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[亲宠交流] 名犬品种(纯种狗介绍)

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:48:44 | 显示全部楼层


苏俄牧羊犬 Borzoi
牧羊犬其名来自俄语.身材细挑,活泼.俄国革命前的帝王及贵族用此犬来猎狼,因此也称苏俄猎狼犬.属狩猎犬种的苏俄牧羊犬生性敏捷,动作激烈.在很多场合下必须训练.

历史:
苏俄牧羊犬是属于短毛视觉型狩猎犬种,来自中东地区传到北方大陆与当地长毛牧羊犬交配改良,而变得强壮有力,拥有一身防寒的长被毛.在贵族之间被当作传统的馈赠礼物.1842年,俄国皇帝将此犬送给维多利亚女王,后来又送给桑德拉女妃.该饲养犬在诺福克的领土中,和当地可利犬配种,产生新型长毛可利犬种,这就是拥有细长,优雅及白色背毛的苏俄牧羊犬.

性质:
个性稳重,感情丰富,常见有拘谨的个性和顽固的一面.在饲养,训练,管理具有复杂性格的苏俄牧羊犬时,需要格外小心,谨慎.

眼:
为暗色杏核状,框是黑色.

牙齿:
剪状咬合,上下齿重叠.

耳:
小,纤细,耳端尖,耳根高且靠后.耳毛长,稀少且不规则.

身体:
背部线条优美,骨骼纤细,胸部深入,狭窄.

背毛:
长,丝状,最好是波浪形或卷曲.什么毛色都有,以白底浓斑居多.头,耳,脚的正面毛短而光滑.胸部及前脚毛密.

四肢:
长,伸直且平行.大腿肚十分发达.

足部:
呈椭圆形,窄小,厚且有力的肉趾,脚尖靠拢.

尾:
长,尾跟低,形状如镰刀,尾毛茂盛.

身高:
最矮 雄:74厘米 雌:68厘米

Borzoi Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Borzoi was originally bred for the coursing of wild game on more or less open terrain, relying on sight rather than scent. To accomplish this purpose, the Borzoi needed particular structural qualities to chase, catch and hold his quarry. Special emphasis is placed on sound running gear, strong neck and jaws, courage and agility, combined with proper condition. The Borzoi should always possess unmistakable elegance, with flowing lines, graceful in motion or repose. Males, masculine without coarseness; bitches, feminine and refined.

Head
Skull slightly domed, long and narrow, with scarcely any perceptible stop, inclined to be Roman-nosed. Jaws long, powerful and deep, somewhat finer in bitches but not snipy. Teeth strong and clean with either an even or a scissors bite. Missing teeth should be penalized. Nose large and black.

Ears
Small and fine in quality, lying back on the neck when in repose with the tips when thrown back almost touching behind occiput; raised when at attention.

Eyes
Set somewhat obliquely, dark in color, intelligent but rather soft in expression; never round, full nor staring, nor light in color; eye rims dark; inner corner midway between tip of nose and occiput.

Neck
Clean, free from throatiness; slightly arched, very powerful and well set on.

Shoulders
Sloping, fine at the withers and free from coarseness or lumber.

Chest
Rather narrow, with great depth of brisket.

Ribs
Only slightly sprung, but very deep giving room for heart and lung play.

Back
Rising a little at the loins in a graceful curve.

Loins
Extremely muscular, but rather tucked up, owing to the great depth of chest and comparative shortness of back and ribs.

Forelegs
Bones straight and somewhat flattened like blades, with the narrower edge forward. The elbows have free play and are turned neither in nor out. Pasterns strong.

Feet
Hare-shaped, with well-arched knuckles, toes close and well padded.

Hindquarters
Long, very muscular and powerful with well bent stifles; somewhat wider than the forequarters; strong first and second thighs; hocks clean and well let down; legs parallel when viewed from the rear.

Dewclaws
Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs are generally removed; dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed.

Tail
Long, set on and carried low in a graceful curve.

Coat
Long, silky (not woolly), either flat, wavy or rather curly. On the head, ears and front of legs it should be short and smooth; on the neck the frill should be profuse and rather curly. Feather on hindquarters and tail, long and profuse, less so on chest and back of forelegs.

Color
Any color, or combination of colors, is acceptable.

Size
Mature males should be at least 28 inches at the withers and mature bitches at least 26 inches at the withers. Dogs and bitches below these respective limits should be severely penalized; dogs and bitches above the respective limits should not be penalized as long as extra size is not acquired at the expense of symmetry, speed and staying quality. Range in weight for males from 75 to 105 pounds and for bitches from 15 to 20 pounds less.

Gait
Front legs must reach well out in front with pasterns strong and springy. Hackneyed motion with mincing gait is not desired nor is weaving and crossing. However, while the hind legs are wider apart than the front, the feet tend to move closer to the center line when the dog moves at a fast trot. When viewed from the side there should be a noticeable drive with a ground-covering stride from well-angulated stifles and hocks. The over-all appearance in motion should be that of effortless power, endurance, speed, agility, smoothness and grace.

Faults
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Borzoi. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation keeping in mind the importance of the contribution of the various features toward the basic original purpose of the breed.

Approved June 13, 1972

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:49:52 | 显示全部楼层


寻血猎犬(Bloodhound)
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[简介]

寻血猎犬拥有大量显著的特征,这些特征都指出,它是一种典型的以嗅觉捕猎的狗。它非常强壮,通常,它比其他品种的猎犬具有更大的捕猎范围。皮肤的质地(触摸)薄,非常松弛,这一点在头部和颈部更加明显,在这些部位,皮肤松松地挂着,有很深的皱纹。

[历史]

寻血猎犬属于十分古老的狩猎犬之一。是纯正的品种,比利时是此犬的发源地。八世纪时,在比利时驯养此犬并用来狩猎,成为狩猎犬,是以“圣休特犬”此名称而得名。法国王室非常喜爱此犬。1066年,寻血猎犬曾被威廉王带到英国。经过几世纪之后,英国进行配种,而改良而产生为目前的寻血猎犬。

[体型]

肩高:成年雄性的平均肩高约66.0厘米;而成年雌性约61.0厘米。成年雄性肩高一般在63.5~68.6厘米之间变动;成年雌性肩高一般在58.4~63.5厘米之间变动。不论何时,在特征和品质相同的前提下,会首先选择肩高比较高一些的。

体重:在正常条件下,成年雄性的平均体重约为40.82千克;成年雌性的平均体重约为36.29千克。雄性体重能达到49.90千克;雌性体重能达到45.36千克。如果(高度一样)特征和品质相同的前提下,会首先选择体重比较重一些的。

