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[亲宠交流] 名犬品种(纯种狗介绍)

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:19:53 | 显示全部楼层


马士提夫犬 学名:獒犬(Mastiff)
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[简介]

马士提夫犬为最古老的犬种之一,以前称为\"战士\",现在则和大丹犬并列\"随和的巨犬\"。有的被用来做警备犬。目前被作为感情丰富的家庭犬。马士提夫犬是一种高大、魁梧、匀称的狗,结构紧密。给人的影象是庄严而高贵。雄性整体都非常魁梧;雌性结构坚实,所有尺寸成比例的比雄性缩小一些,但不能有任何缺陷。评价马士提夫要顾及类型品质和合理的体重。

[历史]
公元3000年前,在古埃及的绘画上即有近似马士提夫犬的画像。此品种随波斯商人或入侵者盎格鲁萨克逊人传到英国。克尔特人饲养过马士提夫犬。公元前55年,凯撒侵略英国时即使用此犬作战。后来到17世纪,马士提夫犬参加战斗,狩猎熊,狼,斗犬或斗熊。19世纪时,这类竞技被禁止后,马士提夫犬在英国的知名度也随即衰落。此犬品种有两个体系,一个为却兹瓦士的德文郡公爵饲养种,一个是却尔郡饲养种。

[体型]

尺寸:雄性最低肩高在76.2厘米;雌性最低肩高在69.9厘米。缺陷:雄性或雌性低于最低肩高。如果差别过大,属于严重缺陷。

比例:矩形,身体长度(从前胸到臀部的距离)略大于肩高。身躯的深度所提供的身高比腿的长度提供的身高更多。体质:由魁梧、沉重的骨骼、有力的肌肉组成。身躯越深、越宽,越好。缺陷:缺乏体质,或身躯象块厚板。

[头部]

从任何角度观察,头部的轮廓都给人一种非常魁梧的影象。宽度非常重要。

眼睛:位置分的较开,中等大小,不能太突出。表情警惕但温和。眼睛的颜色为棕色。颜色越深越好。看不到瞬膜。浅色眼睛或侵略性表情都属于缺陷。耳朵:与脑袋相比,耳朵显得小。V字形,尖端略圆。耳廓略薄,位置分的非常开,位于头顶两侧,脑袋轮廓的延伸线顶端。当他休息时,耳朵紧贴面颊。耳朵颜色深,越黑越好,与口吻颜色一致。

脑袋:宽,两耳间稍微有点平,前额略弯,在关注某事时,显示出皱纹,是他独特的特征。眉骨(眼睛上方的骨头)适度凸起。额角的肌肉清晰,面颊非常有力。前额中间有纵向皱纹。从两眼间向后延伸,到脑袋中途结束。止部位于两眼中间,清晰但不生硬。口吻的长度为脑袋长度的一半,因此头部被分为三等份,一份为脸部,两份为脑袋。换句话说,就是从鼻镜到止部的距离等于从止部到后枕骨距离的一半。口吻的周长(正好是眼睛到鼻镜距离1/2处的周长)与脑袋周长(耳朵前面位置的周长)的比例为3/5。口吻短、宽,眼睛下方与鼻镜末端的宽度几乎一样。顶端象被截断,也就是说,钝、象被截断为矩形,形成前脸的直角形外观。从鼻镜到下颚的深度非常深,下颚宽,末端略圆,口吻颜色深,越黑越好。缺陷:象猎鹬犬的口吻。

鼻镜:宽大,颜色为深色,越黑越好。鼻孔轮廓平展(既不突出,也不向上翻)。

嘴唇:充分下垂的嘴唇,修正了头部的矩形轮廓。牙齿:犬齿强壮,距离分的较宽,颚部有力。咬和为剪状咬和,适度的下颚突出式咬和不作为缺陷处理。嘴唇闭合时,应该看不到牙齿。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:有力、肌肉非常发达、略拱、中等长度。越接近肩部,颈部越粗。颈部适度干燥(看起来没有过分松弛的皮肤)。背线:直、水平、且坚实,没有凹陷、拱起、或臀部后方急剧下垂。

胸部:宽、深、圆且在前肢之间向下发展。至少延伸到肘部。前胸轮廓清晰,胸骨比肩胛前端更向前延伸,肋骨扩张良好。下腹线:合理的上提,但不夸张。背部:肌肉发达、有力且直。从后面观察,臀部略圆。

腰部:宽而肌肉发达。

尾巴:位置为高度适当,能延伸到飞节或更低。尾根宽,而末端尖细,休息时,垂直悬挂着,运动时略向上卷曲,但决不能超过后背。

[前躯]

肩部:适度倾斜,有力,且肌肉发达,决不能有松懈的倾向。前躯角度与后躯角度相称。腿部:直、结实且距离较宽,骨骼沉重。肘部:平行于身体。脚腕:结实而略微倾斜。足爪:大、圆且紧凑,脚趾圆拱,趾甲以黑色为好。

[后躯]

后躯:宽、阔且肌肉发达。健康的大腿:轮廓清晰、带有结实的飞节。膝关节:角度适中,与前躯相称。后腿:距离分的较开,从后面观察,彼此平行。当飞节以下部分的后腿腿正确的\"逆转\",且垂直站立时,后躯最后点的铅垂线应该从足爪前部穿过。这样就排除了过直的飞节。由于飞节角度也影响膝关节角度,也排除了过直的膝关节。缺陷:过直的膝关节。

[被毛]

外层披毛直、粗硬且长度略短。底毛浓密、短、平贴身体。腹部、尾巴、后腿的被毛不能太长而出现\"刘海\"。缺陷:被毛过长或呈波浪状。

[颜色] 

驼色、杏色,或许有斑纹。斑纹必须以驼色或杏色为底色,完全被颜色非常深的条纹覆盖。口吻、耳朵和鼻镜应该为深色,颜色越黑越好,眼眶也是类似的颜色,并向上扩展到两眼之间。胸部出现很小的白色碎片是允许的。缺陷:胸部出现太多白色或白色出现在身体其他位置,面具、耳朵、鼻镜缺乏色素。

[步态]

步态显示出力量和强度,后腿提供足够的动力,而前腿步伐平稳、伸展良好。运动中,四肢笔直向前;当速度增加时,就是总散步到小跑,足爪想身体中心线靠拢,以保持平衡。

[性格]
马士提夫犬沉稳,和善,忠实,饲养者严格的加以训练,该犬能够成为一个能力极强的守卫犬。结合了庄严和很好的本质,勇敢而温顺。高贵多于欢快是马士提夫犬正确的风度。羞怯或凶恶的狗属于缺陷,相反的,在比赛中也要提防用过多奖励哄骗出来的狗。

[失格]





标准通过日期:1991年11月12日

标准执行日期:1991年12月31日

Mastiff Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Mastiff is a large, massive, symmetrical dog with a well-knit frame. The impression is one of grandeur and dignity. Dogs are more massive throughout. Bitches should not be faulted for being somewhat smaller in all dimensions while maintaining a proportionally powerful structure. A good evaluation considers positive qualities of type and soundness with equal weight.

Size, Proposition, Substance
Size--Dogs, minimum, 30 inches at the shoulder. Bitches, minimum, 27½ inches at the shoulder. Fault--Dogs or bitches below the minimum standard. The farther below standard, the greater the fault.

Proportion--Rectangular, the length of the dog from forechest to rump is somewhat longer than the height at the withers. The height of the dog should come from depth of body rather than from length of leg.

Substance--Massive, heavy boned, with a powerful muscle structure. Great depth and breadth desirable. Fault--Lack of substance or slab sided.

Head
In general outline giving a massive appearance when viewed from any angle. Breadth greatly desired.

Eyes set wide apart, medium in size, never too prominent. Expression alert but kindly. Color of eyes brown, the darker the better, and showing no haw. Light eyes or a predatory expression is undesirable. Ears small in proportion to the skull, V-shaped, rounded at the tips. Leather moderately thin, set widely apart at the highest points on the sides of the skull continuing the outline across the summit. They should lie close to the cheeks when in repose. Ears dark in color, the blacker the better, conforming to the color of the muzzle.

Skull broad and somewhat flattened between the ears, forehead slightly curved, showing marked wrinkles which are particularly distinctive when at attention. Brows (superciliary ridges) moderately raised. Muscles of the temples well developed, those of the cheeks extremely powerful. Arch across the skull a flattened curve with a furrow up the center of the forehead. This extends from between the eyes to halfway up the skull. The stop between the eyes well marked but not too abrupt.

Muzzle should be half the length of the skull, thus dividing the head into three parts-one for the foreface and two for the skull. In other words, the distance from the tip of the nose to stop is equal to one-half the distance between the stop and the occiput. Circumference of the muzzle (measured midway between the eyes and nose) to that of the head (measured before the ears) is as 3 is to 5. Muzzle short, broad under the eyes and running nearly equal in width to the end of the nose. Truncated, i.e. blunt and cut off square, thus forming a right angle with the upper line of the face. Of great depth from the point of the nose to the underjaw. Underjaw broad to the end and slightly rounded. Muzzle dark in color, the blacker the better. Fault snipiness of the muzzle.

Nose broad and always dark in color, the blacker the better, with spread flat nostrils (not pointed or turned up) in profile. Lips diverging at obtuse angles with the septum and sufficiently pendulous so as to show a modified square profile. Canine Teeth healthy and wide apart. Jaws powerful. Scissors bite preferred, but a moderately undershot jaw should not be faulted providing the teeth are not visible when the mouth is closed.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck powerful, very muscular, slightly arched, and of medium length. The neck gradually increases in circumference as it approaches the shoulder. Neck moderately \"dry\" (not showing an excess of loose skin). Topline--In profile the topline should be straight, level, and firm, not swaybacked, roached, or dropping off sharply behind the high point of the rump. Chest wide, deep, rounded, and well let down between the forelegs, extending at least to the elbow. Forechest should be deep and well defined with the breastbone extending in front of the foremost point of the shoulders. Ribs well rounded. False ribs deep and well set back. Underline--There should be a reasonable, but not exaggerated, tuck-up. Back muscular, powerful, and straight. When viewed from the rear, there should be a slight rounding over the rump. Loins wide and muscular.

Tail set on moderately high and reaching to the hocks or a little below. Wide at the root, tapering to the end, hanging straight in repose, forming a slight curve, but never over the back when the dog is in motion.

Forequarters
Shoulders moderately sloping, powerful and muscular, with no tendency to looseness. Degree of front angulation to match correct rear angulation. Legs straight, strong and set wide apart, heavy boned. Elbows parallel to body. Pasterns strong and bent only slightly. Feet large, round, and compact with well arched toes. Black nails preferred.

Hindquarters
Hindquarters broad, wide and muscular. Second thighs well developed, leading to a strong hock joint. Stifle joint is moderately angulated matching the front. Rear legs are wide apart and parallel when viewed from the rear. When the portion of the leg below the hock is correctly \"set back\" and stands perpendicular to the ground, a plumb line dropped from the rearmost point of the hindquarters will pass in front of the foot. This rules out straight hocks, and since stifle angulation varies with hock angulation, it also rules out insufficiently angulated stifles. Fault--Straight stifles.

Coat
Outer coat straight, coarse, and of moderately short length. Undercoat dense, short, and close lying. Coat should not be so long as to produce \"fringe\" on the belly, tail, or hind legs. Fault Long or wavy coat.

Color
Fawn, apricot, or brindle. Brindle should have fawn or apricot as a background color which should be completely covered with very dark stripes. Muzzle, ears, and nose must be dark in color, the blacker the better, with similar color tone around the eye orbits and extending upward between them. A small patch of white on the chest is permitted.

Faults--Excessive white on the chest or white on any other part of the body. Mask, ears, or nose lacking dark pigment.

Gait
The gait denotes power and strength. The rear legs should have drive, while the forelegs should track smoothly with good reach. In motion, the legs move straight forward; as the dog\'s speed increases from a walk to a trot, the feet move in toward the center line of the body to maintain balance.

Temperament
A combination of grandeur and good nature, courage and docility. Dignity, rather than gaiety, is the Mastiff\'s correct demeanor. Judges should not condone shyness or viciousness. Conversely, judges should also beware of putting a premium on showiness.

Approved November 12, 1991
Effective December 31, 1991

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:20:57 | 显示全部楼层


库瓦兹犬(Kuvasz)
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[简介]

这种犬是大型的工作犬。身体结实,体态平衡。被毛为纯白色,没有斑块。骨骼肌肉发达,却丝毫不显得笨重。这种犬的强健有力给人留下深刻印象,行动充满活力,步态很轻快。

[历史]

库瓦兹犬的祖先来自中国西藏,后传入欧洲。这个名字的意思是非凡的守卫者。

    土耳其语中库瓦兹的意思是“贵族们的卫士”。阿拉伯语中库瓦兹的意思是“弓箭手”,比喻犬的速度和人们对它的尊敬,几个世纪之前,人们非常尊敬弓箭手。所有起源于中国西藏的语言中,在整整一个世纪中库瓦兹有几乎一样的发音和意思的识字。

    5~8世纪之前欧洲的君士制的历史中,库瓦兹犬占有一席之地。这种犬一直是许多动荡国家君主的陪伴,实际上,只有皇族才能拥有库瓦兹犬。

    众所周知,库瓦兹犬在匈牙利发展成了今天的样子。今天的库瓦兹犬仍是大型犬,但已没有古代那样的庞大体形。现在,库瓦兹犬的身高约71.1~76.2厘米,有证据显示最初产生于中国西藏的库瓦兹犬比现在的要高。库瓦兹犬是那种让大多数人都敬畏的犬。单是其外表就足以吓退那些试图攻击贵族的平民了。

    库瓦兹犬在牙利的发展史的第一个重要时期是在15世纪后半期,它的声名远播。许多大庄园饲养库瓦兹犬并拥有自己的种犬,当时库瓦兹犬经训练成为狩猎犬,事实证明,这种犬在大型狩猎活动中表现得非常出色。

   1458~1490年在位的马塞厄斯皇帝一世无论到什么地方旅行总有一头库瓦兹犬随行。而他的皇宫和附近的地区则养着许多库瓦兹犬。很少有君主像马塞厄斯皇帝一世那样竭尽全力维护他的领士完整。政治阴谋是时常发生的事,但暗杀事件并不多见。据说马塞厄斯皇帝不信任任何人,包括他的家人,而他的朝廷中处处是野心勃勃的贵族。

    皇帝更相信他的犬,而不是卫兵。他知道这种健壮的大犬是他安全的惟一可靠保障。通常,当喧嚣的一天结束时,皇帝还要读书研究地图至深夜。就在这个时候,一头白色的库瓦兹犬就卧在门内。

    马塞厄斯皇帝一世饲养了一大群库瓦兹犬做狩猎用。他的大庄园是饲养犬的地方。在整个欧洲都非常有名,为的是要将这个品种的犬发扬光大。多余的幼犬只送给贵族和来访的贵客。

    马塞厄斯皇帝一世的时代结束很久以后,平民们逐渐开始饲养这种犬。农场主们发现库瓦兹犬非常适宜放牧牛群和羊群。也就是在这一时期,库瓦兹犬的名字被讹传为现在的发音。顺便说一下,现在的发音的意思是杂种犬,非常使人遗憾和不吉利。

    据欧洲研究犬种权威的德国人范?斯坦芬尼兹讲,库瓦兹犬与匈牙利牧羊犬有血缘关系,后者是匈牙利人从俄国南部带来的。他大胆推测,库瓦兹或卡瓦兹犬是匈牙利牧羊犬与匈牙利本土犬杂交的犬。尽管这一说法有些是推断,但有力的证据证明这是事实。无论如何,现在的库瓦兹犬,仍与最早的祖先十分相似,尽管体形小了一些。

[体型]

身高:公犬71.1~76.2厘米;母犬66.0~71.1厘米。缺点公犬低于66.0厘米,母犬低于61.0厘米。体重:公犬约45.36~52.16千克,母犬约31.75~40.82千克。身体呈长方形。骨骼与体形成比例。体形瘦弱是严重缺点。

[头部]

头部是整个身体最漂亮的一部分。从鼻尖部到枕部的距离略少于身高的一半。头部的宽度是长度的一半。眼:杏仁形,两眼距离较大,眼睛稍倾斜。从侧面看,眼睛位于吻部顶部稍下方。眼睑紧,瞬膜不应外露。眼睛为深棕色,颜色越深越好。耳:V形,尖部稍圆。耳很厚,耳根部位于宽的部分与眼睛在同一水平面。耳内缘靠近面颊部,耳外缘稍微远离头部,形成V形。犬处于放松状态时,耳部不应向后摆。颅骨较长,但不突出。鼻梁轮廓清晰但不徒峭,前额稍突出于吻部顶部。面颊部平,皮肤紧。吻部:长度与头部的长度协调,顶部下,下颌强健有力。嘴内的粘膜为黑色者理想。鼻子大,黑色,鼻孔朝天。嘴唇为黑色,紧紧地包住牙齿,上下唇无下垂。咬合:牙齿健全,剪状咬合理想,水平咬合可以接受。不符合标准:上颚或下颚突出。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:肌肉丰满,没有皮赘,中等长度,略呈拱形。背部中等长度,直,相当宽。腰部短而直,肌肉丰满。臀部肌肉丰满,稍微倾斜。胸部发达。从侧面看,胸骨前部在肩部的前方。胸部深,肋部伸展至肘部,胸骨与地而平行。腹部向上收。尾向下垂,长达跗关节。犬休息时,尾自然下垂,贴近身体,尾尖部稍卷起。犬兴奋时,尾可超过腹部水平。无论犬休息或兴奋,尾的状态无明显者改变比较理想。

[前躯]

肩部:肌肉丰满,长。背线:肩胛上缘高于背部。肩胛骨和肱骨成直角,并且长度相等。肘关节既不内翻也不外展。前肢:骨骼较发达,直,肌肉丰满。关节部肌肉少,坚固。狼爪可以去除。脚垫厚,有弹性,为黑色。脚紧凑,像猫足。脚趾之问有少量毛,毛越少越好。脚趾甲为黑色者较理想。

[后躯]

相当长。上肢宽而长,肌肉十分发达。股骨长,膝关节屈曲。下肢长,皮肤紧,肌肉发达。后脚跟短而宽,非常有力。狼爪应去除。后脚与前脚类似,但比前脚稍长。

[被毛]

双层被毛,下层毛柔软,外层毛具有保护作用,被毛的质地较硬。被毛可以是卷曲的或直的。无论哪种被毛,其分布特点是相同的。头部,吻部,耳部和脚被覆短有光滑的被毛。颈部至胸部有鬃毛。前肢肘关节以上和后肢上肢以下分布短而光滑的毛。前肢的后部至前脚跟分布着5.1~7.6厘米长的毛。躯干和上肢两侧的毛长度中等。上肢后部和尾的毛长达10.2~15.2厘米。气候炎热时,将换去长毛。被毛的长短随季节变化。

[颜色]

白色。皮肤颜色深,皮肤为蓝灰色或黑色理想。不符合标准:白色以外的其他颜色。

[步态]

自由,有弹性。脚紧贴地面前进。后肢沿前肢的足印前进,甚至超过前肢。从前面看,两前肢行进时不平行。从后面看,两后肢相互靠近。行进速度加快时,四肢的落地点逐渐趋向身体的中心线。除非处于兴奋状态,头部通常在肩部水平。

[性格]

非常聪明,勇敢,坚定,富于好奇心。对赞扬或批评非常敏感。耐心而有礼貌,是非常好的家庭犬。随时准备保护它所喜欢的人,甚至牺牲自己也在所不惜。具备保护儿童的强烈愿望。对陌生人有礼貌,但交朋友很谨慎。勇敢,无畏,可以在没有命令的情况下凭本能行动。而且总是不知疲倦地工作,灵敏的嗅觉可以用于搜索猎物。

[失格]

   上颚或下颚突出。公犬低于66.0厘米,母犬低于61.0厘米。被毛为白色以外的其他颜色,





标准通过日期:1974年7月 9日

标准执行日期:1991年3月28日


Kuvasz Breed Standard


General Appearance
A working dog of larger size, sturdily built, well balanced, neither lanky nor cobby. White in color with no markings. Medium boned, well muscled, without the slightest hint of bulkiness or lethargy. Impresses the eye with strength and activity combined with light-footedness, moves freely on strong legs. The following description is that of the ideal Kuvasz. Any deviation must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height measured at the withers: Dogs, 28 to 30 inches; bitches, 26 to 28 inches. Disqualifications: Dogs smaller than 26 inches. Bitches smaller than 24 inches. Weight: Dogs approximately 100 to 115 pounds, bitches approximately 70 to 90 pounds. Trunk and limbs form a horizontal rectangle slightly deviated from the square. Bone in proportion to size of body. Medium, hard. Never heavy or coarse. Any tendency to weakness or lack of substance is a decided fault.

Head
Proportions are of great importance as the head is considered to be the most beautiful part of the Kuvasz. Length of head measured from tip of nose to occiput is slightly less than half the height of the dog at the withers. Width is half the length of the head. Eyes almond-shaped, set well apart, somewhat slanted. In profile, the eyes are set slightly below the plane of the muzzle. Lids tight, haws should not show. Dark brown, the darker the better. Ears V-shaped, tip is slightly rounded. Rather thick, they are well set back between the level of the eye and the top of the head. When pulled forward the tip of the ear should cover the eye. Looking at the dog face to face, the widest part of the ear is about level to the eye. The inner edge of the ear lies close to the cheek, the outer edge slightly away from the head forming a V. In the relaxed position, the ears should hold their set and not cast backward. The ears should not protrude above the head. The skull is elongated but not pointed. The stop is defined, never abrupt, raising the forehead gently above the plane of the muzzle. The longitudinal midline of the forehead is pronounced, widening as it slopes to the muzzle. Cheeks flat, bony arches above the eyes. The skin is dry. Muzzle: length in proportion to the length of the head, top straight, not pointed, underjaw well developed. Inside of the mouth preferably black. Nose large, black nostrils well opened. Lips black, closely covering the teeth. The upper lip covers tightly the upper jaw only; no excess flews. Lower lip tight and not pendulous. Bite: dentition full, scissors bite preferred. Level bite acceptable. Disqualifications: overshot bite; undershot bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck muscular, without dewlap, medium length, arched at the crest. Back is of medium length, straight, firm and quite broad. The loin is short, muscular and tight. The croup well muscled, slightly sloping. Forechest is well developed. When viewed from the side, the forechest protrudes slightly in front of the shoulders. Chest deep with long, well-sprung ribs reaching almost to the elbows. The brisket is deep, well developed and runs parallel to the ground. The stomach is well tucked up. Tail carried low, natural length reaching at least to the hocks. In repose it hangs down resting on the body, the end but slightly lifted. In state of excitement, the tail may be elevated to the level of the loin, the tip slightly curved up. Ideally there should not be much difference in the carriage of the tail in state of excitement or in repose.

Forequarters
Shoulders muscular and long. Topline--withers are higher than the back. The scapula and humerus form a right angle, are long and of equal length. Elbows neither in nor out. Legs are medium boned, straight and well muscled. The joints are dry, hard. Dewclaws on the forelegs should not be removed. Feet well padded. Pads resilient, black. Feet are closed tight, forming round \"cat feet.\" Some hair between the toes, the less the better. Dark nails are preferred.

Hindquarters
The portion behind the hip joint is moderately long, producing wide, long and strong muscles of the upper thigh. The femur is long, creating well-bent stifles. Lower thigh is long, dry, well muscled. Metatarsus is short, broad and of great strength. Dewclaws, if any, are removed. Feet as in front, except the rear paws somewhat longer.

Coat
The Kuvasz has a double coat, formed by guard hair and fine undercoat. The texture of the coat is medium coarse. The coat ranges from quite wavy to straight. Distribution follows a definite pattern over the body regardless of coat type. The head, muzzle, ears and paws are covered with short, smooth hair. The neck has a mane that extends to and covers the chest. Coat on the front of the forelegs up to the elbows and the hind legs below the thighs is short and smooth. The backs of the forelegs are feathered to the pastern with hair 2 to 3 inches long. The body and sides of the thighs are covered with a medium length coat. The back of the thighs and the entire tail are covered with hair 4 to 6 inches long. It is natural for the Kuvasz to lose most of the long coat during hot weather. Full luxuriant coat comes in seasonally, depending on climate. Summer coat should not be penalized.

Color
White. The skin is heavily pigmented. The more slate gray or black pigmentation the better.

Gait
Easy, free and elastic. Feet travel close to the ground. Hind legs reach far under, meeting or even passing the imprints of the front legs. Moving toward an observer, the front legs do not travel parallel to each other, but rather close together at the ground. When viewed from the rear, the hind legs (from the hip joint down) also move close to the ground. As speed increases, the legs gradually angle more inward until the pads are almost single-tracking. Unless excited, the head is carried rather low at the level of the shoulders. Desired movement cannot be maintained without sufficient angulation and firm slimness of body.

Temperament
A spirited dog of keen intelligence, determination, courage and curiosity. Very sensitive to praise and blame. Primarily a one-family dog. Devoted, gentle and patient without being overly demonstrative. Always ready to protect loved ones even to the point of self-sacrifice. Extremely strong instinct to protect children. Polite to accepted strangers, but rather suspicious and very discriminating in making new friends. Unexcelled guard, possessing ability to act on his own initiative at just the right moment without instruction. Bold, courageous and fearless. Untiring ability to work and cover rough terrain for long periods of time. Has good scent and has been used to hunt game.

Disqualifications
Overshot bite. Undershot bite.
Dogs smaller than 26 inches. Bitches smaller than 24 inches.

