border Terrier breeders to avoid such over emphasis of any point in the Standard as might lead to unbalanced exaggeration.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Weight Dogs, 13-15½ pounds, bitches, 11½-14 pounds, are appropriate weights for Border Terriers in hardworking condition. The proportions should be that the height at the withers is slightly greater than the distance from the withers to the tail, i.e. by possibly 1-1½ inches in a 14-pound dog. Of medium bone, strongly put together, suggesting endurance and agility, but rather narrow in shoulder, body and quarter.

Head
Similar to that of an otter. Eyes dark hazel and full of fire and intelligence. Moderate in size, neither prominent nor small and beady. Ears small, V-shaped and of moderate thickness, dark preferred. Not set high on the head but somewhat on the side, and dropping forward close to the cheeks. They should not break above the level of the skull. Moderately broad and flat in skull with plenty of width between the eyes and between the ears. A slight, moderately broad curve at the stop rather than a pronounced indentation. Cheeks slightly full. Muzzle short and \"well filled.\" A dark muzzle is characteristic and desirable. A few short whiskers are natural to the breed. Nose black, and of a good size. Teeth strong, with a scissors bite, large in proportion to size of dog.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck clean, muscular and only long enough to give a well-balanced appearance. It should gradually widen into the shoulder. Back strong but laterally supple, with no suspicion of a dip behind the shoulder. Loin strong. Body deep, fairly narrow and of sufficient length to avoid any suggestions of lack of range and agility. The body should be capable of being spanned by a man\'s hands behind the shoulders. Brisket not excessively deep or narrow. Deep ribs carried well back and not oversprung in view of the desired depth and narrowness of the body. The underline fairly straight. Tail moderately short, thick at the base, then tapering. Not set on too high. Carried gaily when at the alert, but not over the back. When at ease, a Border may drop his stern.

Forequarters
Shoulders well laid back and of good length, the blades converging to the withers gradually from a brisket not excessively deep or narrow. Forelegs straight and not too heavy in bone and placed slightly wider than in a Fox Terrier. Feet small and compact. Toes should point forward and be moderately arched with thick pads.

Hindquarters
Muscular and racy, with thighs long and nicely molded. Stifles well bent and hocks well let down. Feet as in front.

Coat
A short and dense undercoat covered with a very wiry and somewhat broken topcoat which should lie closely, but it must not show any tendency to curl or wave. With such a coat a Border should be able to be exhibited almost in his natural state, nothing more in the way of trimming being needed than a tidying up of the head, neck and feet. Hide very thick and loose fitting.

Color
Red, grizzle and tan, blue and tan, or wheaten. A small amount of white may be allowed on the chest but white on the feet should be penalized. A dark muzzle is characteristic and desirable.

Gait
Straight and rhythmical before and behind, with good length of stride and flexing of stifle and hock. The dog should respond to his handler with a gait which is free, agile and quick.

Temperament
His temperament ideally exemplifies that of a terrier. By nature he is good-tempered, affectionate, obedient, and easily trained. In the field he is hard as nails, \"game as they come\" and driving in attack.

Scale of Points
Head, ears, neck and teeth
Legs and feet
Coat and skin
Shoulders and chest
Eyes and expression
Back and loin
Hindquarters
Tail
General Appearance
Total ...20
...15
...10
...10
...10
...10
...10
....5
...10
..100

Approved March 14, 1950
Reformatted July 13, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 13:09:38 | 显示全部楼层




贝林顿梗(Bedlington Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

一种文雅的、温柔的犬,平衡良好,没有任何粗糙、软弱的地方。安静时的表情显得十分温柔、柔和,没有胆怯或神经质的倾向。兴奋时,这种犬十分警惕、充满活力和勇气。其耐力也值得注意,在他们以高速奔跑时,身体轮廓会清楚的展示出来。

[历史]

原产地英国,起源于19世纪。外表酷似小绵羊,却有一颗狮子般的心。性格与美丽的外表极不相似,具有争斗心强特性的品种。最初产于英国罗斯伯里,叫做罗斯伯里梗,比现在的品种相比身体重,脚也短,用来猎取狐狸,野兔和獾。据说1825年与贝德灵顿的一只母犬交配生产出了贝灵顿梗。18世纪末到19世纪初,与惠比特犬、丹迪丁蒙梗等犬种混血后,改良出如此身高,美丽,快速敏捷的犬种,并保持原有的活力及耐力性格。贝德灵顿的矿工用作小动物巡回狩猎犬和斗犬。1877年首次作为单独的品种展出。现在它是很好的城市家庭犬和以吠叫报警的看家犬。贝灵顿梗被毛修剪技术十分复杂,因而在第一次修剪时最好有专家做。对于喜欢干净的饲养者来说贝灵顿梗不脱毛是最大优点。