[头部]

表情:高贵而威严,显得严肃、睿智、有权力。

与长度相比,头部显得狭窄,与身体相比,头部显得很长。从太阳穴到口吻方向,显得尖端略细(但非常轻微),所以,从上面观察,或从正面观察,头部两侧显得平坦,且整个头部的宽度大致相等。脑袋的上轮廓与前脸的上轮廓几乎处在同一平面。从鼻尖到止部(两眼中间)的距离不小于从止部到后枕骨突起处的距离。头部的整体长度(从后枕骨突起处到口吻末端的距离),雄性约为12英寸或更长;雌性约为11英寸或更长。脑袋:脑袋长而狭窄,后枕骨突起处非常明显。眉骨不很突出,但是由于眼睛比较深,所以,眉骨好象会显得比较明显。前脸:前脸(口吻)长,深,宽度一致,轮廓呈正方形。眼睛:眼睛深深陷入眼窝中,眼睑呈菱形或钻石形,结果是下眼睑外翻,象上唇一样下垂。眼睛的颜色符合一般的色调,从较深的榛色到黄色都可以。但榛色肯定是首选,尽管,在肝色和褐色的狗中,这种颜色的眼睛很少见。耳朵:耳朵摸上去的感觉薄而柔软,极长,位置非常低,下垂并带有优美的褶皱,下半部分向内向后卷曲。牙齿:剪状咬和为首选,钳状咬和也可以接受。

[皱纹]

头部长有大量松弛的皮肤,几乎每个地方的皮肤都显得多余,但当他低下头的时候更明显;这些松弛的皮肤垂落下来,形成皱纹,尤其是前额和脸部两侧。鼻孔:鼻孔大而张开。嘴唇,上唇赘肉,及喉咙赘肉:前方嘴唇呈正方形状下垂,使前脸轮廓呈直角;同时,后面的嘴唇深,上唇赘肉挂下来,接下来,是颈部松弛的皮肤垂下来,形成褶皱,构成喉咙赘肉,而且非常明显。这些特征在雌性身上也有,只是程度略轻一些。

[颈部、肩部和胸部]

颈部长,肩胛肌肉发达,向后倾斜;肋骨支撑良好;胸部向下放置在两腿中间,有足够的深度。

[腿和足爪]

前腿直,且骨骼粗大,肘部角度明显;足爪结实,关节健全;大腿和第二节大腿肌肉非常发达;飞节适度倾斜,位置低且角度明显。

[背部和腰部]

背部和腰部结实,腰部深而略微圆拱。

尾巴:尾巴长而尖细,位置宁可高一些,下面长有中等数量的毛发。

[颜色]

颜色为黑色和褐色,肝色与褐色,还有红色;不时会有一些浅色或獾色毛发,有时还搀杂一些白色。在胸部、足爪和尾巴尖带有少量白色是允许的。

[步态]

步态有弹性,愉快而舒展,尾巴高高举起,但不能举的太过分(超过背部)。

[性格]

性格极度友善,既不喜欢与同伴(人类)吵闹,也不喜欢与其他狗吵闹。他天生有点羞怯,对主人的批评和赞扬同样敏感。

[失格]



  

标准通过日期:1996年1月 9日

标准执行日期:1996年2月29日


Bloodhound Breed Standard


General Character
The Bloodhound possesses, in a most marked degree, every point and characteristic of those dogs which hunt together by scent (Sagaces). He is very powerful, and stands over more ground than is usual with hounds of other breeds. The skin is thin to the touch and extremely loose, this being more especially noticeable about the head and neck, where it hangs in deep folds.

Height
The mean average height of adult dogs is 26 inches, and of adult bitches 24 inches. Dogs usually vary from 25 inches to 27 inches, and bitches from 23 inches to 25 inches; but, in either case, the greater height is to be preferred, provided that character and quality are also combined.

Weight
The mean average weight of adult dogs, in fair condition, is 90 pounds, and of adult bitches 80 pounds. Dogs attain the weight of 110 pounds, bitches 100 pounds. The greater weights are to be preferred, provided (as in the case of height) that quality and proportion are also combined.

Expression
The expression is noble and dignified, and characterized by solemnity, wisdom, and power.

Temperament
In temperament he is extremely affectionate, neither quarrelsome with companions nor with other dogs. His nature is somewhat shy, and equally sensitive to kindness or correction by his master.

Head
The head is narrow in proportion to its length, and long in proportion to the body, tapering but slightly from the temples to the end of the muzzle, thus (when viewed from above and in front) having the appearance of being flattened at the sides and of being nearly equal in width throughout its entire length. In profile the upper outline of the skull is nearly in the same plane as that of the foreface. The length from end of nose to stop (midway between the eyes) should be not less than that from stop to back of occipital protuberance (peak). The entire length of head from the posterior part of the occipital protuberance to the end of the muzzle should be 12 inches, or more, in dogs, and 11 inches, or more, in bitches. Skull-- The skull is long and narrow, with the occipital peak very pronounced. The brows are not prominent, although, owing to the deep-set eyes, they may have that appearance. Foreface--The foreface is long, deep, and of even width throughout, with square outline when seen in profile. Eyes--The eyes are deeply sunk in the orbits, the lids assuming a lozenge or diamond shape, in consequence of the lower lids being dragged down and everted by the heavy flews. The eyes correspond with the general tone of color of the animal, varying from deep hazel to yellow. The hazel color is, however, to be preferred, although very seldom seen in liver-and-tan hounds. Ears--The ears are thin and soft to the touch, extremely long, set very low, and fall in graceful folds, the lower parts curling inward and backward. Mouth--A scissors bite is preferred, level bite accepted.

Wrinkle
The head is furnished with an amount of loose skin, which in nearly every position appears superabundant, but more particularly so when the head is carried low; the skin then falls into loose, pendulous ridges and folds, especially over the forehead and sides of the face. Nostrils--The nostrils are large and open. Lips, Flews, and Dewlap--In front the lips fall squarely, making a right angle with the upper line of the foreface; whilst behind they form deep, hanging flews, and, being continued into the pendant folds of loose skin about the neck, constitute the dewlap, which is very pronounced. These characteristics are found, though in a lesser degree, in the bitch.

Neck, Shoulders and Chest
The neck is long, the shoulders muscular and well sloped backwards; the ribs are well sprung; and the chest well let down between the forelegs, forming a deep keel.