Approved July 12, 1999
Effective August 30, 1999

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:21:52 | 显示全部楼层


可蒙犬 学名:可蒙多犬(Komondor)
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[简介]

可蒙犬是一种特别的、非常令人难忘的、高贵、勇敢、构造合理的品种。他高大、肌肉发达、骨量充足且体质良好,全身覆盖着厚厚的、绳索状的白色被毛。作为工作犬的可蒙犬在城市或郊外都常年在户外生活,他的被毛可以帮助他混进羊群中,抵御极度恶劣的气候或掠食动物。天性和特点:可蒙犬是羊群守护犬,但不是牧羊犬。最初在匈牙利被培育出来,用于在广阔的草原保护大量的牲畜,可蒙犬在没有任何外援、没有得到主人任何命令的情况下,会非常认真的守卫羊群。一条成熟、有经验的可蒙犬会尽量留在需要他守护的事物附近,因为认为领土自己的圈绳定界,其它的生物侵入到这个范围内的事不能忍耐。是多疑的气质。不论是羊群还是主人的家庭,他在追猎时,也不会离的太远,而且其特点是不会迷路。白天,为了支配自己的领土喜好取伏卧的体态。夜晚,喜游转。虽然,他对主人的要求非常敏感,但过度的训练只会造就一个固执的、不快乐的可蒙犬。对陌生人有所保留,可蒙犬会热爱、专注于主人的家庭或他照顾的羊群,无私忘我,在家庭或羊群遇到攻击时,会奋起反抗。结合了对家庭及羊群的热爱和尽忠职守的优点,可蒙犬成为家庭或羊群最好的守护者,警惕、勇敢而且非常忠实。

[历史]

10个世纪以来,匈牙利的三种本地工作犬中,可蒙犬毫无疑问是最棒的。这种被毛厚重的犬是大型Aftscharka犬的直系后代,后者是匈牙利人在途径俄国南部发现的。今天的可蒙犬与体形巨大,长腿的俄国牧羊犬有着惊人的相似之处,但可蒙犬更粗壮些。

    可蒙犬从外表看非常有力,威风凛凛。人们第一次见到这种犬都会害怕,尤其是心怀叵测的人。实际上,可蒙犬是非常好的伴侣犬,对主人的朋友们也非常友好。

    人们在图片上见到的可蒙犬通常是被毛长而蓬乱,给人的感觉很不整洁。最初人们在它的栖息地发现时,这种犬就是这个样子,因为长期生活在野外,所以不可能有非常整洁的外表。可蒙犬还是很乐意接受人们梳洗打扮的。在人们的饲养地或参加犬展时,可蒙犬是非常漂亮的。

    可蒙犬是牧民们饲养的犬只中的首领。它们一般不用于放牧羊群,只是在异常的情况下陪伴和保护畜群。可蒙犬对畜群的保护能力超过了牧羊人。它高度的警惕性和非凡的勇气使其获得了极高的信任。一般的工作牧民们只让较小的犬来做。

    马扎尔人饲养可蒙犬已超过了1000千年,他们只关心牛群和羊群,从不关心可蒙犬的纯种问题。因为这种犬从不与其他品种的犬交配。

    匈牙利的牧羊人从不将繁育纯种犬作为商业投资或当作一种嗜好,因此,在匈牙利想找到纯种犬非常困难,尽管如此,找到可蒙犬与库瓦兹犬的杂交犬仍是不可能的。今天,可蒙犬仍然在匈牙利平原生活,而库瓦兹犬已成为许多村庄的看守犬。

    匈牙利不像其他国家饲养纯种犬的历史那样长。明确的记载仅有一个世纪,但现存的纯种犬记录都是经过确切证实的。匈牙利养犬俱乐部和可蒙犬俱乐部控制着可蒙犬,这两个组织接受了由这两个组织的成员共同制定的关于可蒙犬的标准。美国养犬俱乐部的可蒙犬的标准也是从匈牙利的标准翻译而来的。

    可蒙犬的标准中,非常强调的是几个世纪以来该犬所具有的力量和保护特征,而且强调要继续保持下去。今天,不像过去那么迫切需要可蒙犬的保护作用。在古代,可蒙犬要随时准备与体形和重量都比自己大的野兽作战。匈牙利牧羊犬依靠厚密的被毛掩饰自身某些易受到攻击的部位,凭借聪明的头脑去战胜对手。

[体型]

雄性肩高约69.9厘米或更高;雌性肩高约64.8厘米或更高,雄性体重在45.36千克或更重;雌性体重在36.29或更重,成熟的狗应该有足够的骨量和肌肉。高大的身材十分重要,但类型、品质、匀称性、动作及坚固性也非常重要,没有理由只为身材大小而牺牲其中任何一项。身体的比例是长度略大于肩高。小于最低身高属于缺陷。

[头部]

头部巨大。头部的长度(从后枕部到鼻镜的距离)约为肩高的2/5,口吻和眼睛周围的皮肤颜色深。 眼睛:中等大小,杏仁状,位置不能太深。眼睛的颜色为深棕色,眼睑为灰色或黑色。浅色眼睛属于缺陷;兰眼睛属于失格。耳朵:形状是长三角形,尖端略圆。耳根位置适中,长度能延伸到两侧的内眼角处。立耳或耳朵位置趋向于直立属于缺陷。脑袋:脑袋宽阔,两眼间呈很好的圆弧形,后枕清晰,止部适中。口吻:口吻宽、粗,顶端象被截断。从内眼角到鼻镜的长度为头部长度的2/5,口吻的轮廓直,与头顶平行。下颚非常宽、发达。嘴唇紧,颜色为黑色。理想的牙龈和上颚为深色或黑色。鼻子:鼻镜宽,与口吻上轮廓成直角。鼻孔宽大,鼻镜为黑色,深灰色或深棕色鼻镜不理想,但可以接受。肉色鼻镜属于失格。咬和:剪状咬和最好,钳状咬和也可以接受。上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和属于缺陷,缺齿也属于缺陷。缺齿3颗或3颗以上属于失格。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:肌肉发达,中等长度,略拱,无赘肉,使头部竖立。背线:后背水平且结实。 身躯:表现为有力,深胸,肌肉发达且在比例恰当的前提下尽可能宽。胸部宽阔且肌肉发达,腹部向后略收。臀部宽,肌肉发达,略向尾根处倾斜。身体过于柔和或缺乏良好的肌肉组织属于缺陷。

[尾巴]

就象是臀部的延长线,下垂,长度延伸到飞节。略向上弯,尾尖可以弯向一侧,也可以不弯。虽然他在运动时和兴奋时,大部分尾巴会突起,但不能高过背平面。短尾巴或断尾属于缺陷。

[前躯]

肩部适当倾斜。前肢直,骨量充足,肌肉发达。不论从哪面观察,腿都想象垂直的圆柱。前臂紧贴身体,肘部不松弛。

[足爪]

结实,大一些比较好,脚趾紧密、圆拱。脚垫坚实,有弹性,黑色或灰色。虽然,浅色的趾甲是允许的,但黑色或灰色的趾甲比较理想。

[后躯]

后肢象钢铁般坚实,极为发达的肌肉覆盖着坚固的骨骼。从后面观察,腿很直。后膝关节适度倾斜。狼爪必须被切除。

[被毛]

浓密的、具有保护性的被毛是这一品种的典型特点。幼犬的被毛相对柔软,但显得接近属于象绳索那样卷曲。年轻狗的被毛,或过度状态的被毛,有很多贴近皮肤的短\"绳索\"组成,不明显,有时显得一团一团的,看起来象在绳索外有一层绒毛。成年狗的被毛有两层,一层象幼犬被毛那样的、柔软、浓密、絮状的底毛,一层粗糙、高低不平、卷曲的外层披毛。粗糙的披毛陷在柔软的底毛中。披毛为持久的、结实的绳索状,触摸的感觉象是毡制的。成年的可蒙犬完全被大量的、象穗子一样的绳索状被毛所覆盖。需要记住一点,其长度必须满足可蒙犬被毛的功能需求。年轻狗如果被毛短,不会被作为缺陷。直的或柔滑的被毛属于缺陷,到两岁以后还没有长出绳索状的被毛属于失格。头部和腿部的被毛短而平滑属于失格。

[颜色]

颜色为白色,但也不总是白色。有时,幼犬会出现少量奶酪色或浅黄色,但随着其逐渐成熟,颜色会褪去。理想情况,皮肤应该为灰色,粉红色皮肤可以接受,但不理想。除了幼犬出现少量奶酪色或浅黄色外,除了白色以外的任何颜色都属于失格。

[步态]

轻松、从容而和谐平稳。可蒙犬的步伐大,足爪非常轻巧敏捷。小跑时,头部略向前伸。



前面记述的是理想的可蒙犬所应该具备的特点,如果有背离上面记述的情况,应该根据背离的程度进行扣分,如果有某些部分严重背离情面的描述,将考虑取消其比赛资格。

[失格]

兰眼睛。

肉色鼻镜。

缺齿三颗或更多。

到两岁以后还没有长出绳索状的被毛属于失格。头部和腿部的被毛短而平滑。

除了幼犬出现少量奶酪色或浅黄色外,除了白色以外的任何颜色。





标准通过日期:1994年6月13日

标准执行日期:1994年7月31日


Komondor Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Komondor is characterized by imposing strength, dignity, courageous demeanor, and pleasing conformation. He is a large, muscular dog with plenty of bone and substance, covered with an unusual, heavy coat of white cords. The working Komondor lives during the greater part of the year in the open, and his coat serves to help him blend in with his flock and to protect him from extremes of weather and beasts of prey. Nature and Characteristics: The Komondor is a flock guardian, not a herder. Originally developed in Hungary to guard large herds of animals on the open plains, the Komondor was charged with protecting the herd by himself, with no assistance and no commands from his master. The mature, experienced dog tends to stay close to his charges, whether a flock or family; he is unlikely to be drawn away from them in chase, and typically doesn\'t wander far. Though very sensitive to the desires of his master, heavy-handed training will produce a stubborn, unhappy Komondor. While reserved with strangers, the Komondor is demonstrative with those he loves, selflessly devoted to his family and his charges, and will defend them against any attack. The combination of this devotion to all things dear to him and the desire to take responsibility for them produces an excellent guardian of herds or home, vigilant, courageous, and very faithful.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Dogs 27½ inches and up at the withers; bitches 25½ inches and up at the withers. Dogs are approximately 100 pounds and up, bitches, approximately 80 pounds and up at maturity, with plenty of bone and substance. While large size is important, type, character, symmetry, movement and ruggedness are of the greatest importance and are on no account to be sacrificed for size alone. The body is slightly longer than the height at the withers. Height below the minimum is a fault.

Head
The head is large. The length of the head from occiput to tip of nose is approximately 2/5 the height of the dog at the withers. The skin around the eyes and on the muzzle is dark.

Eyes: Medium-sized and almond-shaped, not too deeply set. The iris of the eye is dark brown. Edges of the eyelids are gray or black. Light eyes are a fault. Blue eyes are a disqualification. Ears: In shape the ear is an elongated triangle with a slightly rounded tip. Medium-set and hanging and long enough to reach to the inner corner of the eye on the opposite side of the head. Erect ears or ears that move toward an erect position are a fault. Skull: The skull is broad with well-developed arches over the eyes. The occiput is fairly well-developed and the stop is moderate. Muzzle: The muzzle is wide, coarse, and truncated. Measured from inner corner of the eye to tip of nose the muzzle is 2/5 of the total length of the head. The top of the muzzle is straight and is parallel to the top of the skull. Underjaw is well-developed and broad. Lips are tight and are black in color. Ideally gums and palate are dark or black. Nose: Nose is wide and the front of the nose forms a right angle with the top of the muzzle. The nostrils are wide. The nose is black. A dark gray or dark brown nose is not desirable but is acceptable. A flesh-colored nose is a disqualification. Bite: Bite is scissors; a level bite is acceptable. A distinctly overshot or undershot bite is a fault. Any missing teeth is a serious fault. Three or more missing teeth is a disqualification.

Neck
Muscular, of medium length, moderately arched, with no dewlap. The head erect.

Topline
The back is level and strong.

Body
Characterized by a powerful, deep chest, which is muscular and proportionately wide. The breast is broad and well-muscled. The belly is somewhat drawn up at the rear. The rump is wide, muscular, and slopes slightly towards the root of the tail. Softness or lack of good muscle tone is a fault.

Tail
A continuation of the rump line, hanging, and long enough to reach the hocks. Slightly curved upwards and/or to one side at its end. Even when the dog is moving or excited, the greater part of the tail is raised no higher than the level of the back. A short or curly tail is a fault.

Forequarters
Shoulders are well laid back. Forelegs straight, well-boned, and muscular. Viewed from any side, the legs are like vertical columns. The upper arms are carried close to the body, without loose elbows.

Feet
Strong, rather large, and with close, well-arched toes. Pads are hard, elastic, and black or gray. Ideally, nails are black or gray, although light nails are acceptable.

Hindquarters
The steely, strong bone structure is covered with highly-developed muscles. The legs are straight as viewed from the rear. Stifles are well-bent. Rear dewclaws must be removed.

Coat
Characteristic of the breed is the dense, protective coat. The puppy coat is relatively soft, but it shows a tendency to fall into cord-like curls. The young adult coat, or intermediate coat, consists of very short cords next to the skin which may be obscured by the sometimes lumpy looking fluff on the outer ends of the cords. The mature coat consists of a dense, soft, woolly undercoat much like the puppy coat, and a coarser outer coat that is wavy or curly. The coarser hairs of the outer coat trap the softer undercoat, forming permanent, strong cords that are felt-like to the touch. A grown dog is entirely covered with a heavy coat of these tassel-like cords, which form naturally. It must be remembered that the length of the Komondor\'s coat is a function of age, and a younger dog must never be penalized for having a shorter coat. Straight or silky coat is a fault. Failure of the coat to cord by two years of age is a disqualification. Short, smooth coat on both head and legs is a disqualification.

Color
Color of the coat is white, but not always the pure white of a brushed coat. A small amount of cream or buff shading is sometimes seen in puppies, but fades with maturity. In the ideal specimen the skin is gray. Pink skin is not desirable but is acceptable. Color other than white, with the exception of small amounts of cream or buff in puppies, is a disqualification.

Gait
Light, leisurely and balanced. The Komondor takes long strides, is very agile and light on his feet. The head is carried slightly forward when the dog trots.

The foregoing is a description of the ideal Komondor. Any deviation should be penalized in direct proportion to the extent of that deviation. Extreme deviation in any part should be penalized to the extent that the dog is effectively eliminated from competition.

Disqualifications
Blue eyes.
Flesh-colored nose.
Three or more missing teeth.
Failure of the coat to cord by two years of age.
Short, smooth coat on both head and legs.
Color other than white, with the exception of small amounts of cream or buff in puppies.

Approved June 13, 1994
Effective July 31, 1994

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:23:14 | 显示全部楼层


大瑞士山地犬(Greater Swiss Mountain Dog)
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[简介]

    大瑞士山地犬这个品种是人们设计出来的。是一种显眼的、三色、巨大、有力的,而且外观坚定的狗。

[历史]

大瑞士山地犬,这种瑞士本地犬是大型斗牛獒犬最早的后代之一,古罗马人将这种大型斗牛獒犬带到阿尔卑斯山地区。在瑞士的偏远地区,大瑞士山地犬被农场主用于放牧牲畜、守卫和拉车。瑞士的四种猎犬中,大瑞士山地犬是体形最大最古老的一种。许多年来,瑞士以外的地区对大瑞士山地犬的起源知道得很少,但大瑞士山地犬对圣伯纳犬和罗威纳犬的早期发展是有帮助的。

    19世纪末期,许多以前大瑞士山地犬所做的工作都由其他品种的犬或由机器代替。1908年,大瑞士山地犬被介绍给著名的犬类学家阿尔伯特?黑恩 (Albert Heim),而这之前,曾认为大瑞士山地犬已经灭亡。阿尔伯?特黑恩(Albert Heim)号召养犬者都来拯救这种古老的阿尔卑斯犬种,并且阿尔伯特?黑恩(Albert Heim)还将其他的一些犬种引进瑞士。1910年,瑞士养犬俱乐部将大瑞士山地犬登记在册。

    弗兰德瑞克和帕车西亚在德国法兰克福的一次犬展中看到大瑞士山地犬后将第一头大瑞士山地犬带至美国。

    人们逐渐开始喜爱这种犬。1968年,为争取美国养犬俱乐部承认大瑞士山地犬,美国的大瑞士山地犬俱乐部成立了。1993年3月17日,美国大瑞士山地犬俱乐部将1300头大瑞士山地犬移交给美国养犬俱乐部。1995年4月1日,美国养犬俱乐部正式接纳大瑞士山地犬为工作犬。

[体型]

理想的情况下,大瑞士山地犬的马肩隆为身躯的最高点,雄性肩高约64.8~72.4厘米;雌性肩高约59.7~68.6厘米。身躯长度与高度的比例为10:9,身躯丰满。

[头部]

大瑞士山地犬表情活泼温和。眼睛深褐色、中等大小,位置既不深、也不突出,眼睑紧贴眼球。眼眶是黑色的。耳朵中等大小,耳根位置高,呈三角形,尖端略圆,休息时,耳朵会自然下垂,贴着头部。当他警觉时,耳根会突起,同时耳朵会向前转。耳朵顶端与头顶齐平。脑袋平而宽,止部轻微。脑袋与口吻长度一致。口吻钝,且不尖。口吻结实而直,鼻镜是黑色的。嘴唇线条整洁,属于嘴唇干净的品种。上、下唇相比,还是上春稍微发达。咬和为剪状咬和。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

    大瑞士山地犬的颈部长度适中,且肌肉发达,整洁。从马肩隆到臀部的背线呈水平状。胸部不但宽而且还很深,胸骨略微突出。马肩隆高而长。身躯丰满、稍微有些收起。肋骨有良好的扩张性,腰部宽而结实有力。臀部长、宽,到尾根的位置呈平稳的圆弧形。很明显,尾巴会伸展到飞节部位。当它处于休息的状态,尾巴会自然的下垂;处于兴奋时,尾巴会突起。

[前躯]

    大瑞士山地犬的肩部很长,倾斜且结实。平坦且肌肉发达。前肢直且结实。脚腕略微有些倾斜,但决不显得松懈。足爪紧凑,呈圆形的,脚趾圆拱。狼爪可以切除,也可以保留。

[后躯]

    大瑞士山地犬的大腿不但宽而且结实、肌肉发达。在后膝关节处有适当的倾斜,大腿向飞节方向逐渐变细。从后面观察,飞节尽可能低且直。狼爪必须被切除。足爪呈圆形且紧凑,既不向内弯、也不向外翻。

[被毛]

大瑞士山地犬的被毛浓密,2.5~4.4厘米长。有时底毛显得浓厚。

[颜色]

    大瑞士山地犬的底色是黑色的。斑纹为丰富的铁锈色和白色。如果斑纹是对称的,比较理想。铁锈色一般在眼睛上方、两颊、胸部两侧、四肢和尾巴下面出现。口吻有白筋。胸前如果有白色斑纹是比较典型的,尾尖、足爪是白色而铁锈色是出现在白色与黑色之间。环绕颈部允许出现白色斑块或白色脖圈。

[步态]

大瑞士山地犬的前躯延伸舒展、后躯驱动非常有力,背部保持水平。

[性格]

大瑞士山地犬是勇敢、可靠,且动作反应敏捷的工作犬,警惕而又警觉。神经质或好斗属于严重缺陷。

[失格]

除了黑色以外的其他任何底色。

兰眼睛。





标准通过日期:1994年10月11日

标准执行日期:1994年11月30日


Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is a Draft and Drover breed and should structurally appear as such. It is a striking, tri-colored, large, powerful, confident dog of sturdy appearance. It is a heavy boned and well muscled dog which, in spite of its size and weight, is agile enough to perform the all-purpose farm duties of the mountainous regions of its origin.

Size, Proportion and Substance
Height at the highest point of the shoulder is ideally: Dogs: 25.5 to 28.5 inches. Bitches 23.5 to 27 inches. Body length to height is approximately a 10 to 9 proportion, thus appearing slightly longer than tall. It is a heavy boned and well muscled dog of sturdy appearance.

Head
Expression is animated and gentle. The eyes are almond shaped and brown, dark brown preferred, medium sized, neither deep set nor protruding. Blue eye or eyes is a disqualification. Eyelids are close fitting and eyerims are black. The ears are medium sized, set high, triangular in shape, gently rounded at the tip, and hang close to the head when in repose. When alert, the ears are brought forward and raised at the base. The top of the ear is level with the top of the skull. The skull is flat and broad with a slight stop. The backskull and muzzle are of approximately equal length. The backskull is approximately twice the width of the muzzle. The muzzle is large, blunt and straight, not pointed and most often with a slight rise before the end. In adult dogs the nose leather is always black. The lips are clean and as a dry-mouthed breed, flews are only slightly developed. The teeth meet in a scissors bite.

Neck, Topline and Body
The neck is of moderate length, strong, muscular and clean. The topline is level from the withers to the croup. The chest is deep and broad with a slight protruding breastbone. The ribs are well-sprung. Depth of chest is approximately one half the total height of the dog at the withers. Body is full with slight tuck up. The loins are broad and strong. The croup is long, broad and smoothly rounded to the tail insertion. The tail is thick from root to tip, tapering slightly at the tip, reaching to the hocks, and carried down in repose. When alert and in movement, the tail may be carried higher and slightly curved upwards, but should not curl, or tilt over the back. The bones of the tail should feel straight.

Forequarters
The shoulders are long, sloping, strong and moderately laid back. They are flat and well-muscled. Forelegs are straight and strong. The pasterns slope very slightly, but are not weak. Feet are round and compact with well arched toes, and turn neither in nor out. The dewclaws may or may not be present.

Hindquarters
The thighs are broad, strong and muscular. The stifles are moderately bent and taper smoothly into the hocks. The hocks are well let down and straight when viewed from the rear. Feet are round and compact with well arched toes, and turn neither in nor out. Dewclaws should be removed.

Coat
Topcoat is dense, approximately 1-1/4 to 2 inches in length. Undercoat must be present and may be thick and sometimes showing, almost always present at neck but may be present throughout. Color of undercoat ranges from the preferred dark gray to light gray to tawny. Total absence of undercoat is undesirable and should be penalized.

Color
The topcoat is black. The markings are rich rust and white. Symmetry of markings is desired. On the head, rust typically appears over each eye, on each cheek and on the underside of the ears. On the body, rust appears on both sides of the forechest, on all four legs and underneath the tail. White markings appear typically on the head (blaze) and muzzle. The blaze may vary in length and width. It may be a very thin stripe or wider band. The blaze may extend just barely to the stop or may extend over the top of the skull and may meet with white patch or collar on the neck. Typically, white appears on the chest, running unbroken from the throat to the chest, as well as on all four feet and on the tip of the tail. White patches or collar on the neck is acceptable. Any color other than the \"Black, Red and White\" tri-colored dog described above, such as \"Blue/Charcoal, Red and White\" or \"Red and White\" is considered a disqualification. When evaluating the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, markings and other cosmetic factors should be considered of lesser importance than other aspects of type which directly affect working ability.

Gait
Good reach in front, powerful drive in rear. Movement with a level back.

Temperament
Bold, faithful, willing worker. Alert and vigilant. Shyness or aggressiveness shall be severely penalized.

Summary
The foregoing is the description of the ideal Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. Defects of both structure and temperament are to be judged more severely than mere lack of elegance because they reduce the animal\'s capacity to work. Any fault that detracts from the above described working dog should be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Disqualifications
Any color other than the \"Black, Red and White\" tri-colored dog described above, such as \"Blue/Charcoal, Red and White\" or \"Red and White.\" Blue eye or eyes.

Approved: April 8, 2003
Effective: May 29, 2003

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:24:11 | 显示全部楼层


大丹犬(Great Dane)
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[简介]

大丹犬同时结合了威严、力量、优雅三大优点,具有帝王般的外观,体型巨大同时兼具力与美,而且配合了线条流畅的肌肉。他是大型工作犬中的一员,但唯有他的一般形态是如此恰到好处的匀称,永远不会现得笨拙,前躯舒展且后躯驱动力强大。不愧是犬中的太阳神。大丹必须具备英勇、果敢的气质,决不胆怯;永远友善而可靠。大丹犬这些肉体和气质特点的组合,让它具有其他犬种望尘莫及的优势。大丹公犬具有上述所有的特点、而相对来说,母犬则显得温柔一些。缺乏上面所描述的特征,对大丹犬而言,属于严重缺陷。

大丹犬由于身材高大,行动时略显笨拙,一般不用于特定的训练,它的体型和吠声适宜作护卫犬。也可用于载重,但不适于拖拽。作为展出犬很受欢迎。

[历史]

在所有的大型犬中,大丹犬无论从外表或天性都是最优雅、最高贵的。大丹犬的英文名字是从法语名称“巨大的丹麦犬”翻译而来。在法国,几个世纪以来,大丹犬有许多名字,这个只是其中之一。英国人为什么接受了大丹犬的法文名字是个谜。同时,法国人也叫这种犬“dogue allemand”,或“德国马士提夫”。英语中的“马士提夫”,德语中的“dogge”,拉丁语中的“dogue”或“dogo”都是一个意思,即有着大头的大型犬,用于争斗或狩猎。当时,大丹犬是十几种具有自己名字的犬之一。

    如果有人喜欢古老的遗物,他一定会对卡斯靳(cassle)说的大约公元前3000年的古埃及纪念碑上的犬的图案感兴趣,那上面的犬很像大丹犬。另外,意大利大丹犬俱乐部的彻伯瑞(G.Ciaburri)博士1929年出版的文章中说,最早的关于近似大丹犬的描述可以在公元前1121年的中国文学作品中找到。著名的动物学家们都认为马士提夫犬起源于中国。但后来的繁育可能在德国。

    这并不是说德国马士提夫或大丹犬是一个新的品种。实际上,作为一个独立的品种,已培育了约400年。与其他的古老品种一样,最初繁育大丹犬是帮助人们工作的。德国人用大丹犬猎野猪。欧洲大陆的所有猪中,野猪是最凶猛、速度最快、力量最大的一种。为了捉住野猪,他们需要一种非常大的犬,于是德国人培育出了大丹犬,德国人称之为犬中皇帝。

    与其他的犬种一样,19世纪后期,大丹犬发展成为现在的样子。1880年在柏林,博蒂纳斯(Bodinus)博士召开了一个大丹犬裁判的会议,宣布了这种犬应叫做“Deutsche dogge”,其他的叫法特别是大丹应从此废除。只有德国人注意到了这种说法,讲英语的人并不在意。大量的意大利爱犬人也不能提供足够的证据叫这种犬“alano”,意思是一种马士提夫犬,与他们的俱乐部名称“意大利马士提夫犬俱乐部”相呼应。但在大丹犬名称上的分歧并没有妨碍德意两国爱犬者的密切合作。意大利的养犬者只以德国进口的大丹犬及其后代做育种用。

    1891年,德国的大丹犬俱乐部采用了一套精确的标准或叫做官方标准衡量大丹犬。1885年,英国有了大丹犬俱乐部,1889年,美国的德国马士提夫犬或大丹犬俱乐部在芝加哥成立,以玛斯――阿莫德(G.Muss――Amoldt)为第一个代表。两年后,俱乐部重新组织成为美国大丹犬俱乐部,那个时期的俱乐部成员绝大多数是东部人。

    大丹犬逐渐为全世界所喜爱,饲养者保持了大丹犬在猎野猪时的所有特性,一头犬仅有漂亮的外表是不够的,它必须具备一定的身高、体重、高贵的气质、非凡的勇气以及速度快和耐力好。谁还能要求一头犬更多的东西。

[体型]

从整体来看,公犬比母犬显得粗壮,骨架长、骨骼粗。身高和体长的比例是呈正方形比例。发育正常的母犬可能身体会长一些。身体粗重笨拙和缺少肌肉都不好。公犬肩高不低于76.2厘米,但最理想的肩高是81.3厘米或更高(身高与体长的比例恰当);母犬的肩高不低于71.1厘米,但最理想肩高是76.2厘米或更高(身高与体长的比例恰当)。没有达到最低肩高的大丹属于失格。

[头部]

头部呈矩形、长、高贵、富有表情、线倏像雕像一样的优美,尤以眼下部位更为突出。从侧面观察,前额和鼻梁会出现明现的断离(十分显著的止部)。前额和鼻梁线条都很直且相互平行。额平面下方和眼角内侧必须倾斜,但骨骼不会暴突,直达矩形且深的口吻(飘唇不符合要求)。公犬的头部构造结构清晰、特征显著;而母犬的头部构造则显得细腻柔和。从上面观察,脑袋两侧彼此平行,且鼻梁尽可能宽。面颊肌肉不显得突出。从鼻镜盗止部中间的长度约等于从止部中间到后枕骨的长度;从各角度观察,头部都应该有棱角,并形成鲜明的平面,头部的大小与大丹的体型成恰当的比例。

眼睛:中等大小;位置深;颜色暗;眼神活泼聪明。呈杏仁状;眼睑紧。眉毛发达。蒙古眼;下眼脸过度下垂都属于严重缺陷。丑角大丹的眼睛应该为黑色,浅色眼睛、两眼颜色不同、眼内有色斑都是允许的,但不理想。

耳朵:耳根位置高,中等大小、中等厚度。耳朵折向面颊,折痕与头顶在同一平面。如果剪耳,耳朵的长度与头部比例恰当,并始终竖立。

鼻镜:应该为黑色,除了兰色大丹允许有深兰色鼻镜、丑角大丹允许有黑色带斑点的鼻镜(粉色鼻镜不理想)。裂鼻属于失格。

牙齿:有力、洁白健全。下颚门牙应微微贴触上颚门牙的基部内缘(剪状咬合) 。下颚突出式咬和属于非常严重的缺陷。上颚突出式咬和或歪曲的牙齿属于严重缺陷。钳状咬和或门牙未对齐属于轻微缺陷。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部坚实、位置高、拱形、长且肌肉发达。逐渐变宽,平滑的融入肩部。颈部下轮廓整洁。马肩隆平滑的向短且平整的背部及宽阔的腰部倾斜。胸部宽、深而且肌肉发达。前胸发达但没有明显突出的胸骨。胸深达到肘部,肋骨扩张良好。身体下侧轮廓肌肉发达,且上提形成优美的曲线。