[体型]

理想的贝林顿梗的高度约41厘米左右,母犬约39.4厘米左右。公犬高于44.5厘米或低于40.6厘米、母犬高于41.9厘米或低于38.1厘米,都属于严重缺陷。 比较理想的体重范围为7.71~10.43千克。

[头部]

窄,但深且圆。头颅比较短而颌部比较长。头上长有大量头髻,颜色比身体上的颜色浅,最高处为头顶,逐渐向鼻梁伸展并变细。必须没有止部,从头顶到鼻镜是一条连续的线。使头部显得细长,没有面颊或中断。嘴唇是兰色中带黑色、兰色、褐色、棕色等纯色和组合色。眼睛呈杏仁状、小、明亮,下陷深度恰当。位置斜,相当高。深蓝色眼睛;兰色和棕色眼睛带有琥珀色光;茶色,茶色和棕色,带淡褐色光;肝色,肝色和棕色眼睛,颜色略深。眼圈为黑色带蓝色、兰色、兰色带棕色和褐色等纯色和组合色。耳朵呈三角形,耳尖较圆。耳朵位置低,平平的挂在面颊两边,略向前指。最宽处约3厘米。耳朵尖靠近嘴角。耳朵薄,覆盖了一层绒毛,像天鹅绒一样。耳朵尖被柔软的饰毛覆盖,形成丝绸般的流苏状。鼻孔大且轮廓清晰。兰色和棕色犬的鼻镜为黑色;肝色、棕色、茶色犬的鼻镜为褐色。颌部长,逐渐变细。口吻位于应景下方,结实,骨骼粗壮。嘴唇紧闭,无飘唇。牙齿为白色,长、结实。钳状咬合或剪状咬合。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部长,逐渐变细,无吊喉而且从肩部斜向上伸,没有过多的肌肉。头能高高昂起。肌肉明显很柔韧。胸深。肋骨深而平,深度达到肘部。后背自然上拱,形成弓背。身躯的长度略大于肩高。肌肉恰当的腿也显得优雅精巧。

[四肢]

四肢长度适中,结实。由于背部及腰部弯曲,后肢看起来比前躯长。柔韧而且肌肉发达。后腿要比前腿长一些,前腿直,在胸部的间距比足爪间距离大一些。腕部长、倾斜、略弯,但不软弱。后膝关节角度恰当。飞节结实,靠下,不向内翻或向外翻。脚垫厚实,平滑,足爪为长兔足,足爪紧凑。狼爪应该被切除。

[尾巴]

位置低,根部较粗,逐渐变细。不能举过后背,也不能紧贴在身体下面。长度刚好够到飞节。

[被毛]

被毛是很有特点的软毛与硬毛相杂。摸上去很有弹性,但不像金属丝那种感觉。为了看上去整洁,被毛长度不应该超过1厘米;腿部的毛发略长。

[颜色]

兰色、茶色、肝色、兰色和棕色、茶色和棕色、肝色和棕色。在双色犬中,棕色斑纹通常出现在腿部、胸部、尾巴下面、后腿内侧和眼睛周围。成年犬的头髻颜色都要比身体颜色浅。身体受伤的地方会出现深色毛发,没有关系,很快会褪掉。所有颜色都希望身体颜色深一些。

[步态]

行动非常轻巧。在慢步行进中,步态十分健康,既不能很夸张,也不能拖沓。步态不允许出现侧对步、交叉步或划桨姿势。

[性格]

贝灵顿梗与其祖先有着密切的血缘关系,具有十分好斗的个性,从整体看来,这种犬可以作为忠诚的家庭犬。贝灵顿梗被毛其修剪技术非常复杂,因此,第一次最好由专家来进行修剪。针对喜欢整洁的饲养者来说,贝灵顿梗具有不脱毛的最好优点。

[失格]

[评分]





标准通过日期:1964年9月12日

Bedlington Terrier Breed Standard


General Appearance
A graceful, lithe, well-balanced dog with no sign of coarseness, weakness or shelliness. In repose the expression is mild and gentle, not shy or nervous. Aroused, the dog is particularly alert and full of immense energy and courage. Noteworthy for endurance, Bedlingtons also gallop at great speed, as their body outline clearly shows.