Legs and Feet
The forelegs are straight and large in bone, with elbows squarely set; the feet strong and well knuckled up; the thighs and second thighs (gaskins) are very muscular; the hocks well bent and let down and squarely set.

Back and Loin
The back and loins are strong, the latter deep and slightly arched. Stern--The stern is long and tapering, and set on rather high, with a moderate amount of hair underneath.

Gait
The gait is elastic, swinging and free, the stern being carried high, but not too much curled over the back.

Color
The colors are black and tan, liver and tan, and red; the darker colors being sometimes interspersed with lighter or badger-colored hair, and sometimes flecked with white. A small amount of white is permissible on chest, feet, and tip of stern.

Approved: January 9, 1996
Effective: February 29, 1996

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:50:59 | 显示全部楼层


黑褐色猎浣熊犬(Black and Tan Coonhound)
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[简介]

    首先,黑褐猎浣熊犬的本质是一种工作犬,一种追踪和将猎物赶到树上去的猎犬,需要它在工作时,能够抵御冬季的严寒和夏季的炎热,并适应复杂的地形条件。主要是用来追踪浣熊并将它们赶上树去,黑褐猎浣熊犬完全依靠嗅觉来执行任务,它的作为猎浣熊犬特征和勇气使它也能够追踪鹿,熊,美洲狮等大型猎物。在评估它的优缺点的时候,上面这些情况是裁判非常关注的问题。给人的一般印象是力量、敏捷和机警。给人的直接印象之一是非常有力的、有节奏的步伐,使它具有足够的速度。

[历史]

    虽然最近我们的纯种登记数量相对的有所增加,但当考虑历史时,黑褐色猎浣熊犬事实上是一个老的品种。它很有可能是源干11世纪诺曼底君主威廉姆一世统治时期的英国名犬塔尔博特提猎犬;后来,继承了寻血猎犬和经由英国自己的维吉尼亚猎狐犬而来的猎狐犬的血统,常常被称为“黑褐色猎浣熊犬”。

    靠颜色选择出的品种(因为也有其他颜色的品种)以及由于擅长追猎负鼠和浣熊,黑色猎浣熊犬被精心培育了一段时期,1945年被允许在美国养犬俱乐部注册。

    黑褐色猎浣熊犬的步伐虽然不是特别的快,但却能靠高超的技能和果断力进行追踪。事实上,它按照寻血猎犬的方式,完全依靠嗅觉狩猎,鼻子贴着地追踪猎物,当它的猎物被赶上树时会朝上吠叫或发出声音。尽管这种猎犬被培养为专门的追猎浣熊,但它在追猎鹿、美洲狮、熊及可能的其他大的野兽方面也做得非常好。

[体型]

    尺寸:雄性肩高约63.5~68.6厘米;雌性肩高约58.4~63.5厘米。如果结构坚固、比例匀称,但体型过大的情况不属于缺陷。体型过小属于缺陷。比例:从肩关节到臀部的距离(体长)等于或略大于从马肩隆到地面的距离(肩高),高度符合正常比例,不应该显得腿很细长或身躯太接近地面。体质:考虑到它们是一种猎犬,所以应该具有中等骨量和发达的肌肉。雄性的骨量和肌肉要明显多于雌性。

[头部]

    头部整洁。雄性从脑袋后到鼻尖的距离为22.9~25.4厘米;雌性从脑袋后到鼻尖的距离为20.3~22.9厘米。表情:警觉、友善而热情。没有皱纹。鼻孔开阔,鼻镜为黑色。下垂的上唇非常发达,显示出典型的猎犬相貌。皱纹过多属于缺陷。眼睛:从榛色到深褐色,差不多是圆形,位置不深。黄色或浅色眼睛属于缺陷。耳朵:位置低而靠后。以优美的折痕悬挂着,给它一种庄严的外貌。从长度来看,耳朵能自然的延伸到鼻尖的位置(耳朵的位置与眼睛处于同一水平或略低一些)。耳朵的长度不足以延伸到鼻尖或位置太高都属于缺陷。脑袋:整个轮廓趋向于卵形,止部适中,位于从后枕骨到鼻镜的中途。观察轮廓,可以发现,脑袋的轮廓线与口吻(前脸)的轮廓线相互平行。牙齿:均匀,剪状咬合。背离剪状咬合都属于缺陷。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

    颈部肌肉发达,倾斜,中等长度。喉咙没有赘肉。后背水平、有力而结实。它拥有丰满、圆拱、支撑良好的肋骨,不是平板胸。胸部深度至少延伸到肘部。尾巴:结实,尾根位置略低于背线,尾巴自由的举着,运动时,尾巴与后背成直角。

[前躯]

    肩部结构非常有力。前肢笔直,肘部既不向内弯,也不向外翻;?f骨结实而竖直。足爪紧凑,指关节发育良好,脚趾结实而圆拱,脚垫厚实而结实。缺陷:平脚板或张开的足爪。

[后躯]

    骨量充足而肌肉发达。从臀部到飞节长而强壮有力,飞节到脚垫短而结实。后膝关节和飞节适度倾斜,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。当它站在水平的地面上时,后足爪位于身躯后方(不在身躯正下方),从脚垫到飞节垂直于地面。缺陷:后肢有狼爪。

[被毛]

    被毛短,但非常浓密,能承受艰苦的工作环境。

[颜色]

    就象它的名字所描述的,颜色煤黑色带有丰富的褐色斑纹,斑纹位于眼睛上方、口吻侧面、胸部、腿部、屁股,在脚趾、有黑色铅笔纹。缺陷:胸部或身躯其他部分出现白色属于非常严重的缺陷,任何位置出现直径超过2.5厘米的白色斑块属于失格。

[步态]

    从侧面观察,黑褐猎浣熊犬的步伐轻松、优美,前躯充分伸展,而后躯具有强大的驱动力。从正面观察,前肢的运动直线与身体宽度相当,以轻松的姿势向前迈进,但决不交叉。从后面观察,飞节与前肢在同一直线上运动,既不分的太太,也不靠的太近。当速度加快时,足爪向身体中心线收拢(单一轨迹),显示出健康、平衡而有耐力。运动时,头部和尾巴自豪而警惕地昂着,背线保持水平。

[性格]

    性情平和,喜欢外出,且友善。作为一个依靠嗅觉工作的猎犬,应该能与其他猎犬紧密配合,允许有所保留,但决不能羞怯或凶恶。攻击人类或其他犬都属于缺陷。

[注释]