臀部宽,非常轻微的倾斜。尾巴位置高,平滑的与臀部衔接,但不能与后背处于同一平面,而是脊椎的延伸。尾巴根部宽,而尖端细,一律下垂至飞节位置。休息时,尾巴笔直下垂,兴奋时或跑动中,尾巴会略显弯曲(军刀状),但决不能高过背平面。卷曲的尾巴、钩状的尾巴都属于缺陷。断尾属于失格。

[前躯]

前躯,从侧面观察,结实而肌肉发达。肩胛骨有力,且倾斜。肩胛骨与前臂形成的角度几乎是直角。从肩胛骨顶端到肘部后面形成的直线几乎是垂直于地面的。连接肩部和肋骨的肌肉和韧带非常发达,牢固,防止出现松脱的肩膀。肩胛骨与前臂长度一致,肘部位于马肩隆到地面距离的1/2处。结实的脚腕略略倾斜。足爪圆而紧凑,足趾圆拱,既不向内、也不向外。趾甲短、结实、颜色尽可能深,丑角大丹的趾甲颜色可能有浅色。狼爪可以切除、也可以不切。

[后躯]

后躯结实、宽、肌肉发达且角度恰当;飞节尽可能低。从后面观察,飞节整齐、垂直,既不向内弯也不向外翻。后腿足爪圆而紧凑,足趾圆拱,既不向内、也不向外。趾甲短、结实、颜色尽可能深,丑角大丹的趾甲颜色可能有浅色。后肢狼爪是严重缺陷。

[被毛]

被毛十分短且浓密,平滑而具光泽。

[颜色、斑纹和式样]

虎斑大丹(Brindle):

底色为金黄色,间杂深黑色横条斑纹。黑色条纹最为理想。黑色还应该出现在眼眶、眉毛,耳朵尖和尾尖。理想的颜色是:底色非常浓烈;配上非常清晰且均匀的条纹。条纹过多或过少都不理想。胸部和脚趾出现白色斑块、底色色泽较斑纹的颜色还深、斑纹颜色阴暗都属于缺陷。

黄褐色的大丹(Fawn Danes):

颜色是金黄色配合黑色“面具”。黑色还应该出现在眼圈和眉毛、有时还出现在耳尖和尾尖。深金黄色永远都是最佳选择。胸部和脚趾出现白色斑块、颜色阴暗肮脏都属于缺陷。

蓝大丹(Blue Danes):

是一种纯钢蓝色。胸部和脚趾出现白色斑块属于缺陷。

黑大丹(Black Danes):

有光泽的黑色。胸部和脚趾出现白色斑块属于缺陷。

丑角(Harlequin Danes-黑白花):

底色为纯白色,带有黑色不规则色块,色块均匀地遍布全身;颈部最好是纯白色。黑色斑块不宜过大,象毯子裹在身上;也不能太小,呈条纹状或斑点状。缺陷:灰色斑块;或在白色毛发中混杂有单根黑色毛发,类似椒盐色效果。都属于可以接受但不理想的状态。

披风大丹(Mantle Danes):

白色配合黑色,就象用一条黑色毯子包裹住身体。黑色脑袋、白色口吻;脸上的白筋可有可无;整个脖圈都为白色最理想;白色胸部;部分或全部白色的前后肢;黑色尾巴、白色尾尖。黑色披风的位置出现很小的白色斑纹是允许的,就象白色脖圈被打断一样。

任何大丹出现不完全符合上述描绘的颜色,都属于缺陷并根据背离的程度扣分。出现上述描绘以外的颜色类型都属于失格。

[步态]

步态显示出力量和实力,步幅大且轻松,犬的身体和背线不会摇摆颠簸。背线保持水平且保持与地面平行。前肢舒展,后肢提供强大、平稳的驱动力。当速度增加时,四肢会自然地向身体下面、中心线收拢。肘部和飞节既不向内弯、也不向外翻。

[性格]

大丹的气质必须是英勇、果敢、永远友善而可靠,绝不胆怯或好斗。

[失格]

低於高度最低标准、断尾、裂鼻。颜色不符合颜色、斑纹和式样中的描述。





标准通过日期:1990年9月 11 日

标准执行日期:1990年10月30日


Great Dane Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Great Dane combines, in its regal appearance, dignity, strength and elegance with great size and a powerful, well-formed, smoothly muscled body. It is one of the giant working breeds, but is unique in that its general conformation must be so well balanced that it never appears clumsy, and shall move with a long reach and powerful drive. It is always a unit-the Apollo of dogs. A Great Dane must be spirited, courageous, never timid; always friendly and dependable. This physical and mental combination is the characteristic which gives the Great Dane the majesty possessed by no other breed. It is particularly true of this breed that there is an impression of great masculinity in dogs, as compared to an impression of femininity in bitches. Lack of true Dane breed type, as defined in this standard, is a serious fault.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The male should appear more massive throughout than the bitch, with larger frame and heavier bone. In the ratio between length and height, the Great Dane should be square. In bitches, a somewhat longer body is permissible, providing she is well proportioned to her height. Coarseness or lack of substance are equally undesirable. The male shall not be less than 30 inches at the shoulders, but it is preferable that he be 32 inches or more, providing he is well proportioned to his height. The female shall not be less than 28 inches at the shoulders, but it is preferable that she be 30 inches or more, providing she is well proportioned to her height. Danes under minimum height must be disqualified.

Head
The head shall be rectangular, long, distinguished, expressive, finely chiseled, especially below the eyes. Seen from the side, the Dane\'s forehead must be sharply set off from the bridge of the nose, (a strongly pronounced stop). The plane of the skull and the plane of the muzzle must be straight and parallel to one another. The skull plane under and to the inner point of the eye must slope without any bony protuberance in a smooth line to a full square jaw with a deep muzzle (fluttering lips are undesirable). The masculinity of the male is very pronounced in structural appearance of the head. The bitch\'s head is more delicately formed. Seen from the top, the skull should have parallel sides and the bridge of the nose should be as broad as possible. The cheek muscles should not be prominent. The length from the tip of the nose to the center of the stop should be equal to the length from the center of the stop to the rear of the slightly developed occiput. The head should be angular from all sides and should have flat planes with dimensions in proportion to the size of the Dane. Whiskers may be trimmed or left natural. Eyes shall be medium size, deep set, and dark, with a lively intelligent expression. The eyelids are almond-shaped and relatively tight, with well developed brows. Haws and mongolian eyes are serious faults. In harlequins, the eyes should be dark; light colored eyes, eyes of different colors and walleyes are permitted but not desirable. Ears shall be high set, medium in size and of moderate thickness, folded forward close to the cheek. The top line of the folded ear should be level with the skull. If cropped, the ear length is in proportion to the size of the head and the ears are carried uniformly erect.

Nose shall be black, except in the blue Dane, where it is a dark blue-black. A black spotted nose is permitted on the harlequin; a pink colored nose is not desirable. A split nose is a disqualification.

Teeth shall be strong, well developed, clean and with full dentition. The incisors of the lower jaw touch very lightly the bottoms of the inner surface of the upper incisors (scissors bite). An undershot jaw is a very serious fault. Overshot or wry bites are serious faults. Even bites, misaligned or crowded incisors are minor faults.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck shall be firm, high set, well arched, long and muscular. From the nape, it should gradually broaden and flow smoothly into the withers. The neck underline should be clean. Withers shall slope smoothly into a short level back with a broad loin. The chest shall be broad, deep and well muscled. The forechest should be well developed without a pronounced sternum. The brisket extends to the elbow, with well sprung ribs. The body underline should be tightly muscled with a well-defined tuck-up.

The croup should be broad and very slightly sloping. The tail should be set high and smoothly into the croup, but not quite level with the back, a continuation of the spine. The tail should be broad at the base, tapering uniformly down to the hock joint. At rest, the tail should fall straight. When excited or running, it may curve slightly, but never above the level of the back. A ring or hooked tail is a serious fault. A docked tail is a disqualification.

Forequarters
The forequarters, viewed from the side, shall be strong and muscular. The shoulder blade must be strong and sloping, forming, as near as possible, a right angle in its articulation with the upper arm. A line from the upper tip of the shoulder to the back of the elbow joint should be perpendicular. The ligaments and muscles holding the shoulder blade to the rib cage must be well developed, firm and securely attached to prevent loose shoulders. The shoulder blade and the upper arm should be the same length. The elbow should be one-half the distance from the withers to the ground. The strong pasterns should slope slightly. The feet should be round and compact with well-arched toes, neither toeing in, toeing out, nor rolling to the inside or outside. The nails should be short, strong and as dark as possible, except that they may be lighter in harlequins. Dewclaws may or may not be removed.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters shall be strong, broad, muscular and well angulated, with well let down hocks. Seen from the rear, the hock joints appear to be perfectly straight, turned neither toward the inside nor toward the outside. The rear feet should be round and compact, with well-arched toes, neither toeing in nor out. The nails should be short, strong and as dark as possible, except they may be lighter in harlequins. Wolf claws are a serious fault.

Coat
The coat shall be short, thick and clean with a smooth glossy appearance.

Color, Markings and Patterns
Brindle--The base color shall be yellow gold and always brindled with strong black cross stripes in a chevron pattern. A black mask is preferred. Black should appear on the eye rims and eyebrows, and may appear on the ears and tail tip. The more intensive the base color and the more distinct and even the brindling, the more preferred will be the color. Too much or too little brindling are equally undesirable. White markings at the chest and toes, black-fronted, dirty colored brindles are not desirable.

Fawn--The color shall be yellow gold with a black mask. Black should appear on the eye rims and eyebrows, and may appear on the ears and tail tip. The deep yellow gold must always be given the preference. White markings at the chest and toes, black-fronted dirty colored fawns are not desirable.

Blue--The color shall be a pure steel blue. White markings at the chest and toes are not desirable.

Black--The color shall be a glossy black. White markings at the chest and toes are not desirable.

Harlequin--Base color shall be pure white with black torn patches irregularly and well distributed over the entire body; a pure white neck is preferred. The black patches should never be large enough to give the appearance of a blanket, nor so small as to give a stippled or dappled effect. Eligible, but less desirable, are a few small gray patches, or a white base with single black hairs showing through, which tend to give a salt and pepper or dirty effect.

Mantle--The color shall be black and white with a solid black blanket extending over the body; black skull with white muzzle; white blaze is optional; whole white collar is preferred; a white chest; white on part or whole of forelegs and hind legs; white tipped black tail. A small white marking in the blanket is acceptable, as is a break in the white collar.

Any variance in color or markings as described above shall be faulted to the extent of the deviation. Any Great Dane which does not fall within the above color classifications must be disqualified.

Gait
The gait denotes strength and power with long, easy strides resulting in no tossing, rolling or bouncing of the topline or body. The backline shall appear level and parallel to the ground. The long reach should strike the ground below the nose while the head is carried forward. The powerful rear drive should be balanced to the reach. As speed increases, there is a natural tendency for the legs to converge toward the centerline of balance beneath the body. There should be no twisting in or out at the elbow or hock joints.

Temperament
The Great Dane must be spirited, courageous, always friendly and dependable, and never timid or aggressive.

Disqualifications
Danes under minimum height.
Split nose. Docked Tail.
Any color other than those described under \"Color, Markings and Patterns.\"

Approved March 8, 1999
Effective April 28, 1999

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德国宾莎犬 German Pinscher

  简介   德国宾莎犬是一种中型短毛犬,外表端庄,具有一副强壮的呈方形的体格,中等大小的身体结构,肌肉发达有力因而具有忍耐力,活泼。精力充沛,警惕,机警,敏捷,无畏,坚定,聪明,忠诚,德国宾莎犬具备一个看门狗和伴侣狗的先决条件。德国宾莎犬应当在地上进行检查。

大小、比例和体格   

大小:雄性或雌性的理想高度是马肩隆的最高点到地面为17-20英寸。在尺寸方面会根据大小偏离理想尺寸的程度进行扣分。质量的重要性要优于尺寸。   

缺陷:17英寸以下或20英寸以上。   

比例:身体的长和宽差不多,体形在比例上成方形。马肩隆最高点的高度约等于从肩到臀部的长度。   

体格:肌肉发达,骨量适中。 头和脑袋   有力,伸长,没有后脑勺,在前面和外观上看,非常明显,就像一个钝形的楔。头的整个长度,从鼻子尖到后脑勺,约为马肩隆到尾根处的长度的一半,因此在比例上约为1:2。   

表情:警戒,机警,反应迅速。   眼睛:大小中等,深色,椭圆形,在外观上不突出。眼睑紧绷,眼球不能突出。   

耳朵:位置高,对称,剪耳的要直立。如果没有剪耳,则应呈V形,沿折痕下折,或是小的站立的耳朵,平和上举。   

脑袋:平,从后脑勺到止部都没有皱纹。止部很小但是清晰。   

口部:平行,在长度上等于上头盖骨,终端呈钝楔形。   面颊:有肌肉且平   鼻子:丰满,黑色   嘴唇:黑色,紧闭

咬合:强壮,剪状咬合,齿系完整,牙齿洁白   

缺陷:上颚突出或下鄂突出的咬合,缺少主要的臼齿。

颈部、背线和身体   

颈部:端庄,强壮,长度和厚度适中,形成优美的弓形。皮肤紧绷,紧贴在喉咙上,没有皱纹、下垂和赘肉。   

背线:当自然站立时并不十分水平,但是从马肩隆的顶端到背的起始处有轻微下降的坡度,在肌肉发达的腰部有非常微小的升起,到微弯曲的臀部。   

身体:紧凑,强壮,连接处短以允许有更好的灵活性和敏捷性。   

腰:最后一根肋骨到腰的距离很短,使犬具有紧凑、短连接的外形。   

胸部:宽度适中,肋骨有弹性,横截面应当是椭圆形。胸骨很明显的穿过前胸并一直扩展到肩的高处。胸部下降到肘部,并逐渐上升到后部,腹部适度的下垂。   

缺陷:有多余的折起。   

尾巴:位置适中,水平举起。通常在第二到第三关节处断尾。

前部   肩胛骨虽然平且向后,倾斜,但是有强壮的肌肉。肩胛骨斜向与上臂相连接的点并有适当的角度。这个角度要能允许前腿能不受约束并且不费力的尽量向前伸展到最大程度。   

前腿:直且骨量充足,从四面看都是完美的垂直于地面,前腿适度分开,肘部靠近身体。前腿的狼爪可以切除。   

骹骨:坚固,与地面几乎垂直。   

脚:短,圆,紧凑,深色脚垫和深色指甲。脚趾紧靠,呈弧形,像猫的一样。

后部   大腿有强壮的肌肉,并与前半部分相协调。跗骨能很好的弯曲,骨量充足,有适当的角度。从后面看,跗骨是互相平行的。

被毛   短而密,光滑,紧紧的贴在身上。有光泽,覆盖在身上不能有秃点。被毛硬不会被扣分。

颜色 伊莎贝尔(浅黄褐色),混有变化的鹿红色(红色混有黑色毛),黑色和蓝色带有红/棕标记。在红色中,相对深色标记丰富鲜明的中间色是首选。在双色品种中,最好有显眼的深色标记和丰富的红/棕色标记。

标记分布如下:面颊处,嘴唇处,下颚处,眼睛上面,咽喉处,在前胸明显的有一边一个的分开的三角形,跖骨或骹骨处,前腿,脚,后腿的内侧,肛门。在脚趾上有铅笔痕一般的标记是可以的。无论在犬的任何地方都不能有白色标记。少量的白色毛发不能组成为标记。

步态 有力,自由,良好平衡的步态,具有好的向前的伸展和后部驱动。小跑时,背部保持稳定和水平,不能摇摆、起伏或拱起。从后面看,脚虽然看上去是靠得很近,但是不能交叉或互相碰撞。   

缺陷:步态 性情   德国宾莎犬具有非常发达的感受力,聪明,具有接受训练的天资,无畏,有耐力,且能抵抗疾病。它思维敏捷,机警,对陌生人保持谨慎和戒备。在受到威胁时,它有无畏的勇气和坚韧力。是一种活泼的犬,但是不能过多的吠叫。它不能无原因的显示出敌意或无缘由的攻击。   注意,要充分考虑到德国宾莎犬的高度警惕,高度聪明和活泼的性格。对于其它犬表现出来的好斗性不应看作敌意。   

缺陷:害羞。   

上面的描述为理想的宾莎犬。任何背离这些规定的犬都要依据背离的程度进行扣分。

提交:2000年6月12日
生效:2001年3月1日

German Pinscher Breed Standard


General Appearance
The German Pinscher is a medium size, short coated dog, elegant in appearance with a strong square build and moderate body structure, muscular and powerful for endurance and agility. Energetic, watchful, alert, agile, fearless, determined, intelligent and loyal, the German Pinscher has the prerequisites to be an excellent watchdog and companion. The German Pinscher is examined on the ground.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size- the ideal height at the highest point of the withers for a dog or bitch is 17 - 20 inches. Size should be penalized in accordance with the degree it deviates from the ideal. Quality should always take precedence over size. Faults- under 17 inches or over 20 inches. Proportion- squarely built in proportion of body length to height. The height at the highest point of the withers equals the length of the body from the prosternum to the rump. Substance- muscular with moderate bone.


Head and Skull


Powerful, elongated without the occiput being too pronounced and resembles a blunt wedge in both frontal and profile views. The total length of the head from the tip of the nose to the occiput is one half the length from the withers to the base of the tail resulting in a ratio of approximately 1:2. Expression- sharp, alert and responsive. Eyes- medium size, dark, oval in shape without the appearance of bulging. The eyelid should be tight and the eyeball non-protruding. Ears- set high, symmetrical, and carried erect when cropped. If uncropped, they are V-shaped with a folding pleat, or small standing ears carried evenly upright. Skull- flat, unwrinkled from occiput to stop when in repose. The stop is slight but distinct. Muzzle- parallel and equal in length to the topskull and ends in a blunt wedge. The cheeks are muscled and flat. Nose- full, and black. Lips- black, close fitting. Bite- strong, scissors bite with complete dentition and white teeth.


Neck, Topline, Body
Neck- elegant and strong, of moderate thickness and length, nape elegantly arched. The skin is tight, closely fitting to the dry throat without wrinkles, sagging, or dewlaps. Topline- the withers form the highest point of the topline, which slopes slightly toward the rear, extending in a straight line from behind the withers, through the well-muscled loin to the faintly curved croup. Back- short, firm, and level, muscular at the loins. Faults- long back, not giving the appearance of squarely built, roach back, sway back. Body- compact and strong, so as to permit greater flexibility and agility, with the length of leg being equal to the depth of body. Loin- is well muscled.  The distance from the last rib to the hip is short. Chest- moderately wide with well-sprung ribs, and when viewed from the front, appears to be oval. The forechest is distinctly marked by the prosternum. The brisket descends to the elbows and ascends gradually to the rear with the belly moderately drawn up. Fault- excessive tuck up. Tail- moderately set and carried above the horizontal. Customarily docked between the second and third joints.

Forequarters
The sloping shoulder blades are strongly muscled, yet flat and well laid back, forming an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the horizontal. They are well angled and slope forward, forming an approximately 90 degree angle to the upper arm, which is equal in length to the shoulder blade. Such angulation permits the maximum forward extension of the forelegs without binding or effort. Forelegs- straight and well boned, perfectly vertical when viewed from all sides, set moderately apart with elbows set close to the body. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. Pasterns- firm and almost perpendicular to the ground. Feet- short, round, compact with firm dark pads and dark nails. The toes are well closed and arched like cat feet.

Hindquarters
The thighs are strongly muscled and in balance with forequarters. The stifles are well bent and well boned, with good angulation. When viewed from the rear, the hocks are parallel to each other.

Coat
Short and dense, smooth and close lying. Shiny and covers the body without bald spots. A hard coat should not be penalized.

Color
Isabella (fawn), to red in various shades to stag red (red with intermingling of black hairs), black and blues with red/tan markings. In the reds, a rich vibrant medium to dark shade is preferred. In bi-colored dogs, sharply marked dark and rich red/tan markings are desirable. Markings distributed as follows: at cheeks, lips, lower jaw, above eyes, at throat, on forechest as two triangles distinctly separated from each other, at metatarsus or pasterns, forelegs, feet, inner side of hind legs and below tail. Pencil marks on the toes are acceptable. Any white markings on the dog are undesirable. A few white hairs do not constitute a marking.  Disqualification:  Dogs not of an allowable color.

Gait
The ground covering trot is relaxed, well balanced, powerful and uninhibited with good length of stride, strong drive and free front extension. At the trot the back remains firm and level, without swaying, rolling or roaching. When viewed from the front and rear, the feet must not cross or strike each other. Fault- hackney gait.

Temperament
The German Pinscher has highly developed senses, intelligence, aptitude for training, fearlessness, and endurance. He is alert, vigilant, deliberate and watchful of strangers. He has fearless courage and tenacity if threatened. A very vivacious dog, but not an excessive barker. He should not show viciousness by unwarranted or unprovoked attacks.

*Note- Great consideration should be given to a dog giving the desired alert, highly intelligent, vivacious character of the German Pinscher. Aggressive behavior towards another dog is not deemed viciousness. Fault- shy.

The foregoing description is that of the ideal German Pinscher. Any deviation from this is to be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Disqualification:  Dogs not of an allowable color.

Approved November 7, 2005
Effective January 1, 2006

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杜宾犬 学名:多伯曼平犬(Doberman Pinscher)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

外观为中等大小,身躯呈正方形。身体结构紧凑,肌肉发达而有力,具有极大的耐力和速度。相貌文雅,态度自信,显示出其高贵的气质。他活泼、警惕、坚定、机敏、勇敢忠诚而顺从。

[历史]

杜宾犬的名字取自于德国图林根州路易斯-多伯曼先生的姓氏。多伯曼先生倾注了很多的精力在杜宾犬的培育上,后来就有人开始用他的名字来命名该犬。多伯曼犬俱乐部是成立在本世纪50年代的世界性的俱乐部,这足以表明:杜宾犬受到全世界人们的广爱。

除了在20世纪初有关文件记载着为了改善最初杜宾犬的外形,混合了黑褐曼彻斯特更,黑英式灵提外,杜宾犬在最初繁殖过程中未留下任何文字记录。凭推断确定认可的有两个德国品种,他们在杜宾犬祖先繁育血缘里为主要角色:\"老式德国牧羊犬\"和已灭绝的\"德国品犬\"(罗威纳,威玛猎犬的祖先)。老式德国牧羊犬血缘是其粗野性格、高智能、强体质的血液来源;德国品犬则拥有更类犬激情和快速敏捷的反应力。至于后来加进威玛猎犬的血液是为了提高杜宾犬狩猎、寻找和追踪的能力。杜宾犬变的更强壮、勇敢、可靠和机警要感谢罗威纳的血液所带给其的这些优点。最初的杜宾犬身高大约50公分左右,比现在的杜宾犬体型小很多,是名副其实的中型犬,这也是世界上各狗会将杜宾犬列为中型犬的原因。

在杜宾犬的发展中另外一人物起了很大作用,那就是奥托-高勒先生(Mr.Otto Goeller)他在将杜宾犬引进德国养犬俱乐部并登记、承认、注册的过程中发挥了巨大的作用。奥托-高勒先生组织成立德国国家杜宾犬俱乐部的时间为1899年8月27日,总部设在\"Apol da\"。1900年代表团委员会正式通过使用杜宾犬(Dobermann Pins- cher)这一犬名及承认这一独立的犬种,这时黑/褐色杜宾犬是唯一被承认的颜色。一年后红/褐色、蓝/褐色杜宾也予以承认。浅黄褐色(伊莎贝拉棕)被承认是后来的事了。

在美国AKC历史上最早有杜宾犬记载是1908年。美国杜宾犬俱乐部(The Doberman Pinscher Club of America)于1921年成立。杜宾犬被承认后短短的25年内在全世界流行起来并得到广泛的使用。现在杜宾犬已是AKC登录最多的犬种之一。

[体型]

公狗肩高约66.0~71.1厘米,理想的肩高在69.8厘米。母狗肩高约61.0~66.0厘米,理想的肩高在64.8厘米。肩高(从马肩隆最高点到地面的垂直距离)等于体长(从前胸到大腿的水平距离)。头部、颈部和腿的长度与身体的高度及深度的比例协调。

[头部]

长而紧凑。不论从前面或侧面观察都呈钝楔形。从正面观察,头部由嘴至耳根的轮廓是两根逐渐变宽的完整直线。眼睛呈杏形,位置适度凹陷,眼神显得活泼、精力充沛。眼睛的颜色单一,黑色狗的眼睛颜色为从中等到非常深的褐色,其他颜色如红色、兰色、驼色的狗,眼睛颜色与身体的斑纹颜色一致,但不论什么颜色的狗,眼睛的颜色都是越深越好。耳朵通常是剪耳,而且竖立。当耳朵直立时,耳朵上部位于头顶。头顶平坦,脑袋通过轻微的止部与口吻衔接,口吻轮廓线与脑袋的轮廓平行。面颊平坦、肌肉发达。黑色的狗有纯黑色的鼻镜;红色的狗有深褐色的鼻镜;兰色的狗有深灰色的鼻镜;驼色的狗有深茶色的鼻镜。嘴唇紧贴上下颚,上下颚饱满、有力,位于眼睛下面。白而坚固的牙齿,剪状咬和,总共有42颗牙齿,下颚22颗、上颚20颗。失格:上颚突出超过0.5厘米;下颚突出超过0.3厘米;缺4颗或4颗以上牙齿。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部骄傲地昂着,肌肉发达且紧凑。颈部略拱,逐渐变宽,与身体结合。颈部的长度与身体及头部的长度比例匀称。马肩隆明显,是身躯的最高点。背短而坚固,有足够的宽度。腰部肌肉发达。从马肩隆到略圆的臀部,呈一直线。

胸部宽阔,前胸适当隆起。肋骨自脊椎处隆起,向下逐渐变平,到肘部为止。胸深到肘部。腹部适度收起,从胸部延伸过来形成一条曲线。腰部宽且肌肉发达。臀部宽厚,与身体比例恰当。臀部的宽度大约与胸腔及肩部的宽度相等。

尾巴在大约第二节尾骨切断,为脊椎的延伸。只有在警觉时,尾巴会举起高过水平线。

[前躯]

肩胛骨向前、向下倾斜,与水平面成45度角,与前臂成90度角相连。肩胛骨与上臂长度相等,从肘部到马肩隆与从地面到肘部的长度相等。前肢从肘部到脚腕,不论从正面或侧面看都是完美的笔直、彼此平行且有力,骨量充足。不管是站立时还是行走中,肘部都紧贴胸部。脚腕结实、与地面垂直。狼爪可以切除。足爪拱起、紧凑,类似猫足,即不向内翻、也不向外翻。

[后躯]

后躯的角度与前躯平衡,臀骨与脊椎骨呈30度角(向后、向下),使臀部显得略圆、外翘。大腿骨与臀骨角度恰当。大腿长且宽,肌肉发达;大腿骨长度约等于胫骨长度。 当犬安静时,飞节到脚跟这一段与地面垂直。从后面观察,腿直,两腿彼此平行。两腿间有恰当的距离,可以稳定地支撑身体。如果有狼爪,应该切除,足爪与前肢一样,也是猫足。即不向内翻、也不向外翻。

[被毛]

平滑的毛发,短、硬、浓密且紧贴身体。颈部有不可见的灰色底毛是允许的。

[颜色和斑纹]

承认颜色:黑色、红色、蓝色、驼色(伊莎贝拉色)。斑纹:边界清晰的铁锈色斑纹。分布在眼睛上方、口吻、咽喉、前胸、四肢的腿、脚及尾下。前胸如果有白色斑纹,面积不大于1/2平方英寸见方是允许的。失格:犬只所拥有颜色不是所承认颜色。

[步态]

轻松、和谐、精力旺盛,前躯伸展良,后躯驱动有力;小跑时后躯动作有力。每条后腿与前腿都在同一面内运动,既不内翻,也不外翻。背部结实而稳定。快跑时,身体结构完美的狗会沿单一轨迹运动。

[性格]

活泼、警惕、坚定、机敏、勇敢忠诚而顺从。比赛时,裁判将取消胆怯或恶劣的杜宾比赛资格。

胆怯:犬只将在以下方面被判定为胆怯,如拒绝站立接受检查,躲避裁判;如害怕别人从身后靠近,如明显的害怕突发和异常的声音。

恶劣:攻击或试图攻击任何一个裁判或牵犬师则被认定为恶劣,对其他犬有攻击性或有好斗倾向将不被认定为恶劣。

[缺陷]

前面描述的是理想的杜宾犬,任何与前面描述的不符合的地方都属于缺陷,并根据背离的程度进行扣分。

[失格]

上颚突出超过0.5厘米;下颚突出超过0.3厘米;缺4颗或4颗以上牙齿。犬只所拥有颜色不是所承认颜色。



标准通过日期:1982年 2 月6日

标准修订日期:1990年11月6日

Doberman Pinscher Breed Standard


General Appearance
The appearance is that of a dog of medium size, with a body that is square. Compactly built, muscular and powerful, for great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage, reflecting great nobility and temperament. Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height at the withers: Dogs 26 to 28 inches, ideal about 27½ inches; Bitches 24 to 26 inches, ideal about 25½ inches. The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, equalling the length measured horizontally from the forechest to the rear projection of the upper thigh. Length of head, neck and legs in proportion to length and depth of body.