Head
Narrow, but deep and rounded. Shorter in skull and longer in jaw. Covered with a profuse topknot which is lighter than the color of the body, highest at the crown, and tapering gradually to just back of the nose. There must be no stop and the unbroken line from crown to nose end reveals a slender head without cheekiness or snipiness. Lips are black in the blue and blue and tans and brown in all other solid and bi-colors. Eyes - Almond-shaped, small, bright and well sunk with no tendency to tear or water. Set is oblique and fairly high on the head. Blues have dark eyes; blues and tans, less dark with amber lights; sandies, sandies and tans, light hazel; livers, livers and tans, slightly darker. Eye rims are black in the blue and blue and tans, and brown in all other solid and bi-colors. Ears - Triangular with rounded tips. Set on low and hanging flat to the cheek in front with a slight projection at the base. Point of greatest width approximately 3 inches. Ear tips reach the corners of the mouth. Thin and velvety in texture, covered with fine hair forming a small silky tassel at the tip. Nose - Nostrils large and well defined. Blues and blues and tans have black noses. Livers, livers and tans, sandies, sandies and tans have brown noses. Jaws - Long and tapering. Strong muzzle well filled up with bone beneath the eye. Close-fitting lips, no flews. Teeth - Large, strong and white. Level or scissors bite. Lower canines clasp the outer surface of the upper gum just in front of the upper canines. Upper premolars and molars lie outside those of the lower jaw.

Neck and Shoulders
Long, tapering neck with no throatiness, deep at the base and rising well up from the shoulders which are flat and sloping with no excessive musculature. The head is carried high.

Body
Muscular and markedly flexible. Chest deep. Flat-ribbed and deep through the brisket, which reaches to the elbows. Back has a good natural arch over the loin, creating a definite tuck-up of the underline. Body slightly greater in length than height. Well-muscled quarters are also fine and graceful.

Legs and Feet
Lithe and muscular. The hind legs are longer than the forelegs, which are straight and wider apart at the chest than at the feet. Slight bend to pasterns which are long and sloping without weakness. Stifles well angulated. Hocks strong and well let down, turning neither in nor out. Long hare feet with thick, well-closed-up, smooth pads. Dewclaws should be removed.

Coat
A very distinctive mixture of hard and soft hair standing well out from the skin. Crisp to the touch but not wiry, having a tendency to curl, especially on the head and face. When in show trim must not exceed 1 inch on body; hair on legs is slightly longer.

Tail
Set low, scimitar-shaped, thick at the root and tapering to a point which reaches the hock. Not carried over the back or tight to the underbody.

Color
Blue, sandy, liver, blue and tan, sandy and tan, liver and tan. In bi-colors the tan markings are found on the legs, chest, under the tail, inside the hindquarters and over each eye. The topknots of all adults should be lighter than the body color. Patches of darker hair from an injury are not objectionable, as these are only temporary. Darker body pigmentation of all colors is to be encouraged.

Height
The preferred Bedlington Terrier dog measures 16½ inches at the withers, the bitch 15½ inches. Under 16 inches or over 17½ inches for dogs and under 15 inches or over 16½ inches for bitches are serious faults. Only where comparative superiority of a specimen outside these ranges clearly justifies it, should greater latitude be taken.

Weight
To be proportionate to height within the range of 17 to 23 pounds.

Gait
Unique lightness of movement. Springy in the slower paces, not stilted or hackneyed. Must not cross, weave or paddle.

Approved September 12, 1967

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 13:10:43 | 显示全部楼层


澳大利亚梗(Australian Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

澳大利亚梗和别的梗类不一样,这种犬的性格开朗活泼,有的时候还很顽皮,对工作不用心。所以此品种不是为狩猎而训养的,而是作为人类的伴侣犬。但是这种犬依然保持着梗类所具有的活力和充沛的精力,具有自我主张很强烈的特性。在澳洲梗类也能发挥出追杀小动物的技能。小巧、结实、骨量中等的工作用梗类犬,理想的身体比例为体长大于身高,立耳且断尾。颜色有兰色加棕色,纯茶色或纯红色。具有质地粗糙的被毛,特有的毛领和围裙及柔软、丝质的顶髻。他们天生适合从事各种不同的工作。澳洲梗的步态健康、轻松,具有良好的导向和驱动力。他们的表情热情而聪慧;他们的性格勇敢而自信。