    由于它是一种猎犬,伤疤是光荣的象征,不属于缺陷。

[失格]

    身体的任何位置出现直径超过2.5厘米的白色斑块。



标准通过日期:1990年12月11日

标准执行日期:1991年 1月30日


Black and Tan Coonhound Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Black and Tan Coonhound is first and fundamentally a working dog, a trail and tree hound, capable of withstanding the rigors of winter, the heat of summer, and the difficult terrain over which he is called upon to work. Used principally for trailing and treeing raccoon, the Black and Tan Coonhound runs his game entirely by scent. The characteristics and courage of the Coonhound also make him proficient on the hunt for deer, bear, mountain lion and other big game. Judges are asked by the club sponsoring the breed to place great emphasis upon these facts when evaluating the merits of the dog. The general impression is that of power, agility and alertness. He immediately impresses one with his ability to cover the ground with powerful rhythmic strides.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size measured at the shoulder--Males 25 to 27 inches; females 23 to 25 inches. Oversized dogs should not be penalized when general soundness and proportion are in favor. Penalize undersize. Proportion--Measured from the point of shoulder to the buttocks and from withers to ground the length of body is equal to or slightly greater than the height of the dog at the withers. Height is in proportion to general conformation so that dog appears neither leggy nor close to the ground. Substance--Considering their job as a hunting dog, the individual should exhibit moderate bone and good muscle tone. Males are heavier in bone and muscle tone than females.

Head
The head is cleanly modeled. From the back of the skull to the nose the head measures from 9 to 10 inches in males and from 8 to 9 inches in females. Expression is alert, friendly and eager. The skin is devoid of folds. Nostrils well open and always black. The flews are well developed with typical hound appearance. Penalize excessive wrinkles. Eyes are from hazel to dark brown in color, almost round and not deeply set. Penalize yellow or light eyes. Ears are low set and well back. They hang in graceful folds, giving the dog a majestic appearance. In length they extend naturally well beyond the tip of the nose and are set at eye level or lower. Penalize ears that do not reach the tip of the nose and are set too high on the head. Skull tends toward oval outline. Medium stop occurring midway between occiput bone and nose. Viewed from profile the line of the skull is on a practically parallel plane to the foreface or muzzle. Teeth fit evenly with scissors bite. Penalize excessive deviation from scissors bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is muscular, sloping, medium length. The skin is devoid of excess dewlap. The back is level, powerful and strong. The dog possesses full, round, well sprung ribs, avoiding flatsidedness. Chest reaches at least to the elbows. The tail is strong, with base slightly below level of backline, carried free and when in action at approximately right angle to back.

Forequarters
Powerfully constructed shoulders. The forelegs are straight, with elbows turning neither in nor out; pasterns strong and erect. Feet are compact, with well knuckled, strongly arched toes and thick, strong pads. Penalize flat or splayed feet.

Hindquarters
Quarters are well boned and muscled. From hip to hock long and sinewy, hock to pad short and strong. Stifles and hocks well bent and not inclining either in or out. When standing on a level surface, the hind feet are set back from under the body and the leg from pad to hock is at right angles to the ground. Fault--Rear dewclaws.

Coat
The coat is short but dense to withstand rough going.

Color
As the name implies, the color is coal black with rich tan markings above eyes, on sides of muzzle, chest, legs and breeching, with black pencil markings on toes. Penalize lack of rich tan markings, excessive areas of tan markings, excessive black coloration. Faults--White on chest or other parts of body is highly undesirable, and a solid patch of white which extends more than one inch in any direction is a disqualification.

Gait
When viewed from the side, the stride of the Black and Tan Coonhound is easy and graceful with plenty of reach in front and drive behind. When viewed from the front the forelegs, which are in line with the width of the body, move forward in an effortless manner, but never cross. Viewed from the rear the hocks follow on a line with the forelegs, being neither too widely nor too closely spaced, and as the speed of the trot increases the feet tend to converge toward a center line or single track indicating soundness, balance and stamina. When in action, his head and tail carriage is proud and alert; the topline remains level.

Temperament
Even temperament, outgoing and friendly. As a working scent hound, must be able to work in close contact with other hounds. Some may be reserved but never shy or vicious. Aggression toward people or other dogs is most undesirable.

Note--Inasmuch as this is a hunting breed, scars from honorable wounds shall not be considered faults.

Disqualification

A solid patch of white which extends more than one inch in any direction.

Approved December 11, 1990
Effective January 30, 1991

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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比格犬(Beagle)
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[简介]

小型猎狐犬,它的大部分生命都消耗在狩猎中,追逐、跟踪猎物,并杀死它们。

[历史]

比格犬为狩猎犬当中身材最娇小的品种。生产于古希腊时代。此犬曾被偌曼人和法兰西人的混血民族用来捕捉兔子。1066年这种狗被传入英国。当时因为此狗的体型非常小巧,经常被揣在口袋里,因此被誉为口袋比格犬,改良而成目前的比格犬。伊丽莎白一世,威廉二世,乔治三世都养过这种狗,并在萨克西斯郡不莱登的丘陵地上做狩猎犬。英国米格鲁猎犬的俱乐部在1865年成立,经历了数年之后登陆了美国。

[头部]

头部相对较长,后枕骨略微圆拱,头盖骨宽而丰满。耳朵:耳朵位置略低,长,向前延伸的话,几乎(但不完全)能达到鼻尖的位置,质地细腻,相当宽,几乎完全不能竖起,耳朵贴近头部,内边缘略微弯向面颊,尖端圆。眼睛:大,分的较开,温和的、猎犬式的目光,表情文雅而恳求,颜色为榛色或褐色。口吻:长度适中,直,略呈清晰的正方形。口:平,唇线无下垂,鼻孔大而张开。缺陷:脑袋太平,头顶狭窄,过圆,眼睛小,眼神锐利或象梗类犬,眼睛突出,口吻太长,细长,象在眼睛下方被砍断,或口吻太短,罗马鼻,或鼻孔上翻,形成一个盘子脸。耳朵短、位置太高,或升到不恰当的位置。

[身躯]

颈部和喉咙:颈部轻巧、舒展地从肩部升起,结实,但不抗肩膀,长度适中。喉咙整洁,皮肤没有褶皱;在与下颌交界的角落有轻微的皱纹是允许的。缺陷:又粗又短的脖子,直统统的安在肩膀上。喉咙上有赘肉,皮肤松弛达到了“粗喉咙”的程度。

[肩部和胸部]