Head
Long and dry, resembling a blunt wedge in both frontal and profile views. When seen from the front, the head widens gradually toward the base of the ears in a practically unbroken line. Eyes almond shaped, moderately deep set, with vigorous, energetic expression. Iris, of uniform color, ranging from medium to darkest brown in black dogs; in reds, blues, and fawns the color of the iris blends with that of the markings, the darkest shade being preferable in every case. Ears normally cropped and carried erect. The upper attachment of the ear, when held erect, is on a level with the top of the skull.

Top of skull flat, turning with slight stop to bridge of muzzle, with muzzle line extending parallel to top line of skull. Cheeks flat and muscular. Nose solid black on black dogs, dark brown on red ones, dark gray on blue ones, dark tan on fawns. Lips lying close to jaws. Jaws full and powerful, well filled under the eyes.

Teeth strongly developed and white. Lower incisors upright and touching inside of upper incisors a true scissors bite. 42 correctly placed teeth, 22 in the lower, 20 in the upper jaw. Distemper teeth shall not be penalized. Disqualifying Faults: Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch. Undershot more than 1/8 of an inch. Four or more missing teeth.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck proudly carried, well muscled and dry. Well arched, with nape of neck widening gradually toward body. Length of neck proportioned to body and head. Withers pronounced and forming the highest point of the body. Back short, firm, of sufficient width, and muscular at the loins, extending in a straight line from withers to the slightly rounded croup.

Chest broad with forechest well defined. Ribs well sprung from the spine, but flattened in lower end to permit elbow clearance. Brisket reaching deep to the elbow. Belly well tucked up, extending in a curved line from the brisket. Loins wide and muscled. Hips broad and in proportion to body, breadth of hips being approximately equal to breadth of body at rib cage and shoulders. Tail docked at approximately second joint, appears to be a continuation of the spine, and is carried only slightly above the horizontal when the dog is alert.

Forequarters
Shoulder Blade - sloping forward and downward at a 45-degree angle to the ground meets the upper arm at an angle of 90 degrees. Length of shoulder blade and upper arm are equal. Height from elbow to withers approximately equals height from ground to elbow. Legs seen from front and side, perfectly straight and parallel to each other from elbow to pastern; muscled and sinewy, with heavy bone. In normal pose and when gaiting, the elbows lie close to the brisket. Pasterns firm and almost perpendicular to the ground. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet well arched, compact, and catlike, turning neither in nor out.

Hindquarters
The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. Hip Bone falls away from spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees, producing a slightly rounded, well filled-out croup. Upper Shanks at right angles to the hip bones, are long, wide, and well muscled on both sides of thigh, with clearly defined stifles. Upper and lower shanks are of equal length. While the dog is at rest, hock to heel is perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight, parallel to each other, and wide enough apart to fit in with a properly built body. Dewclaws, if any, are generally removed. Cat feet as on front legs, turning neither in nor out.

Coat
Smooth-haired, short, hard, thick and close lying. Invisible gray undercoat on neck permissible.

Color and Markings
Allowed Colors: Black, red, blue, and fawn (Isabella). Markings: Rust, sharply defined, appearing above each eye and on muzzle, throat and forechest, on all legs and feet, and below tail. White patch on chest, not exceeding ½ square inch, permissible. Disqualifying Fault: Dogs not of an allowed color.

Gait
Free, balanced, and vigorous, with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. When trotting, there is strong rear-action drive. Each rear leg moves in line with the foreleg on the same side. Rear and front legs are thrown neither in nor out. Back remains strong and firm. When moving at a fast trot, a properly built dog will single-track.

Temperament
Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient. The judge shall dismiss from the ring any shy or vicious Doberman.

Shyness: A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge; if it fears an approach from the rear; if it shies at sudden and unusual noises to a marked degree.

Viciousness: A dog that attacks or attempts to attack either the judge or its handler, is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness.

Faults
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Doberman Pinscher. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Disqualifications
Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch, undershot more than 1/8 of an inch. Four or more missing teeth.
Dogs not of an allowed color.

Approved February 6, 1982
Reformatted November 6, 1990

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斗牛马士提夫 学名:斗牛獒犬(Bullmastiff)
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[简介]

这是一种匀称的动物,显示出极大的力量、耐性和机敏。非常强大而且活跃。他是具有60%马士提夫犬血统和40%英国斗牛犬血统。这个品种是在英格兰培养出来的,是猎场看护人培养了对付偷猎者的。

[历史]

斗牛马士提夫是由斗牛犬和獒犬交配育种而成,以“猎场看守人的犬”而闻名,由于是为陪伴猎场看守人而特别培育的品种,所以能有效率地追踪,并有足够的力量和体力来揪住和制服偷猎者。

[体型]

大小:雄性肩高约63.5~68.6厘米,体重在49.90~58.97千克;雌性肩高约61.1~66.0厘米,体重在45.36~54.43千克。如果其他部分都一样,在上述范围内,身体越坚实越好。比例:体长稍微超过身高一点点,所以身躯比例接近正方形比例。

[头部]

表情:热烈、机警且聪明。眼睛:颜色深、中等大小。耳朵:V字形,折向面颊,位置高而宽,与头顶及面颊齐平,使脑袋看起来呈正方形;颜色比身躯的颜色深、中等大小。脑袋:巨大、警觉时有清晰的皱纹;宽且面颊丰满。前额平坦。止部:适中。口吻:宽而深;其长度,与整个头部相比,大约是1:3。缺乏前脸、鼻孔位置高(返祖现象,近似英国斗牛犬),属于严重缺陷。深色的口吻比较理想。鼻镜:黑色,鼻孔大而宽。上唇:不过分下垂。咬合:钳状咬合或下颚突出式咬合。犬齿巨大、距离较宽。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:略拱、中等长度、肌肉非常发达,直径几乎与脑袋相等。背线:马肩隆到腰部之间,直而平。身躯:紧凑。胸宽而深,肋骨扩张良好。背:短,给人的印象是非常稳定和谐。腰:宽、肌肉发达、略拱,腰窝深度清晰。尾巴:尾根位置高,根部粗壮、末端靠近飞节。可以是直的或卷曲的,但不能象猎犬的样子。

[前躯]

肩部:肌肉发达但不臃肿,适度倾斜。前肢:直、骨量充足、位置适当分开;肘部既不向内弯、也不向外翻。脚腕:直。足爪:中等大小,圆;脚趾圆拱;脚垫厚实坚硬;趾甲为黑色。

[后躯]

宽而肌肉发达,第二节大腿发达,显得有力,但不笨重。飞节角度适中。牛肢和兔形足都属于严重缺陷。

[被毛]

短而浓密,能适应各种气候。

[颜色]

红驼色、或许有斑纹。除了在胸部有非常小的白色污迹外,白色斑纹属于严重缺陷。

[步态]

舒展、平滑、有力。在侧面观察,后躯和驱动力来自正确的后肢角度。背线保持水平和坚实。无论来还是去,都保持直线运动。足爪趋向身体下方,但不交叉。速度增加时,飞节既不向内弯,也不向外翻。

[性格]

勇敢、自信且顺从,这种狗结合了可靠性、聪明和积极。作为可靠的家庭伴侣和护卫是再好也没有了。

[失格]



标准通过日期:1992年2月 8 日

标准执行日期:1992年3月31日

Bullmastiff Breed Standard


General Appearance
That of a symmetrical animal, showing great strength, endurance, and alertness; powerfully built but active. The foundation breeding was 60% Mastiff and 40% Bulldog. The breed was developed in England by gamekeepers for protection against poachers.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--Dogs, 25 to 27 inches at the withers, and 110 to 130 pounds weight. Bitches, 24 to 26 inches at the withers, and 100 to 120 pounds weight. Other things being equal, the more substantial dog within these limits is favored. Proportion--The length from tip of breastbone to rear of thigh exceeds the height from withers to ground only slightly, resulting in a nearly square appearance.

Head
Expression--Keen, alert, and intelligent. Eyes Dark and of medium size. Ears--V-shaped and carried close to the cheeks, set on wide and high, level with occiput and cheeks, giving a square appearance to the skull; darker in color than the body and medium in size. Skull Large, with a fair amount of wrinkle when alert; broad, with cheeks well developed. Forehead flat. Stop--Moderate. Muzzle--Broad and deep; its length, in comparison with that of the entire head, approximately as 1 is to 3. Lack of foreface with nostrils set on top of muzzle is a reversion to the Bulldog and is very undesirable. A dark muzzle is preferable. Nose--Black, with nostrils large and broad. Flews--Not too pendulous. Bite--Preferably level or slightly undershot. Canine teeth large and set wide apart.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--Slightly arched, of moderate length, very muscular, and almost equal in circumference to the skull. Topline--Straight and level between withers and loin. Body--Compact. Chest wide and deep, with ribs well sprung and well set down between the forelegs. Back--Short, giving the impression of a well balanced dog. Loin--Wide, muscular, and slightly arched, with fair depth of flank. Tail--Set on high, strong at the root, and tapering to the hocks. It may be straight or curved, but never carried hound fashion.

Forequarters
Shoulders--muscular but not loaded, and slightly sloping. Forelegs--straight, well boned, and set well apart; elbows turned neither in nor out. Pasterns straight, feet of medium size, with round toes well arched. Pads thick and tough, nails black.

Hindquarters
Broad and muscular, with well developed second thigh denoting power, but not cumbersome. Moderate angulation at hocks. Cowhocks and splay feet are serious faults.

Coat
Short and dense, giving good weather protection.

Color
Red, fawn, or brindle. Except for a very small white spot on the chest, white marking is considered a fault.

Gait
Free, smooth, and powerful. When viewed from the side, reach and drive indicate maximum use of the dog\'s moderate angulation. Back remains level and firm. Coming and going, the dog moves in a straight line. Feet tend to converge under the body, without crossing over, as speed increases. There is no twisting in or out at the joints.

Temperament
Fearless and confident yet docile. The dog combines the reliability, intelligence, and willingness to please required in a dependable family companion and protector.

Approved February 8, 1992
Effective March 31, 1992

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:31:12 | 显示全部楼层


拳师犬(Boxer)
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[简介]

理想的拳狮犬体形中等,身体呈方形,背部短,四肢强健,被毛短而密。肌肉丰满。一举一动都很有力量。步态自由,稳定,有弹性。拳狮犬可作为守卫犬、工作犬和伴侣犬,强壮而机警,优雅而高贵。表情机警,坚定,温顺。

轮廓清晰的头部是拳狮犬的特征,头部必须与身体成比例。吻部宽而钝,吻部与颅骨的比例协凋十分重要。

拳狮犬给人印象深刻的是吸引人的颜色和独特的外表。整体的形态及头部的形态也很重要。身体结构和步态是其次要衡量的指标。

[历史]

从16世纪以来,拳狮犬来源于一系列犬,这些犬为整个欧洲熟知。经过几百年,拳狮犬在德国发展到了完美的程度。在这之前,拳狮犬的祖先与现在的样子差别很大。有证据表明拳狮犬是西藏高原一种古老斗犬的众多后代之一。

    拳狮犬与斗牛犬有血缘关系,它们都有莫洛苏斯(Molossus)血统。其他品种的犬很少有拳狮犬这样的勇气和精力。几个世纪以来,拳狮犬一直是迷人的浅黄褐色。

    16~17世纪的佛兰德挂毯上描绘了一些犬捕猎雄鹿、野猪的图画。这些犬类似在安大路西亚(Andalusia)和伊斯彻曼德(Estramadura)大量存在的阿拉诺(Alano)猎犬,以及来自亚述尔群岛的Matin deTerceira或Perrodo Presa。阿拉诺(Alano)犬和马丁(Matin)犬曾经被认为是同一种犬,它们要么是拳狮犬的祖先,要么与拳狮犬同一祖先。

    在法国,有一种叫做Dogue de Bordeaux的犬,在外形与体形上与中国古西藏獒犬很接近,而且由这种体形巨大的犬发展出Bouldogue de Mida犬这种犬(主要生活在法国南部,与拳狮犬有很多相似点)。

    所有欧洲犬都与拳狮犬有关系。经过长期科学育种,这种受人喜爱的德国犬不仅保留了原有的优良品质,而且外貌变得更加迷人。除了有斗牛犬的血统,拳狮犬还继承了梗犬的一些特征。在一个时期内,英国斗牛犬曾出口到德国。实际上,1803年利纳格(Reinagle)的画中著名的斗牛犬非常像拳狮犬,1850年一些画上的英国斗牛犬与德国犬几乎一样。

19世纪中叶,在斗犬和斗牛非法化之前,拳狮犬和其他这种类型的犬一直被用来做斗犬。今天,拳狮犬已经成为社会的一员,仍保留着非凡的勇气和防卫能力,当需要的时候,也会进攻。此外,拳狮犬对主人非常忠诚。   

    拳狮犬有非常好的品质,是第一批被挑选用作训练警犬的犬种之一。这种工作要求犬有智慧、无畏的精神、吃苦和有力量。

    我们可以看到拳狮犬的整个现代史均与德国密切相关,它却有一个英国名字。但这个名字确实非常适合它。拳狮犬在进攻时用他的前爪,像一个拳击手,这大概是它名字的由来。

    1904年,美国养犬俱乐部首次将拳狮登记在册。1915年举行了首次锦标赛,但直到1940年,美国人才真正开始喜欢这种犬。这可能是因为一些拳狮犬在犬展中赢得了高分。

[体型]

身高:公犬57.2~63.5厘米,母犬53.3~59.7厘米。公犬不应低于标准身高而母犬不应高于标准身高。如果身高符合标准,身体各部位比例协调非常重要。比例:胸部前端到大腿后端的距离等于从肩胛上缘到地面的距离,身体呈方形。结构:肌肉丰满结实。公犬的骨骼比母犬发达。

[头部]

头部的漂亮外形取决于吻部与颅骨比例协凋。吻部的长度等于从枕部到鼻尖端长度的1/3,宽度等于颅骨宽度的2/3。头部不能有深的皱纹。耳直立时,皱纹出现在前额。皮褶从眉头两侧延伸到吻部两侧。表情:聪明而机警。眼:深褐色,中等大小,既不突出也不凹陷。眼神和前额的皱纹构成拳狮犬独特的表情。耳朵:耳根位置在颅骨的最高点,剪耳后的耳长,逐渐变尖。,当犬处于戒备状态时,耳直立。颅骨――颅骨顶部略呈拱形,不圆,也不平坦。枕部不十分突出。两眼之间有一凹痕,鼻梁轮廓清晰。面颊比较平坦。颅骨向吻部尖端逐渐变细,形成一优美的曲线。吻部:吻部的长度、宽度和深度比例协调。吻部的形状由两侧颌骨,牙床和嘴唇形成。吻部顶部不能倾斜,也不能凹陷。但鼻尖端比吻部根部稍高。鼻子较宽,颜色为黑色。

    上颚宽,向前稍微变细。上下唇应对合整齐。上唇厚,包住突出的下颌,侧面由下犬齿支撑。犬齿的距离必须较大、较长,以形成吻部宽而方的外形。从侧面看,吻部略向上翘。从侧面和前面看,下颌轮廓清晰。颚:下颌突出,下颌超过上颚,向上翘。下门齿与下犬齿在一条直线上,使得下颌非常宽。

    缺点:颅骨过宽。面颊部突出。缺乏皱纹或皱纹过深。上唇下垂。吻部相对颅骨过小。吻部过长。下颌过于突出。嘴紧闭时露出牙齿和舌。眼睛的颜色比被毛底色浅。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:颈部圆、长、肌肉丰满,皮肤无下垂,呈拱形。颈部与肩部连接平滑。背线:流畅,稍微倾斜。身躯:胸部相当宽,从侧面可以看见胸底部。胸部深达肘关节。从肩胛上缘到胸部最低点的距离是从肩胛上缘到地面距离的一半。肋部伸展,呈拱形,但不呈桶状胸。背部短,直,肌肉丰满,紧密连接肩部和后躯。腰部短肌肉丰满,腹部向上收紧。臀部稍微倾斜,平而宽。尾根位置高,断尾,向上翘。骨盆长,母犬的骨盆宽。缺点:颈部短粗。胸部过宽过窄。胸骨不突出。腹部下垂。肋部侧面平坦。腰部长而窄,与臀部连接无力。臀部下垂。后躯高于前躯。

[前躯]

肩部长而倾斜,肌肉不过于丰厚。上腕长,与肩胛骨成直角。肘关节既不能过于靠近胸部也不能离胸部过远。前肢长,直,肌肉发达,从前面看,两前肢互相平行。前脚跟强壮,几乎与地面垂直。狼爪可以去除。脚紧凑,既不内翻也不外展,趾尖呈拱形。缺点:肩部松弛,肌肉过于丰满。肘关节与胸部的距离过近或过远。

[后躯]

肌肉丰满,与前躯角度协调。大腿宽,肌肉发达。大腿和小腿长。膝关节屈曲,跗关节清晰。从后面看,后肢直,跗关节既不内翻也不外展。从侧面看,后脚跟几乎与地面垂直,允许后脚跟稍向后倾斜。后脚跟短而强壮,轮廓清晰。拳狮犬后肢没有狼爪。缺点:后躯角度过大,后肢肌肉不够丰满或大腿后面肌肉过多,跗关节角度过大,后躯过低或过长。

[被毛]

短,有光泽,光滑,紧贴身体。

[颜色]

颜色为浅黄褐色,有斑纹。被毛底色可以从浅棕褐色到红褐色。斑纹可以稀少而清晰,也可以非常密集,几乎覆盖全身,浅黄褐色的底色反而显得稀少。

    白色斑块可以使犬的外表更漂亮。但不能超过全身被毛的1/3。白色斑块出现在侧腹部或躯干的背侧不理想。在面部,白色斑块可以代替一部分黑色底色,出现在两眼之间,但不能破坏犬的面部特征。缺点:白色斑块出现的位置不正确。不符合标准――浅黄褐色或斑纹被毛以外的颜色的犬。白色斑块超过全身被毛的1/3。

[步态]

从侧面看,前躯伸展性好,背部保持水平,后躯有力。前肢稳定,不出现交叠和斜行。从前面看,肩部保持平衡,肘关节不外倾。行进速度慢时,四肢相互平行;行进速度加快时.四肢的落地点趋向身体的中心线,但不相互交叉。肩部与前肢的连线虽然可以不与地面垂直,但必须是直的。从后面看,臀部不能摆动。同侧后肢应与前肢沿一条直线行进。但行进速度加快时,落地点趋向身体中心线。缺点――踩高跷样步态或步伐无力,步态不流畅。

[性格]

这在拳狮犬非常重要。作为守卫犬,拳狮犬机警,自信、有威严。在犬展中可以表现出适度的活泼。与家人和朋友在一起时,拳狮犬很喜欢嬉戏,对孩子非常耐心。拳狮犬对陌生人机警而谨慎,对威胁亳不畏惧,但对友好的表示反应很温和。拳狮犬的聪明、温顺使它成为非常理想的伴侣犬。缺点――缺乏尊严和机警,过于害羞。

[失格]

浅黄褐色或斑纹被毛以外颜色的犬。白色斑块超过全身被毛的1/3。



标准通过日期:1989年3月14日

标准执行日期:1989年5月 1 日

Boxer Breed Standard


General Appearance
The ideal Boxer is a medium-sized, square-built dog of good substance with short back, strong limbs, and short, tight-fitting coat. His well-developed muscles are clean, hard, and appear smooth under taut skin. His movements denote energy. The gait is firm yet elastic, the stride free and ground-covering, the carriage proud. Developed to serve as guard, working, and companion dog, he combines strength and agility with elegance and style. His expression is alert and his temperament steadfast and tractable.

The chiseled head imparts to the Boxer a unique individual stamp. It must be in correct proportion to the body. The broad, blunt muzzle is the distinctive feature, and great value is placed upon its being of proper form and balance with the skull.

In judging the Boxer first consideration is given to general appearance and overall balance. Special attention is then devoted to the head, after which the individual body components are examined for their correct construction, and the gait evaluated for efficiency.

Size
Adult males 23 to 25 inches; females 21½ to 23½ inches at the withers. Proper balance and quality in the individual should be of primary importance since there is no size disqualification.

Proportion
The body in profile is square in that a horizontal line from the front of the forechest to the rear projection of the upper thigh should equal the length of a vertical line dropped from the top of the withers to the ground.

Substance
Sturdy, with balanced musculature. Males larger boned than females.

Head
The beauty of the head depends upon the harmonious proportion of muzzle to skull. The blunt muzzle is 1/3 the length of the head from the occiput to the tip of the nose, and 2/3rds the width of the skull. The head should be clean, not showing deep wrinkles (wet). Wrinkles typically appear upon the forehead when ears are erect, and are always present from the lower edge of the stop running downward on both sides of the muzzle.

Expression
Intelligent and alert.

Eyes
Dark brown in color, frontally placed, generous, not too small, too protruding, or too deepset. Their mood-mirroring character, combined with the wrinkling of the forehead, gives the Boxer head its unique quality of expressiveness. Third eyelids preferably have pigmented rims.

Ears
Set at the highest points of the sides of the skull, the ears are customarily cropped, cut rather long and tapering, and raised when alert. If uncropped, the ears should be of moderate size, thin, lying flat and close to the cheeks in repose, but falling forward with a definite crease when alert.

Skull
The top of the skull is slightly arched, not rounded, flat, nor noticeably broad, with the occiput not overly pronounced. The forehead shows a slight indentation between the eyes and forms a distinct stop with the topline of the muzzle. The cheeks should be relatively flat and not bulge (cheekiness), maintaining the clean lines of the skull as they taper into the muzzle in a slight, graceful curve.

Muzzle and Nose
The muzzle, proportionately developed in length, width, and depth, has a shape influenced first through the formation of both jawbones, second through the placement of the teeth, and third through the texture of the lips. The top of the muzzle should not slant down (downfaced), nor should it be concave (dishfaced); however, the tip of the nose should lie slightly higher than the root of the muzzle. The nose should be broad and black.

Bite and Jaw Structure
The Boxer bite is undershot, the lower jaw protruding beyond the upper and curving slightly upward. The incisor teeth of the lower jaw are in a straight line, with the canines preferably up front in the same line to give the jaw the greatest possible width. The upper line of the incisors is slightly convex with the corner upper incisors fitting snugly in back of the lower canine teeth on each side. Neither the teeth nor the tongue should ever show when the mouth is closed.

The upper jaw is broad where attached to the skull and maintains this breadth, except for a very slight tapering to the front. The lips, which complete the formation of the muzzle, should meet evenly in front. The upper lip is thick and padded, filling out the frontal space created by the projection of the lower jaw, and laterally is supported by the canines of the lower jaw. Therefore, these canines must stand far apart and be of good length so that the front surface of the muzzle is broad and squarish and, when viewed from the side, shows moderate layback. The chin should be perceptible from the side as well as from the front. Any suggestion of an overlip obscuring the chin should be penalized.

Neck
Round, of ample length, muscular and clean without excessive hanging skin (dewlap). The neck should have a distinctly arched and elegant nape blending smoothly into the withers.

Back and Topline
The back is short, straight, muscular, firm, and smooth. The topline is slightly sloping when the Boxer is at attention, leveling out when in motion.

Body
The chest is of fair width, and the forechest well-defined and visible from the side. The brisket is deep, reaching down to the elbows; the depth of the body at the lowest point of the brisket equals half the height of the dog at the withers. The ribs, extending far to the rear, are well-arched but not barrel-shaped.

The loins are short and muscular. The lower stomach line is slightly tucked up, blending into a graceful curve to the rear. The croup is slightly sloped, flat and broad. The pelvis is long, and in females especially broad. The tail is set high, docked, and carried upward. An undocked tail should be severely penalized.

Forequarters
The shoulders are long and sloping, close-lying, and not excessively covered with muscle (loaded). The upper arm is long, approaching a right angle to the shoulder blade. The elbows should not press too closely to the chest wall nor stand off visibly from it. The forelegs are long, straight, and firmly muscled, and, when viewed from the front, stand parallel to each other. The pastern is strong and distinct, slightly slanting, but standing almost perpendicular to the ground. The dewclaws may be removed. Feet should be compact, turning neither in nor out, with well-arched toes.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters are strongly muscled, with angulation in balance with that of the forequarters. The thighs are broad and curved, the breech musculature hard and strongly developed. Upper and lower thigh are long. The legs are well-angulated at the stifle, neither too steep nor over-angulated, with clearly defined, well \"let down\" hock joints. Viewed from behind, the hind legs should be straight, with hock joints leaning neither in nor out. From the side, the leg below the hock (metatarsus) should be almost perpendicular to the ground, with a slight slope to the rear permissible. The metatarsus should be short, clean, and strong. The Boxer has no rear dewclaws.

Coat
Short, shiny, lying smooth and tight to the body.

Color
The colors are fawn and brindle. Fawn shades vary from light tan to mahogany. The brindle ranges from sparse but clearly defined black stripes on a fawn background to such a heavy concentration of black striping that the essential fawn background color barely, although clearly, shows through (which may create the appearance of reverse brindling). White markings, if present, should be of such distribution as to enhance the dog\'s appearance, but may not exceed one-third of the entire coat. They are not desirable on the flanks or on the back of the torso proper. On the face, white may replace part of the otherwise essential black mask, and may extend in an upward path between the eyes, but it must not be excessive, so as to detract from true Boxer expression. The absence of white markings, the so-called \"plain\" fawn or brindle, is perfectly acceptable, and should not be penalized in any consideration of color. Disqualifications Boxers that are any color other than fawn or brindle. Boxers with a total of white markings exceeding one-third of the entire coat.

Gait
Viewed from the side, proper front and rear angulation is manifested in a smoothly efficient, level-backed, ground covering stride with a powerful drive emanating from a freely operating rear. Although the front legs do not contribute impelling power, adequate reach should be evident to prevent interference, overlap, or sidewinding (crabbing). Viewed from the front, the shoulders should remain trim and the elbows not flare out. The legs are parallel until gaiting narrows the track in proportion to increasing speed, then the legs come in under the body but should never cross. The line from the shoulder down through the leg should remain straight although not necessarily perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, a Boxer\'s rump should not roll. The hind feet should dig in and track relatively true with the front. Again, as speed increases, the normally broad rear track will become narrower. The Boxer\'s gait should always appear smooth and powerful, never stilted or inefficient.

Character and Temperament
These are of paramount importance in the Boxer. Instinctively a hearing guard dog, his bearing is alert, dignified, and self-assured. In the show ring his behavior should exhibit constrained animation. With family and friends, his temperament is fundamentally playful, yet patient and stoical with children. Deliberate and wary with strangers, he will exhibit curiosity, but, most importantly, fearless courage if threatened. However, he responds promptly to friendly overtures honestly rendered. His intelligence, loyal affection, and tractability to discipline make him a highly desirable companion. Any evidence of shyness, or lack of dignity or alertness, should be severely penalized.

The foregoing description is that of the ideal Boxer. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Disqualifications
Boxers that are any color other than fawn or brindle. Boxers with a total of white markings exceeding one-third of the entire coat.