[历史]

澳大利亚梗来源自澳洲雪梨,曾被誉为“雪梨丝毛梗”。为了使这类品种,同时具有澳洲梗和约克夏梗的优良特征。饲养者运用复杂的交配方法,改良出现在的丝毛梗。

[体型]

肩高25~28厘米。身体长度比肩高长约2.5~3.8厘米。健康状况良好,骨量适中,身体比例恰当,对称且平衡。体重合适。

[头部]

澳大利亚梗的头部长度中等,呈楔型,头盖平坦。银色或淡黄褐色则为头顶的毛。澳大利亚梗的耳朵似V状,小巧而直立,耳根在头部的上方。两耳间的距离适中。鼻子呈黑色。澳大利亚梗的眼睛小而圆,颜色很深。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部长、略呈拱形、而且结实,与肩部平滑过度融合。背线平而稳固。身躯结构结实,肋骨扩张良好,但不允许桶状胸,胸深略低于肘部。腰部结实、相当短,略有收腹。缺陷:腰过长。尾巴位置高,竖在背后12点~1点的位置。断尾的长度是尾巴总长度留下不到1/2。使其在成年后保持良好的状态。

[四肢]

前躯肩部―肩胛长,肩部与身躯结合良好,肩胛间只有很小的空间。上臂的长度与肩胛大致相等。肩部与上臂间的角度为90度。缺陷:过直的肩胛、松弛、抗肩膀。肘部接近胸部。前腿笔直,从前面看,两腿相互平行,骨骼圆,骨量中等。从旁边看,前腿位于身体下方恰当的位置,胸骨突在前面。腕部结实,略斜。缺陷:腕部太低。狼爪需要切除。足爪小、整洁、像猫爪;脚趾拱形、紧凑,既不向内翻,也不向外翻。指甲短、黑色、结实。后躯结实;后膝关节和飞节角度恰当,飞节短而且垂直于地面。大腿和小腿肌肉都很发达。从后面看,后腿与地面垂直,同时分别与对应的前腿处于同一平面。缺陷:肌肉不够发达或肌肉过度发达。足爪(参见前躯)。

[尾巴]

[被毛]

外部被毛粗糙而且直;除了尾巴、脚腕、飞节以下的腿后面和脚上长有较长的毛发,其他地方的毛都是6.4厘米长,耳朵上的被毛保持非常短的状态。底毛短而柔软。饰毛比身体上的毛软。脖子上长有饰毛,形成一圈毛领。前脚腕长有少许羽状饰毛。头髻仅仅覆盖了头顶;比被毛更精致、更柔软。

[颜色]

兰色和棕色;纯茶色;纯红色。兰色和棕色:兰色有深兰色、钢兰色、深的灰兰色及银兰色。银兰色的每根毛发都饰兰色和银色交替,毛尖为深色。棕色斑纹(不是红色或茶色),可能很丰富,在脸上、耳朵、身体下方、腿下半部和足爪,及肛门周围。颜色丰富且边界清晰的比较理想。头髻为银色或比头部浅的颜

[步态]

不论从前面看还是从后面看,腿都是笔直的,并且前后腿在同一平面上移动,这两个平面相互平行。当犬小跑时,腿和足爪可能向中心线集中,但腿仍保持垂直。从侧面看,后腿落脚点正好是前腿上的脚印,两者间没有空隙。背线保持稳固和水平,不能跳动。

[性格]  

澳大利亚梗可爱、聪明伶俐、快乐而活波,尤其是警戒心很强。作为看家犬或家庭犬,是现在城市居民最理想的选择。这种犬也蛮喜欢在山村中散步。澳大利亚梗虽然和梗类在行动上不一样,却有着梗类般的性格。所以对饲养者来说,这种性格果断、体形较小的玩赏犬是最合适的。唯有直立耳朵的澳大利亚梗,才会被认可。同样具有魅力的垂耳和附血统证书的品种,这类的家庭犬也是很受欢迎的。

[失格]

[评分]

                                          



标准通过日期:1988年9月


Australian Terrier Breed Standard


General Appearance
A small, sturdy, medium-boned working terrier, rather long in proportion to height with pricked ears and docked tail. Blue and tan, solid sandy or solid red in color, with harsh-textured outer coat, a distinctive ruff and apron, and a soft, silky topknot. As befits their heritage as versatile workers, Australian Terriers are sound and free moving with good reach and drive. Their expression keen and intelligent; their manner spirited and self-assured.