肩部倾斜,整洁、肌肉发达,没有过重或抗肩膀。能自由转动,且在运动中显得活跃而有力。胸深而宽,但不能太宽而影响肩胛的正常运动。缺陷:过直的肩胛,胸部宽度不合比例或缺乏深度。

[背部、腰部和肋骨]

背部短,肌肉发达而结实。腰部宽而略微圆拱,肋骨支撑良好,给胸腔足够的空间。缺陷:背部过长,晃动,拱起。腰部平、窄。肋骨太平。

[前躯和足爪]

前躯:直,骨量充足,与猎犬的整体尺寸比例恰当。?f骨短而直。足爪:紧凑、圆而稳固,脚垫丰满、坚硬。缺陷:肘部向外,向前弯曲,向后倾斜,前腿弯曲或象腊肠。足爪长、松懈或张开。

[臀部、大腿、后腿和足爪]

臀部和大腿结实且肌肉发达,能提供强大的推动力。膝关节结实,且位置低。飞节稳固,匀称而适度倾斜。足爪紧凑而稳固。缺陷:牛肢,飞节太直,缺乏肌肉和推动力。展开的足爪。

[尾巴]

位置略高,欢快地举着,但不能向前转,超过背部,略微弯曲,与整体尺寸相比显得略短,毛发浓密。缺陷:尾巴太长,呈茶壶曲线,或从根部开始向前倾斜。缺乏毛发象老鼠尾巴。

[被毛]

紧贴身体,坚硬、中等长度的猎犬被毛。缺陷:短、薄的被毛,质地柔软。

[颜色]

任何正确的猎犬颜色。

[品种]

有两种不同的变化;

33.0厘米:肩高不超过33.0厘米的猎犬。

38.1厘米:肩高不低于33.0厘米,但不超过38.1厘米的猎犬。

[评分标准]

外形得分比例





头部                     25

脑袋                    5

耳朵                   10

眼睛                    5

口吻                      5

身躯                     35

颈部                      5

胸部和肩部               15

背部、腰部和肋骨         15

步态                     30

前肢                     10

臀部、大腿和后腿         10

足爪                     10

毛发                     10

被毛                     5

末端                     5



总计  100



[失格]

任何肩高超过38.1厘米的比格犬都属于失格。

[比格犬群形体鉴定的外形得分比例]

评分标准狩猎              70%

群体的整体水平            40%

个体的狩猎优点            30%

礼貌                      20%

职位                      10%

总计                     100%

[群体水平]

对群体而言,首先需要的就是统一的外貌。它们需要具有相同或尽可能接近的身高、体重、结构、颜色。

[猎犬的个体特征]

它们每个个体展示出来的品质。如果非常品质平均,一群活泼的比格犬聚集在一起,没有是一个非常优秀的比格犬。需要避免发生这样的情况。

[礼貌]

所有的比格犬都应该欢快、高高兴兴的工作,高高兴兴的服从命令。它们一起出发,一起回窝,敏捷的跟随行动或停止。萎缩、沉郁、放弃等现象都需要避免。当然,在可怕的主人或猎犬指挥员手下,肯定不会工作。建议指挥猎犬的人尽可能不要使用鞭子。

[指示]

主人和指挥猎犬的人尽可能穿同样的衣服,主人或猎人会携带号角,猎犬指挥员或主人会携带轻质皮鞭。皮鞭会佩带在肩章上。

[推荐的制服]

黑色天鹅绒帽子,镶白边,绿色外套,白色马裤或灯笼裤,绿色或黑色长袜,白色鞋罩,黑色或深棕色鞋子。背心和手套可选。女士的装束完全一样,除了白色灯笼裤改为白色裙子。



标准通过日期:1957年9月10日


Beagle Breed Standard


Head
The skull should be fairly long, slightly domed at occiput, with cranium broad and full. Ears--Ears set on moderately low, long, reaching when drawn out nearly, if not quite, to the end of the nose; fine in texture, fairly broad-with almost entire absence of erectile power-setting close to the head, with the forward edge slightly inturning to the cheek--rounded at tip. Eyes--Eyes large, set well apart-soft and houndlike--expression gentle and pleading; of a brown or hazel color. Muzzle--Muzzle of medium length-straight and square--cut--the stop moderately defined. Jaws--Level. Lips free from flews; nostrils large and open. Defects--A very flat skull, narrow across the top; excess of dome, eyes small, sharp and terrierlike, or prominent and protruding; muzzle long, snipy or cut away decidedly below the eyes, or very short. Roman-nosed, or upturned, giving a dish-face expression. Ears short, set on high or with a tendency to rise above the point of origin.

Body
Neck and Throat--Neck rising free and light from the shoulders strong in substance yet not loaded, of medium length. The throat clean and free from folds of skin; a slight wrinkle below the angle of the jaw, however, may be allowable. Defects--A thick, short, cloddy neck carried on a line with the top of the shoulders. Throat showing dewlap and folds of skin to a degree termed \"throatiness.\"

Shoulders and Chest
Shoulders sloping--clean, muscular, not heavy or loaded--conveying the idea of freedom of action with activity and strength. Chest deep and broad, but not broad enough to interfere with the free play of the shoulders. Defects--Straight, upright shoulders. Chest disproportionately wide or with lack of depth.

Back, Loin and Ribs
Back short, muscular and strong. Loin broad and slightly arched, and the ribs well sprung, giving abundance of lung room. Defects--Very long or swayed or roached back. Flat, narrow loin. Flat ribs.

Forelegs and Feet
Forelegs--Straight, with plenty of bone in proportion to size of the hound. Pasterns short and straight. Feet--Close, round and firm. Pad full and hard. Defects--Out at elbows. Knees knuckled over forward, or bent backward. Forelegs crooked or Dachshundlike. Feet long, open or spreading.

Hips, Thighs, Hind Legs and Feet
Hips and thighs strong and well muscled, giving abundance of propelling power. Stifles strong and well let down. Hocks firm, symmetrical and moderately bent. Feet close and firm. Defects--Cowhocks, or straight hocks. Lack of muscle and propelling power. Open feet.

Tail
Set moderately high; carried gaily, but not turned forward over the back; with slight curve; short as compared with size of the hound; with brush. Defects--A long tail. Teapot curve or inclined forward from the root. Rat tail with absence of brush.

Coat
A close, hard, hound coat of medium length. Defects--A short, thin coat, or of a soft quality.

Color
Any true hound color.

General Appearance
A miniature Foxhound, solid and big for his inches, with the wear-and-tear look of the hound that can last in the chase and follow his quarry to the death.