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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黑俄罗斯梗 Black Russian Terrier


简介

    黑俄罗斯梗( BRT )是一种精力充沛的大型力量型犬。此犬骨骼大,肌肉发达。此品种源自俄罗斯,并曾用作保护用的警卫犬。它必须匀称,性情好,忠诚,具有勇气和力量,忍耐力强。此犬必须有巨大的骨架和沉重的骨骼。雌犬明显要温柔一些,但是在体格上并不弱。

体型

  大小:雄性成犬在 27 英寸到 30 英寸之间。雌性成犬在 26 到 29 英寸之间。背离理想的高度将被认为是缺陷。失格: 26 英寸以下的雄犬或雌犬。

  比例:黑俄罗斯梗的长度稍大于高度。最理想的比例是 9.5 - 10 。长度的测量位置是从胸骨到后骨盆的边缘。

头部

  头部与身体成一定比例。应当看上去有力强健。

  眼睛:眼睛大小适中,深色。眼框为黑色,没有下垂,也没有瞬瞙。眼睛为椭圆形。浅色眼睛为严重缺陷。

  耳朵:耳朵位置很高,相当小,三角形。前边缘应当紧贴面颊。耳朵的长度应当能到达外眼角。耳朵在脑袋上的位置偏低为缺陷。不能是剪耳。

  脑袋:头部应当有强有力的结构,脑袋宽度适中,结实。从侧面看很匀称。头部由两个平面组成。后脑勺到口吻从眼角处分开。后头部发育充分。

  口吻:口吻比后脑勺稍短。口吻和后脑勺的长度比约为 4 比 5 。前额平整,有一个明显的但是不明确的止部。雄性的头部明显具有阳刚之气,而雌性的较为柔和。

鼻子:鼻子又大又黑。

  失格:鼻子不是黑色。

  嘴唇:丰满,紧闭,黑色。没有下垂。牙龈为黑色。允许在舌头上有黑色标记。

  牙齿:又大又白。要有完整的齿系。门牙在根部形成一条直线。剪状咬合。任何牙齿的缺少都是严重的缺陷。上鄂突出或下鄂突出的咬合都是失格。

颈部,背线和身体

  颈部:颈部厚,肌肉发达,有力。不能太长。不能有下垂或太多的垂肉。颈部的长度约等于头部的长度。过粗的颈部是缺陷。

  身体:身体的整个结构应当给人强壮的印象。

  胸部:深而且宽,形状为椭圆,到肘部或更低的位置。马肩隆高,明显,发达。背线水平笔直。

  腰:短,腹部折起而且结实。马肩隆高过背,且倾斜到水平背线。

  臀部:宽,肌肉发达,长度适中,到尾巴的位置稍微向上有坡度。

  尾巴:尾巴位置高,尾巴粗,断尾,留下 3 到 5 根尾骨。不断尾不会被扣分。

前半部

  肩大且肌肉发达,发育充分,肩胛骨宽且有坡度。肩部能充分向后。肩胛骨和上臂之间的角度能到达 100 到 110 度。肩膀肌肉发达。前腿笔直,骨量充足。在站立或活动时,肘部不能向外或向内翻。前腿直且肌肉发达。骹骨短,几乎垂直。前腿到肘的长度约为犬的高度的 53% 到 54% 。

  脚:大,紧凑,圆形。脚垫厚且坚硬。指甲短,为黑色。后部的狼爪应当切除。

后半部

  从后面看,后腿是直的,且平行,位置稍宽于前腿。后半部骨量充足,肌肉发达,有合适的角度。后膝关节长且有坡度。大腿肌肉发达。跗骨能充分下降,长,且站立时垂直。

被毛

  凌乱的双层被毛。外层被毛质地粗糙。底层被毛厚且柔软。被毛的长度从 1.5 到 4 英寸,覆盖了整个身体。被毛很乱,但不是金属丝状或卷曲状。

修饰

  在表演中装扮此品种,外形清晰。犬可以被修饰,但不能显示出特意的造型。

  耳朵:耳朵内外的毛应当进行整理。耳朵要平平的趴在头上。

  前额:紧挨眉毛后面的毛应当剃掉或剪短,使这里看上去像个平台。前额的其它部分应当修剪为从很短到渐渐融合入口吻处的长毛。这样形成一个“帽子”,使得后脑勺的长度更鲜明。从头上看就像一块“砖头”。眉毛的边缘垂向口吻并与其混合在一起。混合的毛发从侧面看像一个三角形。

  颈部:脖子的前面从喉咙到肩膀的高度的毛应当剃掉或剪短。脖子后面的毛发应当像鬃毛一样下垂到马肩隆。

  背线:修剪从马肩隆一直到尾巴,以便在侧面看时背线呈水平。背部的毛发应当向下融入到侧面的毛发中。需要强调的是不能有明显的界线或剪过的痕迹。

颜色

  黑俄罗斯梗的颜色只能是黑色或黑色与很少的灰色。任何其它的颜色都是失格。

步态

  黑俄罗斯梗的动作是自由的,有流畅的、轻松的、轻快的动作。动作要平衡流畅。当黑俄罗斯梗移动加快时,脚会汇聚到一条中心线上。背线应当保持水平。

性情

  黑俄罗斯梗的性格和性情是极其重要的。黑俄罗斯梗是一种平和、自信、勇敢的犬,有时会非常自信,甚至有些疏远陌生人。它们非常聪明,非常可靠。培育这个品种是为了警卫和保护。在比赛中的行为应当表现出易于控制,自愿,适应能力强,要接受服从考核的训练。

失格

低于 26 英寸的雌性或雄性

鼻子不是黑色

下鄂突出或上鄂突出的咬合

除黑色以外的任何颜色

提交: 2001 年 6 月 11 日
生效: 2001 年 9 月 1 日

Black Russian Terrier Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Black Russian Terrier (BRT) is a robust, large and powerful dog. The dog has large bone and well developed muscles. The breed was developed in Russia and used as guard dogs for protection. They must be balanced, have a good temperament and be reliable. The dogs have great courage and strength. They are capable of endurance. Dogs must have a large frame and heavy bone. Bitches are definitely to appear feminine but never lacking in substance.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size: Dogs at maturity are between 27 inches and 30 inches. Bitches at maturity are to be between 26 and 29 inches. A deviation from the ideal height is to be faulted. Any dog or bitch under 26 inches is a disqualification. Proportion: The Black Russian Terrier is slightly longer than tall. The most desired proportions are 9½ to 10. The length is measured from breastbone to rear edge of the pelvis.

Head
The head must be in proportion to the body. It should give the appearance of power and strength. Eyes: The eyes should be of medium size and dark. Eye rims are to be black without sagging or prominent haw. The eye is to be oval shaped. Light eyes are a serious fault. Ears: The ears are set high and are rather small and triangular in shape. The front edge of the ear should lay close to the cheek. The length of the ear should reach the outside corner of the eye. Ears set low on the skull are to be faulted. Cropped ears are not acceptable. The head should be powerfully built with a moderately broad and blocky skull. Viewed from the side it should appear balanced. The head is made of two parallel planes. The back skull to muzzle is measured from the corner of the eye. Occiput should be well developed. The muzzle should be slightly shorter than the back skull. The length of the muzzle to the back skull is approximately a ratio of 4 to 5. The forehead must be flat with a marked but not pronounced stop. The head of the male is distinctly masculine, and that of the bitch, distinctly feminine. Nose: The nose must be large and black. Disqualification: Nose other than black. Lips: are full, tight and black. There are to be no flews. The gums have dark pigmentation. Black mark on the tongue is allowed. Teeth: The teeth are large and white. There should be full dentition. The incisors form a straight line at the base. The bite should be scissors. Any missing teeth are a serious fault. Undershot or Overshot bites are a disqualification.

Neck, Topline, and Body
Neck: The neck should be thick, muscular and powerful. Length is not to be excessive. There should be no pendulous or excessive dewlap. The length of the neck and the length of the head should be approximately the same. An excessively thick neck is considered a fault. Body: The whole structure of the body should give the impression of strength. The chest is deep and wide. The shape should be oval and reach to the elbows or a little below. The withers are high, pronounced and well developed. The topline is level and straight. The loin is short. The abdomen is well tucked up and firm. Withers are higher than and sloping into the level back. Croup is wide, muscular, moderately long slightly sloping toward the high tail set. Tail is set high, thick and docked with 3 to 5 vertebrae left. An undocked tail is not to be penalized.

Forequarters
Shoulders should be large and muscular, well developed with blades broad and sloping. The shoulders should be well laid back. The angle between the shoulder blades and the upper arm is at a 100 to 110 degree. Shoulders are well muscled. The forelegs are straight and well boned. The elbows must turn neither in nor out while standing or moving. The forelegs are straight and muscular. Pasterns are short and almost vertical. Length of the front leg to the elbow should be about 53 to 54 percent of the dog\'s height. Feet are large, compact, and rounded in shape. The pads of the feet are thick and firm. Nails are short and dark. Rear dewclaws could be removed.

Hindquarters
Viewed from the rear the legs are straight and parallel, set slightly wider than the forelegs. The hindquarters are well boned and muscular with good angulation. The stifle is long and sloping. The thighs are muscular. The hocks are well let down, long and vertical when standing.

Coat
Tousled, double coat. The texture of the outer coat is coarse. The undercoat is thick and soft. Length of coat should vary from 1½ to 4 inches and cover the entire body. It is a pronounced tousled coat rather than wiry or curly.

Presentation
Presentation of the breed in the show ring, the dogs outline is clearly defined. The dogs will be trimmed but should not appear to be sculpted. Ears: hair should be trimmed inside and outside the ear. The ears will lay flat to the side of the head. Forehead: Just behind the eyebrows the hair is to be shaved or cut very short so as to make what appears to be a platform. The rest of the forehead is trimmed so that the shorter hairs will blend with the longer hairs of the muzzle. This forms a \"cap\" which should help define length of backskull. Looking from the top of the head it should give the appearance of a \"brick\". The fringe from the eyebrows is brushed forward and blends with the beard and muzzle. This blending of hair should look from the side like a \"triangle\". Neck: The front of the neck from the throat to the point of shoulder should be shaved or scissored short. The hair on the back of the neck should appear to have a mane down to the withers. Topline: is trimmed from the withers to the tail so that when viewed from the side it appears level. The hair from the back should then blend down the sides of the dog. It is stressed that there should be no distinct lines or scissors marks.

Color
The only acceptable colors for the Black Russian Terrier is black or black with a few gray hairs. Any other color is to be considered a disqualification.

Gait
A Black Russian Terrier should move freely with a smooth easy springy motion. The motion should be well-balanced and fluid. As the Black Russian Terrier moves faster the feet will converge toward a centerline. The topline should remain level.

Temperament
The character and temperament of the Black Russian Terrier is of utmost importance. The Black Russian Terrier is a calm, confident, and courageous dog with a self-assurance which sometimes is rather aloof toward strangers. They are highly intelligent, extremely reliable. They were bred to guard and protect. The behavior in the show ring should be controlled, willing, adaptable, and trained to submit to examination.

Disqualifications
Any dog or bitch under 26 inches
Nose other than black
Undershot or overshot bite
Any color other than black.

Approved: June 11, 2001
Effective: September 1, 2001

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:34:10 | 显示全部楼层


伯恩山犬(Bernese Mountain Dog)
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[简介]

伯恩山犬是一种具有震撼力的品种。三色、长腿。他坚定而和谐。他很聪明、结实且灵活,在山区足以胜任象拖曳或趋赶畜群这样的工作,这也是这一品种的起源。公狗显得雄壮、母狗则显得柔和。

[历史]

有贵族气质和古老血统的伯恩山犬,在瑞士中部的牧场已有很长时间了。伯恩山犬是瑞士四种山地犬之一,因它的原产地是伯尔尼而得名。伯恩山犬和其他几种瑞士山地犬一样出名,但却是四种犬中惟一有着长而丝状被毛的犬。其他三种山地犬是瑞士大山地犬、亚边责尔山地犬、恩特布雷优山地犬。这四种山地犬在伯尔尼兹地区主要用作运货和看守农场。

    2000年前,入侵的罗马军队将这几种犬的祖先带到了瑞士。但直到第一次世界大战的前几年,他们几乎被所有伯尔尼居民遗忘。在Duerrbach地区,仍能找到伯恩山犬,但因为杂交,已经不能辨认出纯种犬。1982年,一位瑞士人,Franz Schertenleib,试图找到较好的伯恩山犬作为种犬,他的研究进行了很长时间,最终获得成功。阿伯特?黑恩(Albert Heim)教授,一位伟大的地质学家,同时又是一位研究和鉴定犬的专家,在他的努力下,恢复了伯恩山犬的地位。1907年,成立了伯恩山犬俱乐部,许多瑞士人发现他们很喜欢伯恩山犬,他们将伯恩山犬作为宠物饲养。当然在农场,伯恩山犬依然发挥着它们的作用。

    伯恩山犬长得很漂亮,长毛,身体强壮被毛墨黑色,但四肢、面颊是黄褐色的,每只眼睛上有一块黄褐色的斑,胸前是雪白的,两侧也有黄褐色的斑,吻部和前额饰有白纹。拥有白色四肢和尾尖的犬是非常理想的。胸前雪白意味着是杂交品种。被毛厚而长,略微卷曲呈波浪形。宽大而坚实的背部,深的胸部,伸展的肋部,强壮的腰部表明伯恩山犬适宜艰苦的劳动。

    伯恩山犬是一种能吃苦耐劳的犬,在寒冷的气候下生长良好。每天只需稍加整理长毛即可。伯恩山犬感情丰富,需要人们的陪伴,非常愿意学习,而且非常自信和忠诚。

    伯恩山犬在1926年第一次被带到美国,1937年得到美国养犬俱乐部的承认。

[体型]

标准肩高,公狗约63.5~69.9厘米;母狗约58.4~66.0厘米。外观呈方型,伯恩山犬的身躯长度略略大于肩高。坚实的骨骼是非常重要的。身躯丰满。

[头部]

表情聪明、活泼而且文雅。眼睛为深棕色、略呈卵形,眼睑紧贴眼球。眼睑内翻或眼睑外翻都属于严重缺陷。蓝眼睛属于失格。耳朵:中等大小,位置高,三角形。耳尖略圆,休息时,耳朵垂在脑袋边。当伯恩山犬警觉时,耳朵向前转,耳根凸起,耳朵最高处与头顶齐平。头顶平而宽,有轻微的皱纹、且轮廓清晰,但没有过分夸张的止部。口吻结实且直。鼻镜必须为黑色。嘴唇干净,伯恩山犬属于嘴唇紧密的品种,上唇只略略下垂。牙齿:剪状咬合。上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合都属于严重缺陷。无缺齿。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部结实、肌肉发达,中等长度。背线自马肩隆到臀部保持水平。胸深而宽,肋骨扩张良好,但没有桶状胸,胸深达到肘部。后背宽而坚固。腰部结实。臀部宽,到尾根处呈平滑的圆弧。尾巴毛发浓密。休息时尾巴向下垂。当他警惕时,允许尾巴向上卷,但决不允许尾巴翻卷或上翘到背部以上。尾骨直,而且延伸到飞节或更低的位置。扭曲的尾巴属于缺陷。

[前躯]

肩部适度向后,平躺,肌肉发达,决不松弛。前肢直而结实,站立时,肘部正好在肩胛以下的位置。脚腕非常轻微的倾斜。但决不能显得无力。狼爪可以被切除。足爪圆而紧凑,足趾呈拱形。

[后躯]

大腿宽,结实且肌肉发达。后膝关节角度恰当,向下逐渐地、平滑地变细,与飞节连接。飞节尽可能低,从后面观察,后脚腕直。狼爪可以被切除。足爪紧凑,既不向内翻,也不向外翻。

[被毛]

被毛浓密,中等长度、略显得光亮或整齐。显示出明亮、自然的光辉。过度卷曲或过度暗涩的被毛属于不受欢迎的。伯恩山犬需要有自然的被毛,修剪被毛在比赛中不受欢迎。

[颜色和斑纹]

伯恩山犬是三色犬。基本色为深黑色。斑纹颜色为丰富的铁锈色和清澈的白色。对称的斑纹比较理想。铁锈色出现在眼睛上面、从面颊延伸到嘴角、胸部两边、四条腿及尾巴下面。脸上有白筋、口吻有白条。白色斑纹还出现在前胸。尾巴尖也是白色的。白色足爪比较理想,但白色不能延伸到脚腕。除上面描述以外的斑纹都属于缺陷,并根据背离的程度进行扣分。白色的腿和白色领圈属于严重缺陷。基本色不是黑色属于失格。

[步态]

伯恩山犬自然的工作步态是缓慢的小跑。当然,在用于拖曳或趋赶畜群时,他可以更快一些、更灵活一些。前躯伸展良好且后躯驱动有力,并保持背线水平。没有任何多余的动作。对应的前后腿始终在同一平面内运动。增速时,腿会向中心线收拢。

[性格]

气质是自信、警惕及和善,不神经质或害羞。伯恩山犬面对陌生人,会坚定地站在原处,保持冷淡。

[失格]

蓝眼睛。 除了黑色以外的基本色。





标准通过日期:1990年2月10日

标准执行日期:1990年3月28日


Bernese Mountain Dog Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Bernese Mountain Dog is a striking. tri-colored, large dog. He is sturdy and balanced. He is intelligent, strong and agile enough to do the draft and droving work for which he was used in the mountainous regions of his origin. Dogs appear masculine, while bitches are distinctly feminine.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Measured at the withers, dogs are 25 to 27½ inches; bitches are 23 to 26 inches. Though appearing square, Bernese Mountain Dogs are slightly longer in body than they are tall. Sturdy bone is of great importance. The body is full.

Head
Expression is intelligent, animated and gentle. The eyes are dark brown and slightly oval in shape with close-fitting eyelids. Inverted or everted eyelids are serious faults. Blue eye color is a disqualification. The ears are medium sized, set high, triangular in shape. gently rounded at the tip, and hang close to the head when in repose. When the Bernese Mountain Dog is alert, the ears are brought forward and raised at the base; the top of the ear is level with the top of the skull. The skull is flat on top and broad, with a slight furrow and a well-defined, but not exaggerated stop. The muzzle is strong and straight. The nose is always black. The lips are clean and, as the Bernese Mountain Dog is a dry-mouthed breed, the flews are only slightly developed. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. An overshot or undershot bite is a serious fault. Dentition is complete.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neckis strong, muscular and of medium length. The topline is level from the withers to the croup. The chest is deep and capacious with well-sprung, but not barrel-shaped, ribs and brisket reaching at least to the elbows. The back is broad and firm. The loin is strong. The croup is broad and smoothly rounded to the tail insertion. The tail is bushy. It should be carried low when in repose. An upward swirl is permissible when the dog is alert, but the tail may never curl or be carried over the back. The bones in the tail should feel straight and should reach to the hock joint or below. A kink in the tail is a fault.

Forequarters
The shoulders are moderately laid back, flat-lying, well-muscled and never loose. The legs are straight and strong and the elbows are well under the shoulder when the dog is standing. The pasterns slope very slightly. but are never weak. Dewclaws may be removed. The feet are round and compact with well-arched toes.

Hindquarters
The thighs are broad, strong and muscular. The stifles are moderately bent and taper smoothly into the hocks. The hocks are well let down and straight as viewed from the rear. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet are compact and turn neither in nor out.

Coat
The coat is thick, moderately long and slightly wavy or straight. It has a bright natural sheen. Extremely curly or extremely dull-looking coats are undesirable. The Bernese Mountain Dog is shown in natural coat and undue trimming is to be discouraged.

Color and Markings
The Bernese Mountain Dog is tri-colored. The ground color is jet black. The markings are rich rust and clear white. Symmetry of markings is desired. Rust appears over each eye, on the cheeks reaching to at least the corner of the mouth, on each side of the chest, on all four legs, and under the tail. There is a white blaze and muzzle band. A white marking on the chest typically forms an inverted cross. The tip of the tail is white. White on the feet is desired but must not extend higher than the pasterns. Markings other than described are to be faulted in direct relationship to the extent of the deviation. White legs or a white collar are serious faults. Any ground color other than black is a disqualification.

Gait
The natural working gait of the Bernese Mountain Dog is a slow trot. However, in keeping with his use in draft and droving work, he is capable of speed and agility. There is good reach in front. Powerful drive from the rear is transmitted through a level back. There is no wasted action. Front and rear legs on each side follow through in the same plane. At increased speed, legs tend to converge toward the center line.

Temperament
The temperament is self-confident, alert and good-natured, never sharp or shy. The Bernese Mountain Dog should stand steady, though may remain aloof to the attentions of strangers.

Disqualifications
Blue eye color.
Any ground color other than black.

Approved February 10, 1990
Effective March 28, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:35:41 | 显示全部楼层


安那托利亚牧羊犬(Anatolian Shepherd)
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[简介]

这一品种的特点是:高大,壮实、有力且给人印象深刻,具有非常强的耐力,又很活泼敏捷。出于一种非常实际的目的而培养了这个品种;它是无与伦比的警卫犬,它的特长就是保护牲畜。一般外观是勇敢、但很平静,除非在被激怒的情况下。它拥有充足的骨量、肌肉发达的身躯和结实的头部。保护领地的情况是允许的。流畅的动作和平静的气质都是值得提倡的优点。

[历史]

安那托利亚牧羊犬是一种守护犬,起源于土耳其,可能有6000年的历史了,体形大小能给人留下深刻印象,一直作为士耳其的牧羊犬,对抵御入侵者起重要的作用。该品种能耐受土耳其恶劣的坏境,并逐渐进化,从而能适应牧羊人的游牧式生活方式。

忠诚、独立、结实是饲养者最为欣赏的一个特征,该犬第一次进入美国是在20世纪50年代。它是非常忠实的守护犬,但并不被认为是“有魅力的品种”。安那托利亚牧羊犬以其高度的机智,对工作的忠实卖力,赢得了主人的赞誉,但独立性强的性格决定了它对命令的反应很慢。

[体型]

一般来说,身体结构匀称比大小要重要的多。公狗的肩高约73.7厘米,体重49.90~68.04千克,比例匀称,结构合理。母狗肩高约68.6厘米,体重为36.29~54.43千克,比例匀称,结构合理。不论公狗还是母狗都不应该显得肥胖,两种性别的身体比例都应该呈矩形,这一标准适用于2岁以上的狗。

[头部]

表情显得非常聪明伶俐。眼睛中等大小,位置分的较开,杏仁状,颜色是从深褐色到浅琥珀色。蓝色眼睛或两眼颜色不一致属于失格。眼圈为黑色或褐色,眼睑无松弛或下垂的现象。色素不足属于严重缺陷。耳朵的位置应该高于头顶。耳朵为V字形,耳尖为圆形,长度约10.2~15.2厘米。耳尖的长度应该正好垂到外眼角处。耳朵应该是垂耳,立耳属于失格。颅骨大,但与身体的比例恰当。中线有轻微的皱纹,从前到后,从止部到后脑。公狗比母狗要宽。口吻比较黑,公狗的口吻更结实些,不论公狗还是母狗,都不应该有粗鲁的头部和口吻。鼻镜和嘴唇都必须是黑色或褐色。季节性褪色是允许的。色素不足属于严重缺陷。上唇适当紧凑,但足以形成“矩形”口吻的外貌特征。牙齿和牙龈结实健康。剪状咬合是最理想的,钳状咬合也可以接受。断齿不作为缺陷处理。上颚突出式的咬合或下颚突出式咬合及扭曲的咬合都属于失格。

[颈部,背线,身躯]

颈部略有弧度,有力且肌肉发达,中等长度,颈部的皮毛比身躯上的要多,从而形成了起保护作用的毛领子。喉部不应该下垂或过于夸张。行走时背线应该保持平直。后背有力、肌肉发达而且很平直,马肩隆向后,到腰部这一段略呈向下、向臀部的弧形。身躯比例恰当,没有任何夸张的地方。决不肥胖或柔软。胸深(到肘部),胸腔扩张良好,与腰部界限清晰。尾巴长,延伸至飞节。尾根位置高,放送时,尾巴自然下垂,尾尖向上卷起。当警惕时,尾巴向上举,并不断“旋转”。在行走中,下垂或“旋转”都允许。“旋转”比较理想,尾巴不一定要完全舒展。

[前躯]

肩膀应该肌肉发达,充分舒展、肩胛骨又长又宽而且倾斜。肘部既不向外翻也不向内弯。前肢比较长,骨量充足,前腿直,且脚腕结实。足爪结实而紧凑,脚趾成拱形,使足爪形成卵形。趾甲短粗,脚垫厚实而坚韧。狼爪可能已经被切除。

[后躯]

结实,拥有宽宽的大腿和大量肌肉。后膝关节呈合适的角度,而且飞节与后躯的比例恰当。从后面观察,腿相互间平行。足爪结实而紧凑,脚趾成拱形,使足爪形成卵形。可能存在双个狼爪,狼爪可能已经被切除。

[被毛]

被毛有短的(约1英寸长,不紧密)、有粗而松的(约4英寸长),颈部的毛发和鬃毛比较长也比较厚。浓密的底毛是身体各部位都有的。耳朵边缘、腿、臀部和尾巴上有羽状饰毛。

[颜色]

任何颜色和斑纹都可以接受。

[步态]

快步行走时,步态显得强大、有力和流畅。从前面或后面观察,腿都保持竖直,既不向内弯,也不向外弯,更不会出现足爪交叉或相互干涉的情况。随着速度加快,足爪会向身躯的中心线收拢。从侧面观察,前肢应该平稳地伸出,马肩隆和背线几乎完全平直,只有轻微的上升和下降。后肢的结构使驱动平稳,飞节也曲伸自如。

[性格]

警觉且聪明,平静而谨慎。天生具有保护性,他勇敢,而且适应性很强。他非常忠诚。天生具有很强的领地保护观念。他会对陌生人持保留态度,如果陌生人但在其领地以外时,问题不大。这一品种通常不会做出活泼的反应。支配欲过强也属于缺陷。

[失格]

蓝色眼睛或两眼颜色不一致。

立耳。

上颚突出式的咬合或下颚突出式咬合及扭曲的咬合。





标准通过日期:1995年6月

标准执行日期:1996年6月1日

Anatolian Shepherd Dog Breed Standard


General Appearance
Large, rugged, powerful and impressive, possessing great endurance and agility. Developed through a set of very demanding circumstances for a purely utilitarian purpose; he is a working guard dog without equal, with a unique ability to protect livestock. General impression - Appears bold, but calm, unless challenged. He possesses size, good bone, a well-muscled torso with a strong head. Reserve out of its territory is acceptable. Fluid movement and even temperament is desirable.

Size, Proportion, Substance
General balance is more important than absolute size. Dogs should be from 29 inches and weighing from 110 to 150 pounds proportionate to size and structure. Bitches should be from 27 inches, weighing from 80 to 120 pounds, proportionate to size and structure. Neither dog nor bitch appear fat. Both dog and bitch should be rectangular, in direct proportion to height. Measurements and weights apply at age 2 or older.

Head
Expression should be intelligent. Eyes are medium size, set apart, almond shaped and dark brown to light amber in color. Blue eyes or eyes of two different colors are a disqualification. Eye rims will be black or brown and without sag or looseness of haw. Incomplete pigment is a serious fault. Ears should be set on no higher than the plane of the head. V-shaped, rounded apex, measuring about four inches at the base to six inches in length. The tip should be just long enough to reach the outside corner of the eyelid. Ears dropped to sides. Erect ears are a disqualification. Skull is large but in proportion to the body. There is a slight centerline furrow, fore and aft, from apparent stop to moderate occiput. Broader in dogs than in bitches. Muzzle is blockier and stronger for the dog, but neither dog nor bitch would have a snipey head or muzzle. Nose and flews must be solid black or brown. Seasonal fading is not to be penalized. Incomplete pigment is a serious fault. Flews are normally dry but pronounced enough to contribute to \"squaring\" the overall muzzle appearance. Teeth and gums strong and healthy. Scissors bite preferred, level bite acceptable. Broken teeth are not to be faulted. Overshot, undershot or wry bite are disqualifications.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck slightly arched, powerful, and muscular, moderate in length with more skin and fur than elsewhere on the body, forming a protective ruff. The dewlap should not be pendulous and excessive. Topline will appear level when gaiting. Back will be powerful, muscular, and level, with drop behind withers and gradual arch over loin, sloping slightly downward at the croup. Body well proportioned, functional, without exaggeration. Never fat or soft. Chest is deep (to the elbow) and well-sprung with a distinct tuck up at the loin. Tail should be long and reaching to the hocks. Set on rather high. When relaxed, it is carried low with the end curled upwards. When alert, the tail is carried high, making a \"wheel.\" Both low and wheel carriage are acceptable, when gaiting. \"Wheel\" carriage preferred. The tail will not necessarily uncurl totally.