The following description is that of the ideal Australian Terrier. Any deviation from this description must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size - Height 10-11 inches at the withers. Deviation in either direction is to be discouraged. Proportion - The body is long in proportion to the height of the dog. The length of back from withers to the front of the tail is approximately 1-1½ inches longer than from withers to the ground. Substance - Good working condition, medium bone, correct body proportions, symmetry and balance determine proper weight.

Head
The head is long and strong. The length of the muzzle is equal to the length of the skull. Expression - Keen and intelligent. Eyes - Small, dark brown to black (the darker the better), keen in expression, set well apart. Rims are black, oval in shape. Faults: Light-colored or protruding eyes. Ears - Small, erect and pointed; set high on the skull yet well apart, carried erect without any tendency to flare obliquely off the skull. Skull - Viewed from the front or side is long and flat, slightly longer than it is wide and full between the eyes, with slight but definite stop. Muzzle - Strong and powerful with slight fill under the eyes. The jaws are powerful. Nose - Black. A desirable breed characteristic is an inverted V-shaped area free of hair extending from the nose up the bridge of the muzzle, varying in length in the mature dog. Lips - Tight and dark brown- or black-rimmed. Bite - Scissors with teeth of good size.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck - Long, slightly arched and strong, blending smoothly into well laid back shoulders. Topline - Level and firm. Body - The body is of sturdy structure with ribs well-sprung but not rounded, forming a chest reaching slightly below the elbows with a distinct keel. The loin is strong and fairly short with slight tuck-up. Faults: Cobbiness, too long in loin. Tail - Set on high and carried erect at a twelve to one o\'clock position, docked in balance with the overall dog leaving slightly less than one half, a good hand-hold when mature.

Forequarters
Shoulders - Long blades, well laid back with only slight space between the shoulder blades at the withers. The length of the upper arm is comparable to the length of the shoulder blade. The angle between the shoulder and the upper arm is 90 degrees. Faults: Straight, loose and loaded shoulders. Elbows - Close to the chest. Forelegs - Straight, parallel when viewed from the front; the bone is round and medium in size. They should be set well under the body, with definite body overhang (keel) before them when viewed from the side. Pasterns - Strong, with only slight slope. Fault: Down on pasterns. Dewclaws - Removed. Feet - Small, clean, catlike; toes arched and compact, nicely padded turning neither inward nor outward. Nails - Short, black and strong.

Hindquarters
Strong; legs well angulated at the stifles and hocks, short and perpendicular from the hocks to the ground. Upper and lower thighs are well muscled. Viewed from behind the rear legs are straight from the hip joints to the ground and in the same plane as the forelegs. Faults: Lack of muscular development or excessive muscularity. Feet - (See under Forequarters.)

Coat
Outer Coat - Harsh and straight; 2½ inches all over the body except the tail, pasterns, rear legs from the hocks down, and the feet which are kept free of long hair. Hair on the ears is kept very short. Undercoat - Short and soft. Furnishings - Softer than body coat. The neck is well furnished with hair, which forms a protective ruff blending into the apron. The forelegs are slightly feathered to the pasterns. Topknot - Covering only the top of the skull; of finer and softer texture than the rest of the coat.

Color and Markings
Colors: Blue and tan, solid sandy and solid red. Blue and tan - Blue: dark blue, steel-blue, dark gray-blue, or silver-blue. In silver-blues, each hair carries blue and silver alternating with the darker color at the tips. Tan markings (not sandy or red), as rich as possible, on face, ears, underbody, lower legs and feet, and around vent. The richer the color and more clearly defined the better. Topknot - Silver or a lighter shade than head color. Sandy or Red - Any shade of solid sandy or solid red, the clearer the better. Topknot - Silver or a lighter shade of body coat. Faults: All black body coat in the adult dog. Tan smut in the blue portion of the coat, or dark smut in sandy/red coated dogs. In any color, white markings on chest or feet are to be penalized.

Gait
As seen from the front and from the rear, the legs are straight from the shoulder and hip joints to the pads, and move in planes parallel to the centerline of travel. The rear legs move in the same planes as the front legs. As the dog moves at a faster trot, the front and rear legs and feet may tend to converge toward the centerline of travel, but the legs remain straight even as they flex or extend. Viewed from the side, the legs move in a ground-covering stride. The rear feet should meet the ground in the same prints as left by the front feet, with no gap between them. Topline remains firm and level, without bounce.