Scale of Points
Head     
  Skull 5   
  Ears 10   
  Eyes 5   
  Muzzle 5 25
Body     
  Neck 5   
  Chest and shoulders 15   
  Back, loin and ribs 15 35
Running Gear     
  Forelegs 10   
  Hips, thighs and hind legs 10   
  Feet 10 30  
  Coat 5   
  Stern 5 10
Total   100

Varieties
There shall be two varieties:
Thirteen Inch--which shall be for hounds not exceeding 13 inches in height.
Fifteen Inch--which shall be for hounds over 13 but not exceeding 15 inches in height.

Disqualification
Any hound measuring more than 15 inches shall be disqualified.

Packs of Beagles

Score of Points for Judging
Hounds   
General levelness of pack 40%
Individual merit of hounds 30%
  70%
   
Manners 20%
Appointments 10%
Total 100%

Levelness of Pack
The first thing in a pack to be considered is that they present a unified appearance. The hounds must be as near to the same height, weight, conformation and color as possible.

Individual Merit of the Hounds
Is the individual bench-show quality of the hounds. A very level and sporty pack can be gotten together and not a single hound be a good Beagle. This is to be avoided.

Manners
The hounds must all work gaily and cheerfully, with flags up--obeying all commands cheerfully. They should be broken to heel up, kennel up, follow promptly and stand. Cringing, sulking, lying down to be avoided. Also, a pack must not work as though in terror of master and whips. In Beagle packs it is recommended that the whip be used as little as possible.

Appointments
Master and whips should be dressed alike, the master or huntsman to carry horn--the whips and master to carry light thong whips. One whip should carry extra couplings on shoulder strap.

Recommendations for Show Livery
Black velvet cap, white stock, green coat, white breeches or knickerbockers, green or black stockings, white spats, black or dark brown shoes. Vest and gloves optional. Ladies should turn out exactly the same except for a white skirt instead of white breeches.

Approved September 10, 1957

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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巴吉度猎犬(Basset Hound)
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[简介]

    巴吉度猎犬具有下列几种显著的特点,它是一种非常优秀的痕迹追踪犬,可以在非常复杂的地形条件下工作。这是一种短腿沟,骨量充足(骨骼沉重),相对于其他品种而言,体型是至关重要的,它的动作沉稳,但不显得笨拙。性情温和,不能急噪或羞怯。有在旷野长时间工作的耐力,而且非常投入。

[历史]

    从1950年起,巴吉度猎犬(又称巴塞特猎犬)出现后,已经由身份隐晦的猎犬发展成为最引人注意和最具特色的猎犬之一。事实上,巴吉度猎犬是一种古老而高贵的猎犬品种。它源于法国血统,几世纪后在英国发展起来。起先在法国和比利时,巴吉度猎犬主要用于追踪家免、野兔、鹿和其他任何能够靠足迹追踪的猎物。

    巴吉度猎犬在美国时最初用于猎取兔子。然而,也训练它们猎取其他猎物(如浣熊),并且来追踪、赶鸟、寻回受伤的野鸡和其他野鸟。巴吉度猎犬是一个强健而定位准确的追踪者,它的吠叫声大并且与众不同。它的短腿和紧密的皮毛特别利于它在丛林中行走。对于追踪能力,它嗅觉的准确度使它仅次于寻血猎犬。它慢悠悠的行走方式和吸引人的并且滑稽的外貌隐藏了它巨大的智慧。

    由于性格温和,巴吉度猎犬适合群猎,也适合中猎。适中的体形,忠诚并献身于他的主人和家庭品格,不需要额外的毛发护理和清洁,被认为是“温和的看守人”――这些都使巴吉度猎犬成为理想的家庭宠物和看家犬。   

    “巴吉度猎犬”一词第一次用于犬的品种出现在一本关于打猎的早期教材中,是由弗伊洛克斯在1585年撰写的。这本书第一次用想象中的巴吉度猎犬的绘画来举例说明,这幅名叫《Gharette de chasse》的木版画描述了一名运动员由他的“猎獾犬”陪伴着散步,并且,弗伊洛克斯在如何训练犬猎取獾方面提出了一些建议。

    一般认为,法国休伯特大街修道院的修道士从众多其他血统的法国猎犬中挑选出一种身材矮小并且能够跟随在脚边慢慢行走的犬的做法起到了一定作用。巴吉度猎犬一词来源于法语形容词“bas”,意思是“低的东西”或“矮小”,由于打猎在中世纪的法国是高级的运动,所以大量这种十分能干的小猎犬出现在贵族的养犬场并不让人吃惊;但没料想这种情况会被革命引起的生活方式的变化所消散。然而,这个品种却未消失,我们发现,它们在M?布雷兹写于1850年的打猎书《Le Chasseur》中被再次提起。大约在同一时间, M?罗伯特在他的书《Chiens de Chasse》中写道“巴吉度猎犬能够追猎所有的动物,甚至是野猪和狼,但在帮助射杀野兔和家兔方面最为优秀。”

    到19世纪中期,法国巴吉度猎犬两个最大的品种类型存在着轻微的区别,特别是在头部和眼部,这两个类型靠它们各自来源的名称来区分。M?雷恩猎犬的头骨较宽,耳朵较短,眼睛更加圆而突出。它们一般有柠檬色和白色的斑点并可能有突球。李?康泰尤克斯的猎犬的头部较窄,颅骨有些凸起,眼睛较为温和而凹陷。突出的下颌和垂下脸的样子能够出现更多的面部表情。李?康泰尤克斯猎犬迷人的三色毛发使它们更加受人喜爱。

    1866年,洛得?戈尔韦进口了一对法国巴吉度猎犬的李?康泰尤克斯类型到英国。后来,这一对犬交配产了5只小犬,但是它们未被公开,这种犬也没有激起人们的兴趣。直到1874年,当埃弗雷特?米莱先生从法国进口巴吉度猎犬“蒙代尔”时,这种犬才真正在英国活跃起来。由于他大力支持这个品种的发展并坚持在他自己的养犬场内实施育种计划,又与洛得?奥斯洛和乔治克瑞罗建立的育种计划合作,因此,埃弗雷特?米莱先生被认为是英国“巴吉度猎犬之父”。1875年,他第一次在英国犬展上展示巴吉度猎犬,但却直到1880年他帮助伍尔弗汉普顿犬展建立了一个大的比赛项目,才有大量的公众注意到这个品种。几年以后,亚历山德拉皇后把巴吉度猎犬留在了皇家犬场,这引起了人们更多的兴趣。