Forequarters
Shoulders should be muscular and well developed, blades long, broad and sloping. Elbows should be neither in nor out. Forelegs should be relatively long, well-boned and set straight with strong pasterns. The feet are strong and compact with well-arched toes, oval in shape. They should have stout nails with pads thick and tough. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters
Strong, with broad thighs and heavily muscled. Angulation at the stifle and hock are in proportion to the forequarters. As seen from behind, the legs are parallel. The feet are strong and compact with well-arched toes, oval in shape. Double dewclaws may exist. Dewclaws may be removed.

Coat
Short (one inch minimum, not tight) to Rough (approximately 4 inches in length) with neck hair slightly longer. Somewhat longer and thicker at the neck and mane. A thick undercoat is common to all. Feathering may occur on the ear fringes, legs, breeching, and tail.

Color
All color patterns and markings are equally acceptable.

Gait
At the trot, the gait is powerful yet fluid. When viewed from the front or rear, the legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. With increased speed, footfall converges toward the center line of gravity. When viewed from the side, the front legs should reach out smoothly with no obvious pounding. The withers and backline should stay nearly level with little rise or fall. The rear assembly should push out smoothly with hocks doing their share of the work and flexing well.

Temperament
Alert and intelligent, calm and observant. Instinctively protective, he is courageous and highly adaptable. He is very loyal and responsive. Highly territorial, he is a natural guard. Reserve around strangers and off its territory is acceptable. Responsiveness with animation is not characteristic of the breed. Overhandling would be discouraged.

Disqualifications
Blue eyes or eyes of two different colors.
Erect ears.
Overshot, undershot, or wry bite.

Approved: June 1995
Effective: June 1, 1996

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:36:51 | 显示全部楼层


秋田犬(Akita)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

日本秋田犬因原产地秋田县而得名。它的类别属于尖嘴犬类,有很大的力量,并且十分的强健,它是非常喜好运动的品种之一。在日本被用来做都火警警备犬,现在在世界各地也成为十分受欢迎的家庭犬。它们高大、有力、机灵且骨量充足。头部宽阔、形成一个钝三角形,口吻深和小眼睛,立耳、耳朵向前伸,与颈部成一直线,这是这一品种的显著特征。大而卷曲的尾巴,成比例的宽大的头部也是这一品种的显著特征。

[历史]

在日本本地的犬中可分为大、中、小三种类型,而秋田犬是这当中的最大者,一直被用来狩猎。数百年来,以斗牛而闻名,遗憾的是,现在在日本这项活动早已被禁止了。为了加强秋田犬的斗技,让它更强壮威猛、身材硕大,有些饲养者便对其进行其它品种的配种,这就使秋田犬出现了令人忧虑的杂化现象,幸好现在已经有所固定的品种了。在日本有一个关于秋田犬对主人终生忠贞不渝的的感人传说:相传有一只秋田犬每天去车站等它的主人,而它的主人早已去世了,它足足等了九年。为此,人们就在东京涉古车站为它的感人事迹雕塑了一尊铜像。第二次世界大战后,秋田犬随美军到达美国。

秋田犬的身体十分的强健、健壮。它表现的非常的勇敢,是很容易被人驯服的。而且它的感情极为丰富,对自己的主人永远是忠实的。秋田犬最拿手的工作是在雪地里或水中寻找被猎手击落的猎物,并将猎物取回。而在现在的狩猎已经用不到秋田犬了。在日本原产地人们给了它超乎想象的评价。1931年7月,日本GOVERMENT根据天然纪念物保护法,指定秋田犬为日本国固定的饲养动物,并给它一个天然纪念物的封号。

[体型]

公犬肩高约66.0~71.1厘米。母犬肩高约61.0~66.0厘米)。失格:公犬低于63.5厘米或母犬低于58.4厘米。

[头部]

粗大,但与身体比例恰当;休息时,没有什么皱纹;两耳朵间的头颅宽而平;颌部呈正方形,有力且喉部轻微。从上部观察,头部轮廓为钝三角形。缺陷:窄或口吻长的头部。

口吻:宽而完整。从鼻镜到止部距离与从止部到后脑距离的比例为2/3。

止部:轮廓清晰,但不突然。有一条浅皱纹向前额伸展。

鼻镜:宽且为黑色。白色秋田犬允许有肝色鼻镜,但黑色永远为首选。失格: 蝴蝶鼻或鼻镜缺少色素。

耳朵:秋田犬的耳朵是这一品种的显著特征。它们有力地直立着,很小。如果向前折叠,其长度使耳朵尖正好触及上眼角。耳朵呈三角形,耳尖略圆,耳根宽,耳根位置距离较宽,但耳根位置不能很低,略向前伸,超过眼睛,与颈部成同一直线。失格:垂耳或断耳。

眼睛:深褐色,小,位置深且外形为三角形。眼圈为黑色且紧。

嘴唇和舌头:嘴唇为黑色且不下垂;舌头为粉红色。

牙齿:结实,剪状咬合比较理想,钳状咬合也可以接受。失格:显著的下颚突出式咬合或上颚突出式咬合。

[颈部和身躯]

颈部:粗壮且肌肉发达;较短,向肩部逐渐加宽。在头颅下部有显著的突起。

身躯:体长略大于身高,公犬体长与身高的比例约10/9;母犬体长与身高的比例约11/9。胸宽而深;胸的深度为肩高的1/2。肋骨扩张良好,胸肌发达。背部水平,腰部肌肉坚实、适度折起。皮肤柔顺但不松弛。严重缺陷:骨量不足,身躯细长。

[尾巴]

大而丰满,尾根位置高写翻卷在后背,或有3/4靠在腰部,打一个卷或两个卷,总是卷到背线以下。打3/4卷时,尾巴尖耷拉在腰部。尾根粗大结实。如果尾巴下垂,其长度正好达到飞节。尾巴的毛发粗壮、直而浓密,看起来不想羽毛。失格:镰刀尾或直尾。

[前躯、后躯]

前躯:肩部结实而有力,适度向后。从前面观察,前肢骨骼非常粗壮,且笔直。腕部向前约15度。缺陷:肘部向内或向外翻,松肩膀。

后躯:后躯宽阔,肌肉发达且骨量与前肢不相上下。大腿轮廓清晰。后膝关节适度倾斜;飞节靠下,即不内翻也不外翻。

狼爪:一般前肢的狼爪不切除;而后肢的狼爪需要切除。

足爪:猫足,足爪圆拱且脚垫厚实。足爪笔直向前。

[被毛]

双层毛。底毛厚实、柔软、浓密且比披毛略短。披毛直、粗硬且竖立在身体上。头部、腿部和耳朵的毛发略短些。马肩隆处和臀部毛发的长度约5.1厘米,比身体其他部分略长些,除了尾巴,是身体上毛发最长且最厚实的部位。缺陷:任何部位出现羽状饰毛。

[颜色]

任何颜色,包括白色、斑点、杂色。颜色艳丽、清晰且斑纹和谐,有面具或没面具。白色秋田犬无面具。杂色秋田为白色底色带有大块的、均匀的色块,覆盖了头部和超过1/3的身体。底毛颜色也许与披毛颜色不同。

[步态]

轻快而有力、步幅中等。后背保持结实、稳固和水平。后肢与前肢在同一直线上运动。

[性格]

警惕且反应迅速,威严而勇敢。对其他犬有攻击性。

[失格]

蝴蝶鼻或鼻镜缺乏色素。垂耳或断耳。显著的下颚突出式咬合或上颚突出式咬合。镰刀尾或直尾。公犬低于63.5厘米或母犬低于58.4厘米。





标准通过日期:1972年12月12日

Akita Breed Standard


General Appearance
Large, powerful, alert, with much substance and heavy bone. The broad head, forming a blunt triangle, with deep muzzle, small eyes and erect ears carried forward in line with back of neck, is characteristic of the breed. The large, curled tail, balancing the broad head, is also characteristic of the breed.

Head
Massive but in balance with body; free of wrinkle when at ease. Skull flat between ears and broad; jaws square and powerful with minimal dewlap. Head forms a blunt triangle when viewed from above. Fault--Narrow or snipy head. Muzzle--Broad and full. Distance from nose to stop is to distance from stop to occiput as 2 is to 3. Stop--Well defined, but not too abrupt. A shallow furrow extends well up forehead. Nose--Broad and black. Liver permitted on white Akitas, but black always preferred. Disqualification--Butterfly nose or total lack of pigmentation on nose. Ears--The ears of the Akita are characteristic of the breed. They are strongly erect and small in relation to rest of head. If ear is folded forward for measuring length, tip will touch upper eye rim. Ears are triangular, slightly rounded at tip, wide at base, set wide on head but not too low, and carried slightly forward over eyes in line with back of neck. Disqualification--Drop or broken ears. Eyes--Dark brown, small, deep-set and triangular in shape. Eye rims black and tight. Lips and Tongue--Lips black and not pendulous; tongue pink. Teeth--Strong with scissors bite preferred, but level bite acceptable. Disqualification--Noticeably undershot or overshot.

Neck and Body
Neck--Thick and muscular; comparatively short, widening gradually toward shoulders. A pronounced crest blends in with base of skull. Body--Longer than high, as 10 is to 9 in males; 11 to 9 in bitches. Chest wide and deep; depth of chest is one-half height of dog at shoulder. Ribs well sprung, brisket well developed. Level back with firmly-muscled loin and moderate tuck-up. Skin pliant but not loose. Serious Faults--Light bone, rangy body.

Tail
Large and full, set high and carried over back or against flank in a three-quarter, full, or double curl, always dipping to or below level of back. On a three-quarter curl, tip drops well down flank. Root large and strong. Tail bone reaches hock when let down. Hair coarse, straight and full, with no appearance of a plume. Disqualification--Sickle or uncurled tail.

Forequarters and Hindquarters
Forequarters--Shoulders strong and powerful with moderate layback. Forelegs heavy-boned and straight as viewed from front. Angle of pastern 15 degrees forward from vertical. Faults--Elbows in or out, loose shoulders. Hindquarters--Width, muscular development and bone comparable to forequarters. Upper thighs well developed. Stifle moderately bent and hocks well let down, turning neither in nor out. Dewclaws--On front legs generally not removed; dewclaws on hind legs generally removed. Feet--Cat feet, well knuckled up with thick pads. Feet straight ahead.

Coat
Double-coated. Undercoat thick, soft, dense and shorter than outer coat. Outer coat straight, harsh and standing somewhat off body. Hair on head, legs and ears short. Length of hair at withers and rump approximately two inches, which is slightly longer than on rest of body, except tail, where coat is longest and most profuse. Fault--Any indication of ruff or feathering.

Color
Any color including white; brindle; or pinto. Colors are brilliant and clear and markings are well balanced, with or without mask or blaze. White Akitas have no mask. Pinto has a white background with large, evenly placed patches covering head and more than one-third of body. Undercoat may be a different color from outer coat.

Gait
Brisk and powerful with strides of moderate length. Back remains strong, firm and level. Rear legs move in line with front legs.

Size
Males 26 to 28 inches at the withers; bitches 24 to 26 inches. Disqualification--dogs under 25 inches; bitches under 23 inches.

Temperament
Alert and responsive, dignified and courageous. Aggressive toward other dogs.

Disqualifications
Butterfly nose or total lack of pigmentation on nose.
Drop or broken ears.
Noticeably undershot or overshot.
Sickle or uncurled tail.
Dogs under 25 inches; bitches under 23 inches.

Approved December 12, 1972

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:44:31 | 显示全部楼层
梗犬组(Terrier Group)



刚毛猎狐梗(Wire Fox Terrier )AKC标准及介绍
[简介]
这种狗的性格一般都比较警惕、动作迅速、热情。其眼神及耳朵和尾巴的姿势很有特点。较小规模的骨量和力量是必须的特征;但这并非表示刚毛猎狐梗是一种傻狗,或有任何粗糙的地方——其实,速度与耐力与力量一样重要。腿不能太长也不能太短。他应该象一个聪明的猎人,能适应许多种地形,而且后背短。
注意:如果其在工作中留下伤疤或旧伤,将不影响其参加比赛,除非这些伤妨碍其正常活动或影响其工作能力。
[体型]
据目前标准,一个标准的刚毛猎狐梗的肩高不应该超过15.5英寸,体长不应该超过12英寸。母狗相应的小一些。与之相对应的,头部长度约为7~7.5英寸。一条比赛的狗,其身高体长在上述范围内的话,其体重约在18磅,母狗大约轻2磅,上下浮动范围为1磅。
这些指标是考虑到某一点或几点因素,平衡所有因素而制订的。刚毛猎狐梗是梗类犬在解剖学方面的典范。头部比例的要点是头颅与口吻的比例;头部和后背;肩高;身体的理想比例为肩高与体长相等。需要加上一点,虽然就象肩高、体长一样,可以精确地测出头部尺寸,但不作为品种评定的严格规定。
[头部]
发育良好的成年刚毛猎狐梗头部的正确长度,既后枕骨至鼻孔的距离,约为7~7.5英寸,母狗的尺寸相应小一些。如果测量数据超出这一范围,则说明尺寸太大,虽然,这种情况很少,但自然界偶尔也会出现畸形的情况。刚毛猎狐梗的头部长度以7.5英寸为最理想。一个比例匀称的头部,头颅部分与面部的长度只有很小的差异。如果,无论怎么看,面部都明显短了些,就属于缺陷,使头部看起来不牢固而且“没长开”。其他方面,如果眼睛位置太高,太靠近耳朵,也属于有缺陷,称为“外国表情”。眼神应该显示出热情。眼睛颜色深,较小,位置深,不突出,充满热情、活泼和聪慧,形状接近圆形且分的不太远。任何倾向于黄色的眼睛都属于缺陷。耳朵呈V字形,很小,中等厚度,向前垂在面颊边,耳朵的折叠线略高于头顶。而不象猎狐犬那样垂在头部两侧。失格:立耳、郁金香耳或玫瑰耳。
头颅平坦,略有倾斜,宽度向眼睛方向渐收。发育良好的成年狗,头颅最宽部分不超过3.5英寸,母狗相应小一些。如果发育正常的成年狗的头颅宽度超过这一尺寸,则成为“粗俗”,而发育正常的成年狗的头颅宽度不到这一尺寸,则称为“母狗”脑袋。虽然,脸部轮廓从眼睛到口吻逐渐变细,而且与前额连接处略显倾斜,而不是“盘子”脸或眼睛前面部分突然向下,而是较丰满和平直,但也不象精心雕琢的“楔子”。
颌部骨骼发育良好,牙齿洁白、结实,使面部显得结实有力,这很重要。过多的骨骼和肌肉都是多余的,而且难看。过于丰满和圆润的面颊被称为“厚脸皮”。鼻镜颜色为黑色。失格:鼻镜颜色为白色、粉色、有斑点或其他颜色。
颚部结实而且肌肉发达,牙齿为剪状咬合。失格:上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合。
[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部整洁且肌肉发达,喉部没有赘肉,正常长度,从侧面看,显得线条优美。背部应该短而平直、结实,不显得松弛。腰部非常有力,肌肉发达,非常轻微的上拱。术语“松弛”是指肩部后的脊背显得略向下陷,同时从最后一根肋骨到臀部间的距离较长的情况。当最后一根肋骨与臀部间的距离很短的情况下,我们才称之为“紧密结合”或“连接紧密”。刚毛猎狐梗的脊背非常短,使其颈部具有足够的长度和非常自由的动作。母狗的连接相应的略长一些。胸部深而且不宽,但是太窄的胸部和过宽的胸部都不符合要求。过深的胸部会影响其在不同地形的行动。胸部下半部深。前半部肋骨适度圆拱,后半部肋骨扩张良好。尾部位置略高,愉快地举着,但不能卷曲。尾巴应该很有力,在总长的3/4处断尾,过短的尾巴既不适合工作,也不适合比赛。
[前躯]
从前面看,肩部很陡的向下倾斜,从与颈部结合处向末端倾斜比较好看。从侧面看,肩部长,与背部结合良好,从末端向马肩隆处倾斜,而且始终轮廓鲜明。肩部向后平放,使其前躯足够长,加上短背,组成了理想的梗或说是猎人。肘部垂直挂在身体边上,能自由活动。从任何角度看,前肢都应该是笔直的,骨骼强壮。
足爪圆,紧凑而且不大;脚垫坚硬而且坚韧;足尖呈适度的拱形,不向内翻或外翻。刚毛猎狐梗的前肢与足爪的正确形状,使身体重量均匀的分布于脚趾和脚掌的肉垫上。
[后躯]
应该结实而且肌肉发达,伏卧或下蹲非常轻松;大腿长而有力,后膝关节角度恰当,不向内翻或向外翻;飞节与大腿呈适当角度,非常低,从后面看,垂直,而且彼此平行。当狗站着时,后膝关节弯曲,象猎狐犬。最差的后躯应该是由很短的第二节大腿和笔直的后膝关节组成。这样使后腿成为摆设而不是推进工具。从前面或后面看,运动中后腿都应该保持笔直,后膝关节不外翻。
足爪与前躯相同。
[被毛]
最好的被毛看起来不平整,毛发扭曲,浓密,金属丝质地。毛发生长的紧密而且粗壮,所以用手拨开毛发也看不见皮肤。在这些刚毛底部,有一层短、细、软的毛发称为底毛。身体侧面的毛发不如背上的和腿上的毛发硬。最硬的一些毛发是“卷缩”的或略带波纹的,但卷曲的被毛不受欢迎。上下颌的毛发疏松,较长,给脸部一个结实的容貌。前腿的被毛也是浓密而疏松的。肩部、颈部的毛发长度为0.5~1英寸,马肩隆、后背、肋部和四肢的毛发长度为1~1.5英寸。被毛长度与气候、季节、及每个个体都有关系。评审需要根据当时情况来决定什么样的“毛量”符合要求。
[颜色]
白色上带有斑纹;但石板色、红色或肝色的斑纹不受欢迎。这一点只占很小比例分数或不算分数。

[步态]
步态和站姿十分重要。当刚毛猎狐梗快步走时,腿保持笔直,前腿挂在身体两侧,平行摆动,类似钟摆。主要的驱动力来自后腿,可以发现其较长的大腿,肌肉发达的第二节大腿及适度弯曲的后膝关节,加上飞节提供的蹬力和“抓地”力,组成了完美的动作。从前面靠近时,前腿形成连续的直线,足爪间的距离与肘部间距离一致。当狗静止时,肩部的缺陷很难发现,但其行走时,如果有缺陷,就很明显,前肢会交叉,形成“交织”或“盘子”形。反之,前肢运动受肩部控制,足爪分的距离分的很开,形成划桨步。当飞节内翻,后膝关节和足爪外翻,形成牛肢状后躯时,将严重影响后躯推动力。当飞节外翻,导致足爪交叉,则形成笨拙不雅的步态。
[气质]
警惕、动作迅速、热情。

[失格]
立耳、郁金香耳或玫瑰耳。
鼻镜为白色、粉色或斑点,及其他各种颜色。
上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合

标准通过日期:1991年2月9日
标准执行日期:1991年3月27日

[以下为刚毛猎狐梗(Wire Fox Terrier)AKC标准英文原版]

Wire Fox Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Terrier should be alert, quick of movement, keen of expression, on the tip-toe of expectation at the slightest provocation. Character is imparted by the expression of the eyes and by the carriage of ears and tail.

Bone and strength in a small compass are essential, but this must not be taken to mean that a Terrier should be \"cloddy,\" or in any way coarse--speed and endurance being requisite as well as power. The Terrier must on no account be leggy, nor must he be too short on the leg. He should stand like a cleverly made, short-backed hunter, covering a lot of ground.

N.B. Old scars or injuries, the result of work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice a Terrier\'s chance in the show ring, unless they interfere with its movement or with its utility for work or stud.

Size, Proportion, Substance
According to present-day requirements, a full-sized, well balanced dog should not exceed 15½ inches at the withers--the bitch being proportionately lower--nor should the length of back from withers to root of tail exceed 12 inches, while to maintain the relative proportions, the head-as mentioned below-should not exceed 7¼ inches or be less than 7 inches. A dog with these measurements should scale 18 pounds in show condition--a bitch weighing some two pounds less--with a margin of one pound either way.

The dog should be balanced and this may be defined as the correct proportions of a certain point or points, when considered in relation to a certain other point or points. It is the keystone of the Terrier\'s anatomy. The chief points for consideration are the relative proportions of skull and foreface; head and back; height at withers; and length of body from shoulder point to buttock--the ideal of proportion being reached when the last two measurements are the same. It should be added that, although the head measurements can be taken with absolute accuracy, the height at withers and length of back are approximate, and are inserted for the information of breeders and exhibitors rather than as a hard-and-fast rule.

Head
The length of the head of a full-grown well developed dog of correct size--measured with calipers--from the back of the occipital bone to the nostrils-should be from 7 to 7¼ inches, the bitch\'s head being proportionately shorter. Any measurement in excess of this usually indicates an oversized or long-backed specimen, although occasionally--so rarely as to partake of the nature of a freak--a Terrier of correct size may boast a head 7½ inches in length. In a well balanced head there should be little apparent difference in length between skull and foreface. If, however, the foreface is noticeably shorter, it amounts to a fault, the head looking weak and \"unfinished.\" On the other hand, when the eyes are set too high up in the skull and too near the ears, it also amounts to a fault, the head being said to have a \"foreign appearance.\"

Keen of expression. Eyes should be dark in color, moderately small, rather deep-set, not prominent, and full of fire, life, and intelligence; as nearly as possible circular in shape, and not too far apart. Anything approaching a yellow eye is most objectionable. Ears should be small and V-shaped and of moderate thickness, the flaps neatly folded over and dropping forward close to the cheeks. The topline of the folded ear should be well above the level of the skull. A pendulous ear, hanging dead by the side of the head like a Hound\'s, is uncharacteristic of the Terrier, while an ear which is semierect is still more undesirable. Disqualifications--Ears prick, tulip or rose.

The topline of the skull should be almost flat, sloping slightly and gradually decreasing in width toward the eyes, and should not exceed 3½ inches in diameter at the widest part--measuring with the calipers--in the full-grown dog of correct size, the bitch\'s skull being proportionately narrower. If this measurement is exceeded, the skull is termed \"coarse,\" while a full-grown dog with a much narrower skull is termed \"bitchy\" in head.

Although the foreface should gradually taper from eye to muzzle and should dip slightly at its juncture with the forehead, it should not \"dish\" or fall away quickly below the eyes, where it should be full and well made up, but relieved from \"wedginess\" by a little delicate chiseling. While well developed jaw bones, armed with a set of strong, white teeth, impart that appearance of strength to the foreface which is so desirable, an excessive bony or muscular development of the jaws is both unnecessary and unsightly, as it is partly responsible for the full and rounded contour of the cheeks to which the term \"cheeky\" is applied.

Nose should be black. Disqualifications--Nose white, cherry or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colors. Mouth--Both upper and lower jaws should be strong and muscular, the teeth as nearly as possible level and capable of closing together like a vise the lower canines locking in front of the upper and the points of the upper incisors slightly overlapping the lower.
Disqualifications--Much undershot, or much overshot.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck should be clean, muscular, of fair length, free from throatiness and presenting a graceful curve when viewed from the side. The back should be short and level with no appearance of slackness--the loins muscular and very slightly arched. The term \"slackness\" is applied both to the portion of the back immediately behind the withers when it shows any tendency to dip, and also the flanks when there is too much space between the back ribs and hipbone. When there is little space between the ribs and hips, the dog is said to be \"short in couplings,\" \"short-coupled,\" or \"well ribbed up.\" A Terrier can scarcely be too short in back, provided he has sufficient length of neck and liberty of movement. The bitch may be slightly longer in couplings than the dog.

Chest deep and not broad, a too narrow chest being almost as undesirable as a very broad one. Excessive depth of chest and brisket is an impediment to a Terrier when going to ground. The brisket should be deep, the front ribs moderately arched, and the back ribs deep and well sprung. Tail should be set on rather high and carried gaily but not curled. It should be of good strength and substance and of fair length-a three-quarters dock is about right--since it affords the only safe grip when handling working Terriers. A very short tail is suitable neither for work nor show.

Forequarters
Shoulders when viewed from the front should slope steeply downwards from their juncture, with the neck towards the points, which should be fine. When viewed from the side they should be long, well laid back, and should slope obliquely backwards from points to withers, which should always be clean-cut. A shoulder well laid back gives the long forehand which, in combination with a short back, is so desirable in Terrier or Hunter. The elbows should hang perpendicular to the body, working free of the sides, carried straight through in traveling. Viewed from any direction the legs should be straight, the bone of the forelegs strong right down to the feet. Feet should be round, compact, and not large--the pads tough and well cushioned, and the toes moderately arched and turned neither in nor out. A Terrier with good-shaped forelegs and feet will wear his nails down short by contact with the road surface, the weight of the body being evenly distributed between the toe pads and the heels.

Hindquarters
Should be strong and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and powerful; the stifles well curved and turned neither in nor out; the hock joints well bent and near the ground; the hocks perfectly upright and parallel with each other when viewed from behind. The worst possible form of hindquarters consists of a short second thigh and a straight stifle, a combination which causes the hind legs to act as props rather than instruments of propulsion. The hind legs should be carried straight through in traveling. Feet as in front.

Coat
The best coats appear to be broken, the hairs having a tendency to twist, and are of dense, wiry texture--like coconut matting--the hairs growing so closely and strongly together that, when parted with the fingers, the skin cannot be seen. At the base of these stiff hairs is a shorter growth of finer and softer hair--termed the undercoat. The coat on the sides is never quite so hard as that on the back and quarters. Some of the hardest coats are \"crinkly\" or slightly waved, but a curly coat is very objectionable. The hair on the upper and lower jaws should be crisp and only sufficiently long to impart an appearance of strength to the foreface. The hair on the forelegs should also be dense and crisp. The coat should average in length from ¾ to one inch on shoulders and neck, lengthening to 1½ inches on withers, back, ribs, and quarters. These measurements are given rather as a guide to exhibitors than as an infallible rule, since the length of coat depends on the climate, seasons, and individual animal. The judge must form his own opinion as to what constitutes a \"sufficient\" coat on the day.

Color
White should predominate; brindle, red, liver or slaty blue are objectionable. Otherwise, color is of little or no importance.

Gait
The movement or action is the crucial test of conformation. The Terrier\'s legs should be carried straight forward while traveling, the forelegs hanging perpendicular and swinging parallel to the sides, like the pendulum of a clock. The principal propulsive power is furnished by the hind legs, perfection of action being found in the Terrier possessing long thighs and muscular second thighs well bent at the stifles, which admit of a strong forward thrust or \"snatch\" of the hocks. When approaching, the forelegs should form a continuation of the straight of the front, the feet being the same distance apart as the elbows. When stationary it is often difficult to determine whether a dog is slightly out at shoulder but, directly he moves, the defect--if it exists--becomes more apparent, the forefeet having a tendency to cross, \"weave,\" or \"dish.\" When, on the contrary, the dog is tied at the shoulder, the tendency of the feet is to move wider apart, with a sort of paddling action. When the hocks are turned in-cow-hocks-the stifles and feet are turned outwards, resulting in a serious loss of propulsive power. When the hocks are turned outwards the tendency of the hind feet is to cross, resulting in an ungainly waddle.