Temperament
The Australian Terrier is spirited, alert, courageous, and self-confident, with the natural aggressiveness of a ratter and hedge hunter; as a companion, friendly and affectionate. Faults: Shyness or aggressiveness toward people.

Approved August 9, 1988

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

执子之手

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

发表于 2007-6-10 13:46:13 | 显示全部楼层
打印下来慢慢看[s:66]
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 15:09:31 | 显示全部楼层


美国斯塔福德梗(American Staffordshire Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




[简介]

    美国斯塔福德梗给人一种力气非常大的印像。虽然肌肉很发达,不过它还具有敏捷而优雅的动作,对周围的环境充满着极大的热情。这类犬的整体轮廓比较矮胖,腿也短。勇气则大家都能够知道了。

[历史]

   要准确地描述美国斯塔福梗的起源和历史,就有必要首先介绍其他两种犬斗牛犬和梗。19世纪早期,在英格兰,头牛犬被精心培育用来引逗公牛。那时的斗牛犬同我们今天看到的犬不一样。从1870年的画中看出,那时的斗牛犬机敏,四条腿直立,尤其是前腿。在一些画中,它们甚至拥有发达的肌肉,而且拥有像松鼠一样的长尾巴也不稀奇。那时的斗牛犬,除了头以外,看起来更像今天的美国斯塔福梗,而不像今天的斗牛犬。

   一些作者认为用来完善斯塔福梗而同斗牛犬杂交的是白色的英国梗,或黑棕色梗。但人们更倾向于用来杂交的是一些活泼的梗,如19世纪早期猎狐梗,因为一些关于那时的犬的最权威的专家们认为黑棕色梗和白色英国梗都不大活泼,但这些专家在继续培养猎狐梗的活泼性。育种员为了完善一种犬,使其既有梗的个性和机敏,也有斗牛犬的勇气和坚韧,而不选用不活泼的梗做杂交也是合理的。在分析上面提到的那个时代的三种梗时,我们发现在体

    形方面三者并没有太多的差异,最大的差异是在毛色、好斗性及个性方面。

    总之,斯塔福梗是由斗牛犬和梗杂交而来的,最初叫做斗牛犬、牛梗杂交犬,有时被称为斗犬或斗牛梗。后来,在英格兰被命名为斯塔福斗牛梗。

    早在1870年,这种犬出现在美国,在那儿它们以斗犬、斗牛梗的名字而闻名,后来被称作美国斗牛梗,再后来被称为雅克硬。

    1936年,这种犬在AKC的谱系册中注册为斯塔福梗。1972年1月1日被改名为美国斯塔福梗,因为培育出一种不同于英格兰的斯塔福斗牛梗种的新类型,为了区别两者就有了新的名称。

    美国斯塔福梗的标准中体重的范围较大,但应该与体形成比例。这种犬以其体形,结实匀称,头部强壮有力,躯体肌肉发达以及勇敢坚强而闻名。

    为了区分美国斯塔福梗和斗牛梗(甚至一些养犬爱好者也搞不清二者的区别),最近公布的一项声明很有帮助,斗牛梗介绍的是伯明翰的James Hinks,它已经被用来同老的斗牛梗犬进行杂交了好些年,现在被命名为斯塔福斯德梗。一般用斯塔福斯德梗同白色英国梗进行杂交,也有一些人认为通过波恩特和达尔马提亚血统也有助于完善全白色的斗牛梗。

    在提到斯塔福斯德梗的活泼性时,并不是指它们为好斗类型的,也不是要表扬这种特点。提到这一点是给出该品种的正确起源和历史所必要的。该品种的犬有许多,要完全区分它们是困难的。它们外表好看,在犬展上可吸引许多人的注意。至于性格,它们不会太沉闷,也不能认为人的某些做法就认为它们名声不好,因为人会利用它们罕有的勇气将其作为斗犬场的赌博工具。这种犬很听话,稍加训练就可超过其他的犬。它们聪明,有良好的守卫能力,可根据主人的命令保护主人的财产;它们可轻易分辨出陌生人的友好与否。它们也有其他一些特征;当它们被卖或倒手后,可在相对较短的时间内接受新的主人。

[体型]