    在美国,一般认为乔治?华盛顿是第一头巴吉度猎犬的主人,而这只犬是在美国独立战争后作为礼物由拉斐特赠送的。1883年和1884年,美国犬迷从英国进口这种猎犬。1884年,威斯敏斯特养犬俱乐部为巴吉度猎犬进行了分类,并且,英国进口犬“奈莫斯”在美国公众面前初次登场。随后进入东部地区的犬展,此后在1886年,它在波士顿完成了它的锦标赛。1885年第一头巴吉度猎犬在美国养犬俱乐部注册。

    这种猎犬逐渐受到宠爱。到20世纪20年代,杰拉尔德?利文斯通成倍进口这种猎犬到他在长岛的基尔塞斯养犬场。大约在同时,伊拉特斯?太弗德进口大量的英国巴吉度猎犬到他的犬场,其中大部分从瓦尔哈姆普顿帕克而来。卡尔史密斯进口了两只法国巴吉度猎犬,其中一头是法国冠军。巴吉度猎犬开始定期的出现在较大的犬展上。

    这种猎犬进一步引起人们的注意是在《时代》杂志1928年2月27日这一期的封面刊登了一头巴吉度小犬的照片。附随的封面故事是一篇关于威斯敏斯特养犬俱乐部在麦迪逊花园广场每年举行的第52届犬展的报道,好像这只小犬参加了犬展并受到了关注。

    1935年,全国总饲养俱乐部在美国被组织起来,成立了美国巴吉度猎犬俱乐部。每年,俱乐部为这种能干的品种举行全国性比赛,涵盖了各种活动领域:形态、田间训练、群猎、服从和跟踪。

    到20世纪50年代,巴吉度猎犬对于公众来说与电视中的“克利奥”同名,在英国,《每日邮件》的漫画家格雷厄姆通过让它代表普通人使得“弗瑞德?巴吉度”拟人化。但是,这种猎犬值得信赖及多用途的品质从未被它滑稽的外表隐藏。

[体型]

    肩高不超过35.6厘米。如果肩高超过38.1厘米属于失格。

[头部]

    头部大而比例匀称。从后枕骨到口吻的长度略大于眉骨处的宽度。整个头部的外观是中等宽度。脑袋:略微圆拱,后枕骨明显的突出。宽而平坦的脑袋属于缺陷。从鼻镜到止部的距离与从止部到后枕骨的距离大致相等。侧面平坦,没有厚脸皮(面颊鼓起)。从侧面观察,脑袋的轮廓线和口吻的轮廓线直,且相互平行,止部适度清晰。整个头部的皮肤松弛,当头部向下时,眉毛上有清晰的皱纹。干燥的头部,皮肤紧绷属于缺陷。口吻:深、沉重,不细长。鼻镜:色素沉积为暗黑色,纯黑色最好,宽大而张开的鼻孔。与头部颜色相称的深肝色鼻镜是可以接受的,但不理想。牙齿:巨大、健康而整齐,剪状咬合或钳状咬合。上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合都属于严重缺陷。嘴唇:色素沉积为暗黑色,且下垂,前面下垂的嘴唇呈正方形,向后延伸,后面的嘴唇松弛,下垂。喉咙处的赘肉:非常清晰、明显。颈部:有力,有足够的长度,适度圆拱。眼睛:温和、忧伤,略微下凹,瞬膜明显可见,颜色为褐色,深褐色更好。颜色稍浅,与整体颜色相称的情况是允许的,但不理想。颜色非常浅或突出的眼睛属于缺陷。耳朵:非常长,位置底,向前拉的话,可以超过鼻尖。质地柔软,松弛的下垂,末端略微向内卷缩。它们位于头部较靠后的位置(脑袋末端),休息时,耳朵垂到颈部。位置太高或平坦的耳朵属于严重缺陷。

[前躯]

    胸部:深而丰满,胸骨突出,明显地超过前肢。肩部:肩和肘部相对着靠在胸部,从胸部最低点到地面的距离,应该能允许它在不同地形条件下自由运动,成年巴吉度犬的胸底离地面的距离一般不超过肩高的1/3。肩胛向后倾斜,且有力。陡峭的肩胛、错误的前端,肘部向外都属于严重缺陷。前肢:短、有力,骨骼沉重且皮肤有皱纹。肘关节超过前腿属于失格。脚掌:厚重,非常沉重,脚垫沉重、坚硬。足爪圆拱,都均匀地向外倾斜,与肩部宽度相当。足爪在?f骨之下属于严重缺陷。脚趾:既不紧缩在一起,也不张开,宽度与身体前部的宽窄相当。狼爪可以切除。

[身躯]

    肋骨长、平顺、向后延伸。肋骨支撑良好,为心脏和肺提供足够的空间。侧面平坦或突起的肋骨属于缺陷。背线直、水平,没有任何拱起或塌陷的迹象。拱起或塌陷的背线属于缺陷。

[后躯]

    后躯非常丰满,且圆拱,宽度大致与肩部相等。决不能显示出松弛或与整个身躯的深度没有什么联系。它坚定地站立时,后腿的膝关节位置低,但不能显示出蹲着的姿势。从后面观察,后腿彼此平行,飞节既不向内弯,也不向外翻。牛肢或弓形腿都属于严重缺陷。后足爪笔直向前。陡峭、缺乏角度的后躯属于严重缺陷。如果有狼爪,可以切除。

[尾巴]

    不断尾,其位置在脊椎的延长线上,但略微弯曲,以猎犬的方式欢快的举着。

[步态]

    巴吉度猎犬的动作平顺、有力而轻松。作为一种短腿追踪猎犬,必须保持鼻子始终贴近地面。正确的步态主要是来自于正确的前后腿的协调,直线行进时,后足爪与前足爪在同一直线上运动,飞节适度弯曲,动作不显得僵硬。前腿不能出现划桨姿势、摇摆或交错步态,肘部必须贴近身体。从后面观察,后腿彼此平行。

[被毛]

    被毛硬、平滑、短,有足够的密度,可以在任何气候条件下工作。皮肤松弛而有弹性。明显过长的被毛属于失格。

[颜色]

    猎犬允许的所有颜色都可以接受,颜色和斑纹分布是不重要的。

[失格]

    肩高超过38.1厘米。

    肘关节超过前腿。

    明显的长被毛。




标准通过日期:1964年1月14日


Basset Hound Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Basset Hound possesses in marked degree those characteristics which equip it admirably to follow a trail over and through difficult terrain. It is a short-legged dog, heavier in bone, size considered, than any other breed of dog, and while its movement is deliberate, it is in no sense clumsy. In temperament it is mild, never sharp or timid. It is capable of great endurance in the field and is extreme in its devotion.