Temperament
The Terrier should be alert, quick of movement, keen of expression, on the tip-toe of expectation at the slightest provocation.

Disqualifications
Ears prick, tulip or rose.
Nose white, cherry or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colors.
Mouth much undershot, or much overshot.

Approved February 9, 1991
Effective March 27, 1991

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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西高地白梗West Highland White Terrier 介绍及AKC标准
[西高地白梗简介]
西部高地白梗是一种小体型、爱玩的、协调的、坚定的梗类犬,具有良好的艺术气质,非常自负,身体结构结实,胸部和后腰较深,后背笔直,后躯有力,腿部肌肉发达,显示出强大的力量和活力的组合。被毛约2英寸长,白色,质地硬,长有浓密而柔软的底毛。其外观应该显得优美,背部和身体两侧的长长被毛与短一些的颈部及肩部被毛漂亮的混合在一起。在头部周围留有大量被毛,形成了典型的西部高地白梗的表情。

[西高地白梗的体型]
理想的体型是公狗肩高约11英寸,母狗的肩高约10英寸。轻微的偏差是可以接受的。西部高地白梗是一种紧凑的狗,身体平衡、骨量充足。马肩隆到尾根间的身体相对肩高而言,略短一些。结合简短且骨量充足。缺陷:超高或高度不够。骨骼纤细。

[西高地白梗的头部]
从前面观察,显示出圆形外观。与身躯比例协调。表情:尖锐、好奇、活跃。
眼睛:距离分的很开,中等大小,杏仁状,深褐色,位置深,机警而聪明。从浓重的眉毛下看出来,给人以锐利的感觉。眼圈威黑色。缺陷:小、突出或浅色的眼睛。
耳朵小,紧紧地竖立着,彼此间距离比较宽,位于头顶两侧的边缘。耳朵末梢很尖,决不允许剪耳。耳朵上的毛发需要修剪,使其柔软一些,平滑一些,耳朵末梢留有璎珞。黑色皮肤比较理想。缺陷:耳朵末梢圆、宽、长、耳朵位置近,不能紧紧地竖立、或位置太低,位于头部两侧。
头颅:宽、比口吻略长。头顶不是平坦的,但两耳间略呈圆拱形。向眼睛方向逐渐变细。止部非常明确,眉毛浓重。缺陷:过长或窄的头颅。
口吻钝,比头颅略短,有力且向鼻镜方向轻微变细,鼻镜大而黑。颌部平而有力。嘴唇是黑色的。缺陷:口吻比头颅长。鼻镜为黑色外的其他颜色。
咬合:对狗的体型而言,牙齿很大。上下颚的犬牙之间,必须有6颗门牙。偶尔缺少前臼齿是可以接受的。剪状咬合或钳状咬合都可以接受。缺陷:缺齿或牙齿不齐。缺少门牙或缺少多个前臼齿。上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合。

[西高地白梗的颈部、背线和身躯]
颈部:肌肉发达且位于肩部适当的位置,略倾斜。颈部的长度与狗的其他部分比例恰当。缺陷:颈部太长或太短。
背线:不论站立时还是行走中,背线都平坦、水平。缺陷:高耸,任何与前面描述的情况有所背离。
身躯:紧凑而且结实。肋骨深,上半部肋骨支撑良好。深度至少达到肘部,显示出平坦的外观。后部肋骨也相当深,最后一根肋骨到后腿的距离很短,使身躯能自由运动。胸非常深,扩展到肘部,其宽度与狗的整个身体呈恰当的比例。腰部短、宽而结实。缺陷:柔弱,太长或太短。桶状胸,肋骨没有达到肘部。
尾巴:相对较短,骨量充足,形状象胡萝卜。当狗站立时,尾巴竖立,但不应该高于头顶的水平线。尾巴被坚硬的毛发所覆盖,没有饰毛。尽可能直,欢快地举着,但不能卷曲在背后。尾根的位置很高,所以脊椎不会向下倾斜。不允许断尾。缺陷:尾根位置太低,尾巴太长、太细,尾巴半举着或卷曲在背后。

[西高地白梗的前躯]
肩胛:位置恰当,很好的与脊椎结合。前臂与肩胛连接,长度中等,角度恰当。缺陷:峻峭的肩胛或肩胛负担过重。前臂太短或太直。
腿:前腿肌肉发达,骨骼粗壮。相对较短,但有足够的长度使狗不至于太靠近地面。腿直,覆盖着浓密的、短短的、坚硬的毛发。它们位于肩胛下面,明确地支撑着狗的身躯。从肘部到马肩隆与从肘部到地面的距离大致相等。缺陷:肘部向外。骨量不足,前部不合理。
足爪:前足爪比后足爪大,圆形,比例恰当,结实,脚垫厚实;也许略向外,呈轻微外八字。狼爪可以切除。黑色的脚垫和趾甲比较理想,尽管年龄较大的狗可能趾甲会褪色。

[西高地白梗的后躯]
大腿肌肉非常发达,角度恰当,距离不很宽,飞节骨量充足、短,从后面观察,彼此平行。
腿:后面的腿肌肉发达,相对较短且粗壮有力。缺陷:飞节柔弱,飞节长,缺少必要的角度。牛肢。
足爪:后足爪比前足爪小一些,脚垫厚实。狼爪可以切除。

[西高地白梗的被毛]
非常重要,而且很少看到完美的被毛。首先,必须有两层被毛。头部的毛发构成了头部圆形的外观。外层被毛由直而硬的白色毛发组成,约2英寸长,颈部和肩部的毛发短一些,经过修整,短毛区域与长毛的肚子及腿部完美的融合为一体。理想的被毛是坚硬的、笔直的、白色毛发,而且坚硬而直的小麦色毛发比白色蓬松的或柔软的毛发更可取。被毛也许有点软、有点长,但决不能给人以象绒毛的感觉。缺陷:柔软的被毛,丝状毛或卷曲的毛发。单层毛或毛发太短。

[西高地白梗的颜色]
就象其名字那样,应该是白色。缺陷:除白色外的任何其他颜色,过重的小麦色。

[西高地白梗的步态]
自由、笔直且从容。非常独特的步态,不做作,但有力,伸展和驱动都很好。前肢能自由的伸展,肩部不会有所阻碍。从前面观察,腿并不相互平行,而是略向中心靠拢。后腿的动作是自由、强壮且适当靠近。飞节收缩自如,靠近身体下方,所以足爪移动时,身躯被推向前。在侧面观察能作出最好的评价,背线必须保持水平。缺陷:前躯伸展不足及后躯推动不足,动作僵硬、做作。

[西高地白梗的气质]
警惕、快乐、勇敢及自信,而且很友好。缺陷:过于胆怯或过于好斗。

标准通过日期:1988年12月13日
标准执行日期:1989年2月1日

West Highland White Terrier Breed Standard


General Appearance
The West Highland White Terrier is a small, game, well-balanced hardy looking terrier, exhibiting good showmanship, possessed with no small amount of self-esteem, strongly built, deep in chest and back ribs, with a straight back and powerful hindquarters on muscular legs, and exhibiting in marked degree a great combination of strength and activity. The coat is about two inches long, white in color, hard, with plenty of soft undercoat. The dog should be neatly presented, the longer coat on the back and sides, trimmed to blend into the shorter neck and shoulder coat. Considerable hair is left around the head to act as a frame for the face to yield a typical Westie expression.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The ideal size is eleven inches at the withers for dogs and ten inches for bitches. A slight deviation is acceptable. The Westie is a compact dog, with good balance and substance. The body between the withers and the root of the tail is slightly shorter than the height at the withers. Short-coupled and well boned. Faults--Over or under height limits. Fine boned.

Head
Shaped to present a round appearance from the front. Should be in proportion to the body.

Expression--Piercing, inquisitive, pert. Eyes--Widely set apart, medium in size, almond shaped, dark brown in color, deep set, sharp and intelligent. Looking from under heavy eyebrows, they give a piercing look. Eye rims are black. Faults--Small, full or light colored eyes. Ears--Small, carried tightly erect, set wide apart, on the top outer edge of the skull. They terminate in a sharp point, and must never be cropped. The hair on the ears is trimmed short and is smooth and velvety, free of fringe at the tips. Black skin pigmentation is preferred. Faults--Round-pointed, broad, large, ears set closely together, not held tightly erect, or placed too low on the side of the head.

Skull--Broad, slightly longer than the muzzle. not flat on top but slightly domed between the ears. It gradually tapers to the eyes. There is a defined stop, eyebrows are heavy. Faults--Long or narrow skull. Muzzle--Blunt, slightly shorter than the skull, powerful and gradually tapering to the nose, which is large and black. The jaws are level and powerful. Lip pigment is black. Faults--Muzzle longer than skull. Nose color other than black. Bite--The teeth are large for the size of the dog. There must be six incisor teeth between the canines of both lower and upper jaws. An occasional missing premolar is acceptable. A tight scissors bite with upper incisors slightly overlapping the lower incisors or level mouth is equally acceptable. Faults--Teeth defective or misaligned. Any incisors missing or several premolars missing. Teeth overshot or undershot.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--Muscular and well set on sloping shoulders. The length of neck should be in proportion to the remainder of the dog. Faults--Neck too long or too short. Topline--Flat and level, both standing and moving. Faults--High rear, any deviation from above. Body--Compact and of good substance. Ribs deep and well arched in the upper half of rib, extending at least to the elbows, and presenting a flattish side appearance. Back ribs of considerable depth, and distance from last rib to upper thigh as short as compatible with free movement of the body. Chest very deep and extending to the elbows, with breadth in proportion to the size of the dog. Loin short, broad and strong. Faults--Back weak, either too long or too short. Barrel ribs, ribs above elbows. Tail--Relatively short, with good substance, and shaped like a carrot. When standing erect it is never extended above the top of the skull. It is covered with hard hair without feather, as straight as possible, carried gaily but not curled over the back. The tail is set on high enough so that the spine does not slope down to it. The tail is never docked. Faults--Set too low, long, thin, carried at half-mast, or curled over back.

Forequarters
Angulation, Shoulders--Shoulder blades are well laid back and well knit at the backbone. The shoulder blade should attach to an upper arm of moderate length, and sufficient angle to allow for definite body overhang. Faults--Steep or loaded shoulders. Upper arm too short or too straight. Legs--Forelegs are muscular and well boned. relatively short, but with sufficient length to set the dog up so as not to be too close to the ground. The legs are reasonably straight, and thickly covered with short hard hair. They are set in under the shoulder blades with definite body overhang before them. Height from elbow to withers and elbow to ground should be approximately the same. Faults--Out at elbows. Light bone, fiddle-front. Feet--Forefeet are larger than the hind ones, are round, proportionate in size, strong, thickly padded; they may properly be turned out slightly. Dewclaws may be removed. Black pigmentation is most desirable on pads of all feet and nails, although nails may lose coloration in older dogs.

Hindquarters
Angulation--Thighs are very muscular, well angulated, not set wide apart, with hock well bent, short, and parallel when viewed from the rear. Legs--Rear legs are muscular and relatively short and sinewy. Faults-- Weak hocks, long hocks, lack of angulation. Cowhocks. Feet--Hind feet are smaller than front feet, and are thickly padded. Dewclaws may be removed.

Coat
Very important and seldom seen to perfection. Must be double-coated. The head is shaped by plucking the hair, to present the round appearance. The outer coat consists of straight hard white hair, about two inches long, with shorter coat on neck and shoulders, properly blended and trimmed to blend shorter areas into furnishings, which are longer on stomach and legs. The ideal coat is hard, straight and white, but a hard straight coat which may have some wheaten tipping is preferable to a white fluffy or soft coat. Furnishings may be somewhat softer and longer but should never give the appearance of fluff. Faults--Soft coat. Any silkiness or tendency to curl. Any open or single coat, or one which is too short.

Color
The color is white, as defined by the breed\'s name. Faults--Any coat color other than white. Heavy wheaten color.

Gait
Free, straight and easy all around. It is a distinctive gait, not stilted, but powerful, with reach and drive. In front the leg is freely extended forward by the shoulder. When seen from the front the legs do not move square, but tend to move toward the center of gravity. The hind movement is free, strong and fairly close. The hocks are freely flexed and drawn close under the body, so that when moving off the foot the body is thrown or pushed forward with some force. Overall ability to move is usually best evaluated from the side, and topline remains level. Faults--Lack of reach in front, and/or drive behind. Stiff, stilted or too wide movement.

Temperament
Alert, gay, courageous and self-reliant, but friendly. Faults--Excess timidity or excess pugnacity.

Approved December 13, 1988
Effective February 1, 1989

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威尔士梗(Welsh Terrier)AKC标准及简介
[简介]
威尔士梗是一种结构坚实、紧凑、笃实的中型犬,长有粗糙不平的刚毛。腿、下半身和头部呈黄褐色;背部等处为黑色(有时呈灰色)“夹克”。断尾,使其成为“正方形”狗,体长与肩高大致相等。其步态是典型的长腿梗类犬的小跑。轻松,伸展和驱动都很好。威尔士梗非常友好,外出时与其他人及狗能和睦相处。显示出热情和勇气。“威尔士梗表情”是由其眼睛的颜色、位置及与耳朵的配合形成的。
[体型]
公狗的肩高约15英寸,可接受的肩高范围是15~15.5英寸。母狗按比例缩小一些。平均体重为20磅,根据肩高不同及骨量不同略由差异。不论公狗还是母狗,都应该显得结实、骨量充足。
[头部]
整个头部呈矩形。眼睛小、深褐色、杏仁状,位于头颅合适的位置。彼此间的位置分的比较开。眼睛的尺寸、形状、颜色和位置使其看起来坚定、自信而且警惕,属于典型的威尔士梗的表情。耳朵呈V字形,小,但不能太薄。折痕正好与头顶齐平。当狗安静的时候,耳朵向前下垂,贴着面颊,耳尖向下,或略向外眼角。当狗的注意力集中时,耳朵略向上、向前。头颅:面部结实、有力,颚部强壮。只比后脑略细一些。止部轻微。后脑的的长度与面部大致相等。他们在轮廓上是彼此平行的面。两耳间脑袋平坦(不上拱)。两耳间没有皱纹。面颊平坦整洁(无突起部分)。口吻是整个头部长度的一半。整个面部需要修整成矩形,而且毫不夸张。口吻结实、成正方形,决不能显得粗鲁。嘴唇为黑色,紧。剪状咬合是最理想的,钳状咬合也可以接受。不论哪种咬合,都不允许缺齿。牙齿大而结实,有力,颚部想老虎钳。
[颈部、背线和身躯]
颈部为中等长度和粗细,略呈拱形,柔和地与肩部结合。喉咙整洁没有多余的赘肉。背线水平。身躯显得骨量充足,肋骨支撑良好。胸部的深度合适、宽度恰当。腰部结实、较短。断尾,保留的长度约与后脑高度一致(想象的一条直线),构成完整的正方形外观。尾根位置位于背部较高处。尾巴垂直上举。
[前躯]
前部是笔直的。肩部长、倾斜且与背部结合完好。腿笔直且肌肉发达,脚腕垂直且有力。足爪小、圆,呈猫足。脚垫厚实,黑色。趾甲结实、黑色;所有狼爪都必须切除。
[后躯]
后躯结实而肌肉发达,第二节大腿发达且后膝关节适度弯曲。飞节适度垂直,彼此平行且从结合处到地面的距离短。足爪与前肢相同。
[被毛]
被毛为坚硬的刚毛,浓密的、厚厚的贴在身上。有一层短短的、柔软的底毛。口吻、腿和脚都是浓密的刚毛。
[颜色]
背部为黑色“夹克”,夹克的分布前至颈部、后至尾巴上部、下至第一节大腿内侧。腿、脚和头部为单一的褐色。褐色是带一点深红的那种,带有略浅一点颜色的阴影是可以接受的。此外,灰色夹克也可以接受。
[步态]
行进是笔直的、自由而轻松的,前躯伸展自如,后躯驱动力强大,当步伐加快时,足爪自然的向中心线*拢。
[气质]
威尔士梗是一种爱玩的、警惕的、机灵的、勇敢的狗,同时也显示出友好和自我控制。聪明而且喜欢被取悦。在比赛中,过度的攻击性和胆怯都属于缺陷。

[以下为威尔士梗(Welsh Terrier)AKC标准英文原版]


Welsh Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Welsh Terrier is a sturdy, compact, rugged dog of medium size with a coarse wire-textured coat. The legs, underbody and head are tan; the jacket black (or occasionally grizzle). The tail is docked to length meant to complete the image of a \"square dog\" approximately as high as he is long. The movement is a terrier trot typical of the long-legged terrier. It is effortless, with good reach and drive. The Welsh Terrier is friendly, outgoing to people and other dogs, showing spirit and courage. The \"Welsh Terrier expression\" comes from the set, color, and position of the eyes combined with the use of the ears.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Males are about 15 inches at the withers, with an acceptable range between 15 and 15½. Bitches may be proportionally smaller. Twenty pounds is considered an average weight, varying a few pounds depending on the height of the dog and the density of bone. Both dog and bitch appear solid and of good substance.

Head
The entire head is rectangular. The eyes are small, dark brown and almond-shaped, well set in the skull. They are placed fairly far apart. The size, shape, color and position of the eyes give the steady, confident but alert expression that is typical of the Welsh Terrier. The ears are V-shaped, small, but not too thin. The fold is just above the topline of the skull. The ears are carried forward close to the cheek with the tips falling to, or toward, the outside corners of the eyes when the dog is at rest. The ears move slightly up and forward when at attention. Skull--The foreface is strong with powerful, punishing jaws. It is only slightly narrower than the backskull. There is a slight stop. The backskull is of equal length to the foreface. They are on parallel planes in profile. The backskull is smooth and flat (not domed) between the ears. There are no wrinkles between the ears. The cheeks are flat and clean (not bulging).

The muzzle is one-half the length of the entire head from tip of nose to occiput. The foreface in front of the eyes is well made up. The furnishings on the foreface are trimmed to complete without exaggeration the total rectangular outline. The muzzle is strong and squared off, never snipy. The nose is black and squared off. The lips are black and tight. A scissors bite is preferred, but a level bite is acceptable. Either one has complete dentition. The teeth are large and strong, set in powerful, vise-like jaws.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is of moderate length and thickness, slightly arched and sloping gracefully into the shoulders. The throat is clean with no excess of skin.

The topline is level.

The body shows good substance and is well ribbed up. There is good depth of brisket and moderate width of chest. The loin is strong and moderately short. The tail is docked to a length approximately level (on an imaginary line) with the occiput, to complete the square image of the whole dog. The root of the tail is set well up on the back. It is carried upright.

Forequarters
The front is straight. The shoulders are long, sloping and well laid back. The legs are straight and muscular with upright and powerful pasterns. The feet are small, round, and catlike. The pads are thick and black. The nails are strong and black; any dewclaws are removed.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters are strong and muscular with well-developed second thighs and the stifles well bent. The hocks are moderately straight, parallel and short from joint to ground. The feet should be the same as in the forequarters.

Coat
The coat is hard, wiry, and dense with a close-fitting thick jacket. There is a short, soft undercoat. Furnishings on muzzle, legs, and quarters are dense and wiry.

Color
The jacket is black, spreading up onto the neck, down onto the tail and into the upper thighs. The legs, quarters, and head are clear tan. The tan is a deep reddish color, with slightly lighter shades acceptable. A grizzle jacket is also acceptable.

Gait
The movement is straight, free and effortless, with good reach in front, strong drive behind, with feet naturally tending to converge toward a median line of travel as speed increases.

Temperament
The Welsh Terrier is a game dog-alert, aware, spirited-but at the same time, is friendly and shows self control. Intelligence and desire to please are evident in his attitude. A specimen exhibiting an overly aggressive attitude, or shyness, should be penalized.

Faults
Any deviation from the foregoing should be considered a fault; the seriousness of the fault depending upon the extent of the deviation.

Approved August 10, 1993
Effective September 29, 1993

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斯塔福郡斗牛梗(Staffordshire Bull Terrier)AKC标准及介绍

[简介]
斯塔福郡斗牛梗是一种短毛狗。就其体型而言,他的力气非常大,尽管肌肉非常发达,但他仍然十分活泼、敏捷。
[体型]
肩高:14~16英寸。体重:公狗月28~38磅;母狗24~34磅,身高与体重有密切关系。超出上述范围都属于有缺陷。身高与体长的比例约为1:1,即从马肩隆至尾根处的距离与肩高大致相等。
[头部]
短、相当深,脑袋宽,面颊的咬合肌非常发达,明显的止部,口吻短,鼻镜为黑色。粉色鼻镜(达德利鼻)属于缺陷。
眼睛:最好是深色,但与被毛颜色相配也可以接受。眼睛圆,中等大小,其位置使其看起来是笔直向前的。浅色眼睛和粉色眼圈属于缺陷,除非眼睛周围的被毛是白色的,此时允许粉色眼圈。
耳朵:玫瑰耳或半立耳,但不能太大。整个竖起或整个下垂的耳朵属于严重缺陷。
嘴:咬合为下颚的门牙在外,上颚的门牙在内,上牙紧贴下牙。嘴唇紧而整洁。过度的上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合都属于缺陷。
[颈部、背线和身躯]
颈部肌肉发达,较短,轮廓整洁,向肩部逐渐加宽。身躯结合紧密,背线水平,前部宽,胸深,肋骨支撑良好,腰部较轻。不需要断尾,尾巴中等长度,尾根位置低,逐渐变细,向下垂着。不应该太卷曲,也许有点想旧式的泵把手。尾巴太长或过于卷曲都属于缺陷。
[前躯]
腿笔直、骨量充足,位置分的较开,肩部不显得松弛、腕部不显得软弱,足爪略向外,稍微有一点外八字。前肢的狼爪也许已经被切除。足爪充分张开,结实,中等大小。
[后躯]
后躯肌肉发达,飞节位置低,后膝关节适当弯曲。从后面观察,腿彼此平行。如果后肢长有狼爪,一般都需要切除。足爪与前肢相同。
[被毛]
平滑、短且紧贴皮肤,不需要修剪或剥毛。

[颜色]
红色、浅棕色、白色、黑色或兰色 或这些颜色与白色相杂。任何形状的斑纹或任何形状的白色斑纹。黑色带褐色斑纹或肝色属于失格。
[步态]
轻松、有力且敏捷,从前面或后面观察,可以看见腿彼此平行。可以分辨出驱动力是来自后躯。
[气质]
从斯塔福郡斗牛梗的历史来看,现代的斯塔福郡斗牛梗具有不屈不挠的品质,极度聪明和坚韧。对朋友极具感情,非常沉着,可信赖。使他成为第一流的万能狗。

[以下为斯塔福郡斗牛梗(Staffordshire Bull Terrier)AKC标准英文原版]

Staffordshire Bull Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a smooth-coated dog. It should be of great strength for its size and, although muscular, should be active and agile.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height at shoulder: 14 to 16 inches. Weight: Dogs, 28 to 38 pounds; bitches, 24 to 34 pounds, these heights being related to weights. Non-conformity with these limits is a fault. In proportion, the length of back, from withers to tail set, is equal to the distance from withers to ground.

Head
Short, deep through, broad skull, very pronounced cheek muscles, distinct stop, short foreface, black nose. Pink (Dudley) nose to be considered a serious fault. Eyes--Dark preferable, but may bear some relation to coat color. Round, of medium size, and set to look straight ahead. Light eyes or pink eye rims to be considered a fault, except that where the coat surrounding the eye is white the eye rim may be pink. Ears--Rose or half-pricked and not large. Full drop or full prick to be considered a serious fault. Mouth--A bite in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors. The lips should be tight and clean. The badly undershot or overshot bite is a serious fault.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is muscular, rather short, clean in outline and gradually widening toward the shoulders. The body is close coupled, with a level topline, wide front, deep brisket and well sprung ribs being rather light in the loins. The tail is undocked, of medium length, low set, tapering to a point and carried rather low. It should not curl much and may be likened to an old-fashioned pump handle. A tail that is too long or badly curled is a fault.

Forequarters
Legs straight and well boned, set rather far apart, without looseness at the shoulders and showing no weakness at the pasterns, from which point the feet turn out a little. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. The feet should be well padded, strong and of medium size.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters should be well muscled, hocks let down with stifles well bent. Legs should be parallel when viewed from behind. Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs are generally removed. Feet as in front.

Coat
Smooth, short and close to the skin, not to be trimmed or de-whiskered.

Color
Red, fawn, white, black or blue, or any of these colors with white. Any shade of brindle or any shade of brindle with white. Black-and-tan or liver color to be disqualified.

Gait
Free, powerful and agile with economy of effort. Legs moving parallel when viewed from front or rear. Discernible drive from hind legs.

Temperament
From the past history of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, the modern dog draws its character of indomitable courage, high intelligence, and tenacity. This, coupled with its affection for its friends, and children in particular, its off-duty quietness and trustworthy stability, makes it a foremost all-purpose dog.

Disqualification
Black-and-tan or liver color.

Approved November 14, 1989
Effective January 1, 1990

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爱尔兰软毛梗Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier Breed Standard
[简介]
爱尔兰软毛梗是一种中等体型、勇敢、协调性很好的运动梗,身体轮廓呈正方形。他显著的特点就在于其柔软、丝状、稍有波浪的被毛,柔和的小麦色,以及他特有的温和气质。这一品种要求身体结构和外表都适中,任何的夸张都是不必要的。他整个的气质应该是警惕而快乐的动物,优雅、结实而且协调性好。
[体型]
公狗的肩高在18~19英寸之间,理想的尺寸为18.5英寸。母狗的肩高在17~18英寸之间,理想的肩高为17.5英寸。主要缺点:公狗不足18英寸或高于19英寸;母狗不足17英寸或高于18英寸。任何偏差都要根据其程度予以扣分。身体外形轮廓呈正方形。结构结实,匀称。公狗体重约35~40磅;母狗体重约30~35磅。

[头部]
协调,与身体比例恰当。呈矩形;中等长度。有力而不显得粗糙。
眼睛为深的红褐色或褐色、中等大小、略呈杏仁形、两眼间距离适中。眼圈为黑色,主要缺陷:任何接近黄色的眼睛。
耳朵从小尺寸到中等尺寸均可,耳朵的折痕与头顶齐平,垂耳、略向前,耳朵内侧贴近面颊,耳尖指向地面而不指向眼睛。猎狗形耳朵或耳位过高都属于严重缺陷。
头颅平坦,两耳间整洁。没有突出的颧骨。止部清晰。口吻有力而结实,位于眼睛下方。丝毫不显得粗鲁。头颅与口吻长度大致相等。
鼻镜为黑色,相对与整体而言,尺寸较大。主要缺陷:除纯黑色外的其他任何颜色的鼻镜。
嘴唇紧,黑色。牙齿大、整洁、雪白;剪状咬合或钳状咬合。主要缺陷:上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合。
[颈部、背线和身躯]
颈部中等长度,整洁且结实,无吊喉。骄傲地昂起,向肩部逐渐加宽,平滑地与肩部结合。后背结实且水平。身躯紧凑;结合紧密。胸深。肋骨支撑良好但不呈圆形。断尾,欢快地举着,但决不能翻卷在背上。
[前躯]
肩部良好,整洁且平滑;结合良好。前肢直且骨量充足。狼爪应该被切除。足爪圆而紧凑,脚垫厚实。脚垫为黑色。趾甲为黑色。
[后躯]
后肢发达,后膝关节角度正确,既不向内翻也不外翻;飞节位置低,彼此平行。狼爪应该被切除。比赛中,后肢长有狼爪属于严重缺陷。足爪圆而紧凑,脚垫厚实。脚垫为黑色。趾甲为黑色。
[被毛]
被毛是将爱尔兰软毛梗与其他梗类犬区别开的主要特征。浓密的单层被毛覆盖其整个身躯、腿和头部。质地柔软、丝质且带有柔和的波浪。幼犬和年轻犬的被毛上的波浪还不象成年犬那样明显。主要缺陷:羊毛状或质地粗糙,卷曲或蓬松的被毛;成年犬如果被毛笔直也属于缺陷。
比赛—在比赛中,爱尔兰软毛梗必须显示出梗类犬的外形轮廓,但同时被毛需要有足够的长度,使其在行走中,被毛显得有流动感。被毛不能被修剪或剥除。头部被毛需要整理,以显示出矩形外观。眼睛需要露出来但没必要充分暴露。有璎珞点缀耳朵。头颅、面颊颈部和尾巴必须有足够的毛量,长度与身躯被毛的长度一致。过度修剪属于严重缺陷。

[颜色]
深浅程度不同的小麦色。如果仔细检查,也许还会偶尔发现红色、白色或黑色毛发。不过整体除了耳朵和口吻有时会出现兰灰色外,其他地方必须是小麦色,不能有其他颜色。主要缺陷:除了小麦色外的任何其他颜色。
1岁以下的幼犬可能出现较深的颜色,甚至毛尖呈黑色。2岁以下的狗,通常颜色会变的很浅,但决不能是白色,而且耳朵和口吻不允许出现灰色。但是,到了2岁,小麦色就应该很明显了。
[步态]
步态应该是轻松、优雅而活泼的,前肢伸展良好而后肢驱动良好。前后的足爪都不向内翻或向外翻。如果在行进中,尾巴不能保持直立的狗都属于有严重缺陷。

[气质]
爱尔兰软毛梗是快乐、坚定的狗,显得自得其乐和自信。他警惕,显得对周围的环境感兴趣。与其他梗类犬比较,显得攻击性弱一些。主要缺陷:胆怯或有过强的攻击性。



[以下为爱尔兰软毛梗(Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier)AKC标准英文原版]

Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier is a medium-sized, hardy, well balanced sporting terrier, square in outline. He is distinguished by his soft, silky, gently waving coat of warm wheaten color and his particularly steady disposition. The breed requires moderation both in structure and presentation, and any exaggerations are to be shunned. He should present the overall appearance of an alert and happy animal, graceful, strong and well coordinated.