   身高与体重成比例。美国史特富郡梗理想的身高为:雄性身高在45.7~48.3厘米;雌性身高在43.2~45.7厘米。

[头部]

    美国史特富郡梗的头部中等长度,整个脑袋略深。头颅宽广,面颊的肌肉很清晰,止部明显。耳朵位置高。剪不剪耳都无所谓,则不剪耳更完美。不剪的耳朵略短,近似玫瑰的耳朵或半立耳。垂耳为缺陷。眼睛顔色深且圆,位于接近头颅的位置。两眼间距略远,眼睑没有粉红色。口吻部长度适中,略圆,位于眼睛下方的位置,角度比较陡。颌部轮廓明显。下颚强壮而结实,咬合有力。嘴唇紧而平,且不松散。咬合呈剪状。鼻镜呈黑色。

[颈、背线、身躯]

    颈部中等长度,且粗而厚,略拱,从肩膀到头颅逐步变细。皮肤不可以松弛。肩部结实,且肌肉很发达,肩胛宽广而略斜。背部很短。从肩胛到尾巴根处,稍微倾斜。逐渐穿过腰部。肋骨伸展自如。骨骼间紧密衔接。前肢间距离略远,使胸腔有充分的空间。胸部深而宽。

[四肢]

    美国史特富郡梗的前腿直,骨骼圆而粗大,且很结实,腕部垂直。前肢不能弯曲。后肢肌肉很发达,飞节低,不内外翻。中等大小的足爪紧凑,且略呈拱形。步态非常轻盈,不过,不可以是扭动或踱步

[尾巴]

    从身体的整体比例看来,尾巴略短,尾根位置低,越到尾尖越细。不可以在背后卷曲或在背上高举。不允许剪尾。

[被毛]

    被毛短而紧密、摸上去感觉非常硬,且具有光泽。

[颜色]

    被毛可以是任何颜色,同时也包括单色、斑纹都可以。但是纯白或者超过了80%的部分为白色、棕色、黑色、肝色,则属于缺陷。

1936年6月10日批准


American Staffordshire Terrier Breed Standard


General Impression
The American Staffordshire Terrier should give the impression of great strength for his size, a well put-together dog, muscular, but agile and graceful, keenly alive to his surroundings. He should be stocky, not long-legged or racy in outline. His courage is proverbial.

Head
Medium length, deep through, broad skull, very pronounced cheek muscles, distinct stop; and ears are set high. Ears - Cropped or uncropped, the latter preferred. Uncropped ears should be short and held rose or half prick. Full drop to be penalized. Eyes - Dark and round, low down in skull and set far apart. No pink eyelids. Muzzle - Medium length, rounded on upper side to fall away abruptly below eyes. Jaws well defined. Underjaw to be strong and have biting power. Lips close and even, no looseness. Upper teeth to meet tightly outside lower teeth in front. Nose definitely black.

Neck
Heavy, slightly arched, tapering from shoulders to back of skull. No looseness of skin. Medium length.

Shoulders
Strong and muscular with blades wide and sloping.

Back
Fairly short. Slight sloping from withers to rump with gentle short slope at rump to base of tail. Loins slightly tucked.

Body
Well-sprung ribs, deep in rear. All ribs close together. Forelegs set rather wide apart to permit chest development. Chest deep and broad.

Tail
Short in comparison to size, low set, tapering to a fine point; not curled or held over back. Not docked.

Legs
The front legs should be straight, large or round bones, pastern upright. No resemblance of bend in front. Hindquarters well-muscled, let down at hocks, turning neither in nor out. Feet of moderate size, well-arched and compact. Gait must be springy but without roll or pace.

Coat
Short, close, stiff to the touch, and glossy.

Color
Any color, solid, parti, or patched is permissible, but all white, more than 80 per cent white, black and tan, and liver not to be encouraged.

Size
Height and weight should be in proportion. A height of about 18 to 19 inches at shoulders for the male and 17 to 18 inches for the female is to be considered preferable.

Faults
Faults to be penalized are: Dudley nose, light or pink eyes, tail too long or badly carried, undershot or overshot mouths.

Approved June 10, 1936

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册会员

本版积分规则



Archiver|关于我们|陶都论坛 ( ICPB2-20120265 ICP11066580-2 )

GMT+8, 2018-4-23 14:02 , Processed in 0.055512 second(s), 8 queries , Gzip On, Yac On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.4

© 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表