Size, Proportion, Substance
A dog shall be 18 to 19 inches at the withers, the ideal being 18½. A bitch shall be 17 to 18 inches at the withers, the ideal being 17½. Major Faults--Dogs under 18 inches or over 19 inches; bitches under 17 inches or over 18 inches. Any deviation must be penalized according to the degree of its severity.
Square in outline. Hardy, well balanced. Dogs should weigh 35-40 pounds; bitches 30-35 pounds.

Head
Well balanced and in proportion to the body. Rectangular in appearance; moderately long. Powerful with no suggestion of coarseness. Eyes dark reddish brown or brown, medium in size, slightly almond shaped and set fairly wide apart. Eye rims black. Major Fault--Anything approaching a yellow eye. Ears small to medium in size, breaking level with the skull and dropping slightly forward, the inside edge of the ear lying next to the cheek and pointing to the ground rather than to the eye. A hound ear or a high-breaking ear is not typical and should be severely penalized. Skull flat and clean between ears. Cheekbones not prominent. Defined stop. Muzzle powerful and strong, well filled below the eyes. No suggestion of snipiness. Skull and foreface of equal length. Nose black and large for size of dog. Major Fault--Any nose color other than solid black. Lips tight and black. Teeth large, clean and white; scissors or level bite. Major Fault--Undershot or overshot.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck medium in length, clean and strong, not throaty. Carried proudly, it gradually widens, blending smoothly into the body. Back strong and level. Body compact; relatively short coupled. Chest is deep. Ribs are well sprung but without roundness. Tail is docked and well set on, carried gaily but never over the back.

Forequarters
Shoulders well laid back, clean and smooth; well knit. Forelegs straight and well boned. All dewclaws should be removed. Feet are round and compact with good depth of pad. Pads black. Nails dark.

Hindquarters
Hind legs well developed with well bent stifles turning neither in nor out; hocks well let down and parallel to each other. All dewclaws should be removed. The presence of dewclaws on the hind legs should be penalized. Feet are round and compact with good depth of pad. Pads black. Nails dark.

Coat
A distinguishing characteristic of the breed which sets the dog apart from all other terriers. An abundant single coat covering the entire body, legs and head; coat on the latter falls forward to shade the eyes. Texture soft and silky with a gentle wave. In both puppies and adolescents, the mature wavy coat is generally not yet evident. Major Faults--Woolly or harsh, crisp or cottony, curly or standaway coat; in the adult, a straight coat is also objectionable.

Presentation--For show purposes, the Wheaten is presented to show a terrier outline, but coat must be of sufficient length to flow when the dog is in motion. The coat must never be clipped or plucked. Sharp contrasts or stylizations must be avoided. Head coat should be blended to present a rectangular outline. Eyes should be indicated but never fully exposed. Ears should be relieved of fringe, but not taken down to the leather. Sufficient coat must be left on skull, cheeks, neck and tail to balance the proper length of body coat. Dogs that are overly trimmed shall be severely penalized.

Color
Any shade of wheaten. Upon close examination, occasional red, white or black guard hairs may be found. However, the overall coloring must be clearly wheaten with no evidence of any other color except on ears and muzzle where blue-gray shading is sometimes present. Major Fault--Any color save wheaten. Puppies and Adolescents--Puppies under a year may carry deeper coloring and occasional black tipping. The adolescent, under two years, is often quite light in color, but must never be white or carry gray other than on ears and muzzle. However, by two years of age, the proper wheaten color should be obvious.

Gait
Gait is free, graceful and lively with good reach in front and strong drive behind. Front and rear feet turn neither in nor out. Dogs who fail to keep their tails erect when moving should be severely penalized.

Temperament
The Wheaten is a happy, steady dog and shows himself gaily with an air of self-confidence. He is alert and exhibits interest in his surroundings; exhibits less aggressiveness than is sometimes encouraged in other terriers. Major Fault--Timid or overly aggressive dogs.

Approved February 12, 1983
Reformatted July 20, 1989

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:48:24 | 显示全部楼层


短毛猎狐梗(Smooth Fox Terrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

由于短毛猎狐梗是用来捕捉狐狸、挖掘、守候狐狸的洞口而训练的,因此这种狗的这方面天性依然保留着。时不时的展现出?恚?在主人细心栽培的花园里又挖土又钻地洞,令饲养者们很无奈。所以最好方法,就是给这类犬所具有的这种本性一个适当的出口。

短毛猎狐梗的吻部呈长锥形,眼睛圆而黑。长长的颈部向前倾,背部很短。尾巴欢快的竖起来,这些特征和有血缘关系的刚毛猎狐很相似,两者之间的区别就在于毛的长短。

[历史]

虽然刚毛猎狐比短毛猎狐梗有名,但短毛猎狐梗的特征非常容易被辨认。在1876年,这类品种被确定了标准以后,在欧洲,特别是北欧的瑞典,深受人们的欢迎。

[体型]

根据当前所需,完全符合标准的、协调平衡的犬肩胛部的高度不应超过39.4厘米(母犬稍低),背部从肩胛部到尾尖的长度不超过30.5厘米,一旦满足相关的比例,头长则应不超过18.4厘米或少于17. 8厘米。符合这些标准的犬应重7.7~8.6千克,母犬轻0.9千克。协调性――当某方面或几方面被认作与特定的指标相关时,需要确切的比例,这是梗犬解剖的基础。主要考虑的几点包括头颅和前脸的相对比例,头与背、身高与体长的相对比例,后两者比例相同时最为理想。此外,虽然头部的标准是绝对准确的,但身高与背长和被毛的标准是近似的,而且要加入饲养者和评判者的全观因素而非一项硬性标准。

[头部]

眼和眼眶均呈黑色,中等偏小,深陷,圆形的眼睛充满热情活力和机智。黄眼睛的为次等犬。小耳朵呈V形,中等程度的厚度,下垂而贴于两颊而不像猎狐犬一样是悬垂在头的两侧。耳折下部分的上缘高于颅骨。耳竖立,像郁金香或玫瑰花瓣的视为不合格。

颅骨扁平,中等程度狭窄,自头顶向双眼逐渐变窄,头部没有过多的棱角,但从侧面看自额头到上颔部分较灰猎犬有更多的凹陷。可以看到虽然正前面部从眼到嘴逐渐变窄,下颔两侧稍向内倾斜,但其不会在眼下部分产生突然的变化,这些部位都相当丰满,像经过精雕细琢后呈现的“楔形”。比例适当的头部,其颅骨的长度和前脸的长度稍有不同,颊部扁平。

上下颚肌肉发达,强健有力,而且力量均衡,但在某种程度上还不能与灰猎犬和现代的英国梗相比。眼下部位不呈现为“一刀切”的样子,像经过雕琢以后而呈现出楔形。鼻黑,与口吻形成圆锥状,鼻白色、红色或有任何类似于这些颜色的杂色者视为不合格。牙齿的咬合度大,上齿(切齿)在下齿之外或在其上。过度向外或咬合过紧的不合格。

[颈、背线、身躯]

颈部匀称,肌肉发达,长度适中,逐渐向肩部变宽。背部短而直,强壮,皮肤紧凑。胸深而不平。胸部肌肉发达但不夸张。前部的肋骨长度适中,后面的肋骨长而外展。腰部有力,肌肉发达。尾巴愉快地上翘,但不贴于背部也不卷曲。尾的长度应适中,像“管子塞”一样的尾巴视为缺陷。

[四肢]

肩长而倾斜,与背自然衔接,肩胛部平整。肘部与躯干成直角,可自由外展。前臂部从任何角度观看都很直,前臂部和脚的骨骼强壮,正面观很小或不见踝部,掌骨短而直。在行走过程中前后肢均笔直向前。脚小而圆,坚实有力,脚垫硬而粗糙,脚跟适度弯曲,既不内翻也不外展。

肌肉发达,强壮有力,可自由下蹲或弯腰,大腿长而有力,膝关节自然弯曲,既不外展也不内收;从后方看,跖骨直而相互平行,站立时像猎狐犬一样,而且膝关节屈曲。后躯大腿短小,膝关节伸直,行走时前后肢均向前伸,膝关节不外展。脚如前肢。

[尾巴]

[被毛]

短而光滑,平整,硬而浓密。腹部和腿的内侧应有被毛。

[颜色]

以白色为主;有斑纹、红色或红褐色的斑块次之。但如果是小点则不是很重要。

[步态]

运动或行为是步态中的重要测试项,行进时梗的腿是直往前走的,前肢与地面垂直悬空,在两侧平等摆,犹如钟摆。前进的动力基本由后肢发出。运动流畅者大腿长,膝关节处弯曲度好,这样可使跗关节向前的推力得以发挥。前进时,前腿形成一连续直线,前后股间保持相同距离。站立时,通常很难确定一头犬的肩部是否轻微损伤;但在它运动时,假如有伤,这个缺陷就很明显,其前肢有呈交叉状或盘状的运动趋势。相反,犬的肩部越往后,后肢间距会变宽,犹如划龙舟的浆。当脚跟部变得类似母鸡后膝关节样,后肢张开,此时将丧失前进动力。当脚跟外倾时,后肢会交叉,导致步态蹒珊难看。

[性格]

短毛猎狐梗有着机敏而活泼的天性,还有敏锐的视力和灵敏的嗅觉,成为狩猎者们唯一的最爱。而且短毛的好处就是在护理的情况下,不用很费心,所以成为众多繁忙的主人最受忠爱的犬种。短毛猎狐梗坚定而乐观的个性,是小孩儿们的好玩伴,同时也是家庭守卫犬的最好选择。

[失格]

耳朵竖起,如同郁金香或玫瑰花瓣样。鼻子白色,樱桃色或混有此类颜色的斑状花纹。嘴过大或过小。

[评分]





1991年2月9日批准

1991年3月27日生效

Smooth Fox Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The dog must present a generally gay, lively and active appearance; bone and strength in a small compass are essentials; but this must not be taken to mean that a Fox Terrier should be cloddy, or in any way coarse--speed and endurance must be looked to as well as power, and the symmetry of the Foxhound taken as a model. The Terrier, like the Hound, must on no account be leggy, nor must he be too short in the leg. He should stand like a cleverly made hunter, covering a lot of ground, yet with a short back, as stated below. He will then attain the highest degree of propelling power, together with the greatest length of stride that is compatible with the length of his body. Weight is not a certain criterion of a Terrier\'s fitness for his work-general shape, size and contour are the main points; and if a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his fox up a drain, it matters little what his weight is to a pound or so.

N.B. Old scars or injuries, the result of work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice a Terrier\'s chance in the show ring, unless they interfere with its movement or with its utility for work or stud.

Size, Proportion, Substance
According to present-day requirements, a full-sized, well balanced dog should not exceed 15½ inches at the withers--the bitch being proportionately lower--nor should the length of back from withers to root of tail exceed 12 inches, while to maintain the relative proportions, the head should not exceed 7¼ inches or be less than 7 inches. A dog with these measurements should scale 18 pounds in show condition--a bitch weighing some two pounds less-with a margin of one pound either way. Balance--This may be defined as the correct proportions of a certain point, or points, when considered in relation to a certain other point or points. It is the keystone of the Terrier\'s anatomy. The chief points for consideration are the relative proportions of skull and foreface; head and back; height at withers and length of body from shoulder point to buttock-the ideal of proportion being reached when the last two measurements are the same. It should be added that, although the head measurements can be taken with absolute accuracy, the height at withers and length of back and coat are approximate, and are inserted for the information of breeders and exhibitors rather than as a hard-and-fast rule.

Head
Eyes and rims should be dark in color, moderately small and rather deep set, full of fire, life and intelligence and as nearly possible circular in shape. Anything approaching a yellow eye is most objectionable. Ears should be V-shaped and small, of moderate thickness, and dropping forward close to the cheek, not hanging by the side of the head like a Foxhound. The topline of the folded ear should be well above the level of the skull. Disqualifications--Ears prick, tulip or rose.

The skull should be flat and moderately narrow, gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much \"stop\" should be apparent, but there should be more dip in the profile between the forehead and the top jaw than is seen in the case of a Greyhound. It should be noticed that although the foreface should gradually taper from eye to muzzle and should tip slightly at its junction with the forehead, it should not \"dish\" or fall away quickly below the eyes, where it should be full and well made up, but relieved from \"wedginess\" by a little delicate chiseling. There should be apparent little difference in length between the skull and foreface of a well balanced head. Cheeks must not be full.

Jaws, upper and lower, should be strong and muscular and of fair punishing strength, but not so as in any way to resemble the Greyhound or modern English Terrier. There should not be much falling away below the eyes. This part of the head should, however, be moderately chiseled out, so as not to go down in a straight slope like a wedge. The nose, toward which the muzzle must gradually taper, should be black. Disqualifications--Nose white, cherry or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colors.

The teeth should be as nearly as possible together, i.e., the points of the upper (incisors) teeth on the outside of or slightly overlapping the lower teeth. Disqualifications--Much undershot, or much overshot.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck should be clean and muscular, without throatiness, of fair length, and gradually widening to the shoulders. Back should be short, straight (i.e., level), and strong, with no appearance of slackness. Chest deep and not broad. Brisket should be deep, yet not exaggerated. The foreribs should be moderately arched, the back ribs deep and well sprung, and the dog should be well ribbed up. Loin should be very powerful, muscular and very slightly arched. Stern should be set on rather high, and carried gaily, but not over the back or curled, docked to leave about three quarters of the original length of the tail. It should be of good strength, anything approaching a \"Pipestopper\" tail being especially objectionable.

Forequarters
Shoulders should be long and sloping, well laid back, fine at the points, and clearly cut at the withers. The elbows should hang perpendicular to the body, working free of the sides. The forelegs viewed from any direction must be straight with bone strong right down to the feet, showing little or no appearance of ankle in front, and being short and straight in pastern. Both fore and hind legs should be carried straight forward in traveling. Feet should be round, compact, and not large; the soles hard and tough; the toes moderately arched, and turned neither in nor out.

Hindquarters
Should be strong and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and powerful, stifles well curved and turned neither in nor out; hocks well bent and near the ground should be perfectly upright and parallel each with the other when viewed from behind, the dog standing well up on them like a Foxhound, and not straight in the stifle. The worst possible form of hindquarters consists of a short second thigh and a straight stifle. Both fore and hind legs should be carried straight forward in traveling, the stifles not turning outward. Feet as in front.

Coat
Should be smooth, flat, but hard, dense and abundant. The belly and underside of the thighs should not be bare.

Color
White should predominate; brindle, red or liver markings are objectionable. Otherwise this point is of little or no importance.

Gait
Movement, or action, is the crucial test of conformation. The Terrier\'s legs should be carried straight forward while traveling, the forelegs hanging perpendicular and swinging parallel with the sides, like the pendulum of a clock. The principal propulsive power is furnished by the hind legs, perfection of action being found in the Terrier possessing long thighs and muscular second thighs well bent at the stifles, which admit of a strong forward thrust or \"snatch\" of the hocks. When approaching, the forelegs should form a continuation of the straight line of the front, the feet being the same distance apart as the elbows. When stationary it is often difficult to determine whether a dog is slightly out at shoulder, but, directly he moves, the defect--if it exists--becomes more apparent, the forefeet having a tendency to cross, \"weave,\" or \"dish.\" When, on the contrary, the dog is tied at the shoulder, the tendency of the feet is to move wider apart, with a sort of paddling action. When the hocks are turned in-cow-hocks-the stifles and feet are turned outwards, resulting in a serious loss of propulsive power. When the hocks are turned outward the tendency of the hind feet is to cross, resulting in an ungainly waddle.

Temperament
The dog must present a generally gay, lively and active appearance.

Disqualifications
Ears prick, tulip or rose.
Nose white, cherry or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colors.
Mouth much undershot, or much overshot.

Approved July 8, 2002
Effective August 28, 2002

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凯斯梗、斯凯岛梗(Skye Terrier)AKC标准及介绍


[简介]

    斯凯梗是一种风格独特、优雅而威严的犬:敏捷、结实,骨骼强健且肌肉发达。身体长,低矮而且水平,它的体长约等于身高的两倍,身上覆盖着浓密的被毛,长而直的被毛垂在身体两侧,覆盖着卵形的肋骨。头部长有丰富的饰毛,遮盖住口吻和眼睛,以便在灌木从中追逐其他动物时起保护作用。它在站立时和行动时,头部高高昂起,步态轻松。它的身躯、腿和颌部都很结实。

[历史]

    这个犬种是在teria中最旧的犬种之一。主要在苏格兰的西北边的斯开岛,高原一带宽广地分布。在写使之联想「因为从伊莉萨白女王的主治医是学者犬的研究家的约翰·桂树ash,1570年时候最北边的未开化的国境领出去……毛(发)的长度很长使脸和身体都变得看不见的---」斯凯梗的事。一说1587年被编成了的西班牙的armada舰队的一艘,在爱尔兰的西海岸失事了的时候,白色长毛的西班牙犬漂至斯开岛成为了这个犬种的祖先也被传说。

    从很早以前被用作猎獾和水獭等,不过,现在比起那个时候身体变得大,同时打猎欲望丢失,变成爱好几乎装饰性的被毛的人来饲养。

[体型]

    身高-理想的高度为公犬肩高25.4厘米、母犬肩高24.1厘米。肩高为25.4厘米的犬,体长约50.8厘米。不论什么性别,身高略高一点或略低一点都是可以接受的。但公犬肩高小于22.9厘米或母犬肩高小于21.6厘米则属于缺陷。比例-理想的身体比例为体长与肩高的比例成2:1。体质-身体结构结实,充满力量但不粗糙。骨量充足。

[头部]

    长而有力,力量比长度重要的多。

    眼睛褐色,深褐色更理想,中等大小,位置靠近,而且充满活力和聪慧的光芒。

    耳朵整齐对称,带有优雅的饰毛。可能是立耳或垂耳。如果是立耳,则为中等大小,位置较高,位于头顶外侧边缘,耳尖分的较开,耳尖距离大于耳根距离。垂耳的耳朵略大一些,耳位较低,平平地挂在头顶。

    头颅后方宽度中等,向口吻方向逐渐变细,口吻结实。止部轻微。口吻为深色,丰满度中等。有力而且绝对健康的颌部。鼻镜必须为黑色。达德利鼻、肉色或棕色鼻镜属于失格。咬合为剪状咬合或钳状咬合。

[颈、背线、身躯]

    颈部长而呈优雅的曲线,自豪地高高昂起。背线水平。身躯特别的长而低矮,胸深,卵形的肋骨。身体侧面显得平坦,垂着浓密笔直的被毛。

[四肢]

    肩部良好,肩胛被紧紧的安置于马肩隆,肘部恰当的靠近体侧,不能太松,也不能受拘束。前臂应该略呈圆形曲线,腿短、肌肉发达且尽可能直。\"尽可能直\"意味着健康且胸部情况允许,而不是表示\"梗类犬的直\"。足爪,宽大的兔足,足尖前指,脚垫后世,趾甲结实、黑色。

    结实、丰满,发育良好且角度合适。腿短、从后面看,肌肉发达且直。足爪类似前肢。

[尾巴]

    尾巴长且长有漂亮的饰毛。当尾巴垂着时,其上半部分下垂,其余部分跟在后面,后半部分呈适度向后的曲线,但不能卷曲或扭转。当举其时,其高度显现为背线的延伸。尽管不符合要求,但有时候,犬在兴奋或生气时,尾巴会举的高于身体。如果只是在情绪激动时产生这种情况,是可以接受的。但尾巴不能经常高举过背线或无力的下垂。

[被毛]

    双层毛。底毛短、紧密、软且呈绒毛状。外层披毛硬、直且平。14厘米长,没有必要更长。身体上的被毛笔直下垂,垂在身体两侧,从头部到尾部中分。头部的毛发也许短一些,口吻和眼睛被长长的\"面纱\"遮盖,形成眉毛和围嘴。耳朵周围有长长的饰毛,饰毛从耳朵周围和耳尖笔直的下垂,形成缨络,并衬托出耳朵的形状。末端毛发混入颈部的被毛。尾巴有漂亮的饰毛。

[颜色]

    被毛颜色必须是与皮肤颜色一致的单一色,也许有不同的深浅,可以是黑色、兰色、明暗程度不同的灰色、银色、浅棕色或奶油色。除了耳朵、口吻和尾尖有黑色斑纹外不应该有其他斑纹或斑点,斑点颜色越深越好,以黑色为佳。头部和腿部的颜色接近身体的颜色。不必硬模仿标准犬的颜色和图案,该品种仅允许胸部有直径不大于2厘米的白色斑纹。幼犬的被毛颜色也许会与成犬的被毛颜色非常不同。所以,在小犬发育过程中,颜色会发生巨大的变化;所以允许18个月以下的小犬的颜色有所不同。不论如何,幼犬也不必硬模仿标准犬的颜色和图案,除了奶油色犬有黑色条带围绕身体,但成年犬只允许在胸部有直径不超过5厘米的白色斑纹。

[步态]

    行动中,腿笔直向前。从前面观察,前肢保持笔直。足爪间的距离与肘部间距离一致。主要的推动力来自后肢。前肢向前移动时,不要抬的太高。整个动作可以说是流畅、活泼且轻松,或多或少的象一幅流动的画。

[性格]

    典型的工作梗,喜欢追逐游戏和外出,显得精力充沛、勇敢、有力和敏捷。不知道害怕、脾气好、忠诚且聪明,它与熟悉的人一起,显得友好而快活;对陌生人则有所保留且警惕。

[失格]

    肉色或棕色的鼻子不符合要求。

[评分]





标准通过日期:1990年2月10日

标准执行日期:1990年3月28日


Skye Terrier Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Skye Terrier is a dog of style, elegance and dignity: agile and strong with sturdy bone and hard muscle. Long, low and level-he is twice as long as he is high-he is covered with a profuse coat that falls straight down either side of the body over oval-shaped ribs. The hair well feathered on the head veils forehead and eyes to serve as protection from brush and briar as well as amid serious encounters with other animals. He stands with head high and long tail hanging and moves with a seemingly effortless gait. He is strong in body, quarter and jaw.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--The ideal shoulder height for dogs is 10 inches and bitches 9½ inches. Based on these heights a 10 inch dog measured from chest bone over tail at rump should be 20 inches. A slightly higher or lower dog of either sex is acceptable. Dogs 9 inches or less and bitches 8½ inches or less at the withers are to be penalized. Proportion--The ideal ratio of body length to shoulder height is 2 to 1, which is considered the correct proportion. Substance--Solidly built, full of strength and quality without being coarse. Bone is substantial.

Head
Long and powerful, strength being deemed more important than extreme length.

Eyes brown, preferably dark brown, medium in size, close-set and alight with life and intelligence.

Ears symmetrical and gracefully feathered. They may be carried prick or drop. If prick, they are medium in size, placed high on the skull, erect at their outer edges, and slightly wider apart at the peak than at the skull. Drop ears, somewhat larger in size and set lower, hang flat against the skull.

Moderate width at the back of the skull tapers gradually to a strong muzzle. The stop is slight. The dark muzzle is just moderately full as opposed to snipy. Powerful and absolutely true jaws. The nose is always black. A Dudley, flesh-colored or brown nose shall disqualify. Mouth with the incisor teeth closing level, or with upper teeth slightly overlapping the lower.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--Long and gracefully arched, carried high and proudly.

The backline is level.

Body pre-eminently long and low, the chest deep, with oval-shaped ribs. The sides appear flattish due to the straight falling and profuse coat.

Tail long and well feathered. When hanging, its upper section is pendulous, following the line of the rump, its lower section thrown back in a moderate arc without twist or curl. When raised, its height makes it appear a prolongation of the backline. Though not to be preferred, the tail is sometimes carried high when the dog is excited or angry. When such carriage arises from emotion only, it is permissible. But the tail should not be constantly carried above the level of the back or hang limp.

Forequarters
Shoulders well laid back, with tight placement of shoulder blades at the withers and elbows should fit closely to the sides and be neither loose nor tied. Forearm should curve slightly around the chest. Legs short, muscular and straight as possible. \"Straight as possible\" means straight as soundness and chest will permit, it does not mean \"Terrier straight.\"

Feet-- Large hare-feet preferably pointing forward, the pads thick and nails strong and preferably black.

Hindquarters
Strong, full, well developed and well angulated. Legs short, muscular and straight when viewed from behind. Feet as in front.

Coat
Double. Undercoat short, close, soft and woolly. Outer coat hard, straight and flat. 5½ inches long without extra credit granted for greater length. The body coat hangs straight down each side, parting from head to tail. The head hair, which may be shorter, veils forehead and eyes and forms a moderate beard and apron. The long feathering on the ears falls straight down from the tips and outer edges, surrounding the ears like a fringe and outlining their shape. The ends of the hair should mingle with the coat of the neck. Tail well feathered.

Color
The coat must be of one over-all color at the skin but may be of varying shades of the same color in the full coat, which may be black, blue, dark or light grey, silver platinum, fawn or cream. The dog must have no distinctive markings except for the desirable black points of ears, muzzle and tip of tail, all of which points are preferably dark even to black. The shade of head and legs should approximate that of the body. There must be no trace of pattern, design or clear-cut color variations, with the exception of the breed\'s only permissible white which occasionally exists on the chest not exceeding 2 inches in diameter.

The puppy coat may be very different in color from the adult coat. Therefore, as it is growing and clearing, wide variations of color may occur; consequently, this is permissible in dogs under 18 months of age. However, even in puppies there must be no trace of pattern, design, or clear-cut variations with the exception of the black band encircling the body coat of the creme colored dog, and the only permissible white which, as in the adult dog, occasionally exists on the chest not exceeding 2 inches in diameter.

Gait
The legs proceed straight forward when traveling. When approaching, the forelegs form a continuation of the straight line of the front. The feet being the same distance apart as the elbows. The principal propelling power is furnished by the back legs which travel straight forward. Forelegs should move well forward, without too much lift. The whole movement may be termed free, active and effortless and give a more or less fluid picture.

Temperament
That of the typical working terrier capable of overtaking game and going to ground, displaying stamina, courage, strength and agility. Fearless, good-tempered, loyal and canny, he is friendly and gay with those he knows and reserved and cautious with strangers.

Disqualification
A Dudley, flesh-colored or brown nose shall disqualify.

Approved February 10, 1990
Effective March 28, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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