Head
The head is large and well proportioned. Its length from occiput to muzzle is greater than the width at the brow. In overall appearance the head is of medium width. The skull is well domed, showing a pronounced occipital protuberance. A broad flat skull is a fault. The length from nose to stop is approximately the length from stop to occiput. The sides are flat and free from cheek bumps. Viewed in profile the top lines of the muzzle and skull are straight and lie in parallel planes, with a moderately defined stop. The skin over the whole of the head is loose, falling in distinct wrinkles over the brow when the head is lowered. A dry head and tight skin are faults. The muzzle is deep, heavy, and free from snipiness. The nose is darkly pigmented, preferably black, with large wide-open nostrils. A deep liver-colored nose conforming to the coloring of the head is permissible but not desirable. The teeth are large, sound, and regular, meeting in either a scissors or an even bite. A bite either overshot or undershot is a serious fault. The lips are darkly pigmented and are pendulous, falling squarely in front and, toward the back, in loose hanging flews. The dewlap is very pronounced. The neck is powerful, of good length, and well arched. The eyes are soft, sad, and slightly sunken, showing a prominent haw, and in color are brown, dark brown preferred. A somewhat lighter-colored eye conforming to the general coloring of the dog is acceptable but not desirable. Very light or protruding eyes are faults. The ears are extremely long, low set, and when drawn forward, fold well over the end of the nose. They are velvety in texture, hanging in loose folds with the ends curling slightly inward. They are set far back on the head at the base of the skull and, in repose, appear to be set on the neck. A high set or flat ear is a serious fault.

Forequarters
The chest is deep and full with prominent sternum showing clearly in front of the legs. The shoulders and elbows are set close against the sides of the chest. The distance from the deepest point of the chest to the ground, while it must be adequate to allow free movement when working in the field, is not to be more than one-third the total height at the withers of an adult Basset. The shoulders are well laid back and powerful. Steepness in shoulder, fiddle fronts, and elbows that are out, are serious faults. The forelegs are short, powerful, heavy in bone, with wrinkled skin. Knuckling over of the front legs is a disqualification. The paw is massive, very heavy with tough heavy pads, well rounded and with both feet inclined equally a trifle outward, balancing the width of the shoulders. Feet down at the pastern are a serious fault. The toes are neither pinched together nor splayed, with the weight of the forepart of the body borne evenly on each. The dewclaws may be removed.

Body
The rib structure is long, smooth, and extends well back. The ribs are well sprung, allowing adequate room for heart and lungs. Flatsidedness and flanged ribs are faults. The topline is straight, level, and free from any tendency to sag or roach, which are faults.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters are very full and well rounded, and are approximately equal to the shoulders in width. They must not appear slack or light in relation to the over-all depth of the body. The dog stands firmly on its hind legs showing a well-let-down stifle with no tendency toward a crouching stance. Viewed from behind, the hind legs are parallel, with the hocks turning neither in nor out. Cowhocks or bowed legs are serious faults. The hind feet point straight ahead. Steep, poorly angulated hindquarters are a serious fault. The dewclaws, if any, may be removed.

Tail
The tail is not to be docked, and is set in continuation of the spine with but slight curvature, and carried gaily in hound fashion. The hair on the underside of the tail is coarse.

Size
The height should not exceed 14 inches. Height over 15 inches at the highest point of the shoulder blade is a disqualification.

Gait
The Basset Hound moves in a smooth, powerful, and effortless manner. Being a scenting dog with short legs, it holds its nose low to the ground. Its gait is absolutely true with perfect coordination between the front and hind legs, and it moves in a straight line with hind feet following in line with the front feet, the hocks well bent with no stiffness of action. The front legs do not paddle, weave, or overlap, and the elbows must lie close to the body. Going away, the hind legs are parallel.

Coat
The coat is hard, smooth, and short, with sufficient density to be of use in all weather. The skin is loose and elastic. A distinctly long coat is a disqualification.

Color
Any recognized hound color is acceptable and the distribution of color and markings is of no importance.

Disqualifications
Height of more than 15 inches at the highest point of the shoulder blade.
Knuckled over front legs.
Distinctly long coat.

Approved January 14, 1964

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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巴山基犬(Basenji)
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[简介]

巴山甚犬来自非洲,是小体形短毛猎犬。它背短体轻,就体长来说,它的腿显得有些高。弧形的脖了高傲地举着它带皱的头部,尾巴的位置较高并卷曲着。它的举止保持着文雅优美的姿态和探询的机警性。匀称的体形和流畅的肌肉组织使得它能够灵活敏捷地移动。巴山基犬靠视觉和嗅觉打猎。特点:巴山基犬不吠叫但它并不是哑巴。它带皱的前额,紧紧卷曲的尾巴和敏捷轻快的步态(像是赛马奋力奔驰)是这种猎犬的典型特征。缺点:最为严重的缺点是比例失凋。

[历史]

巴山基犬,通常叫作“吠叫犬”,是最古老的品种之一。第一次被作为礼物从尼罗河的源头而送给了古埃及的法老王。后来随着埃及文明的衰落,巴山基犬也衰退了。然而,它在其原生地中非仍然受到重视和保护,巴山基犬因它的聪明、速度、打猎能力和安静而受到极高的称赞。

    几世纪以后,一名英国探险者重新发现了巴山基犬并在1895年把一对巴山基犬带到了英国。不幸的是,这几只小犬感染了犬瘟热,其后不久就死了。从那次使这个品种被知晓的尝试失败以后,直到1937年它才成功地被介绍到英国以前,“外面”的世界几乎没有听说过巴山基犬。同时,纽约的拜伦?罗格夫人将一对巴山基犬带到了美国。对美国来说,不幸的是这对犬和它们所生产的一窝小犬都感染了犬瘟热。除了老公犬“博伊西”之外,其他的都死了。

    1941年,一头年轻的巴山基犬母犬从非洲被带到了波士顿;马萨诸塞州金斯顿的亚历山大?菲明斯特得到了它,并在不久之后又得到罗格夫人1937年带到美国的公犬博伊西。年轻母犬“刚果”和博伊西这两只美国品种犬交配后生了第一窝巴圣吉小犬并在美国长大。从此以后,其他的巴山基犬从加拿大里士满A?R?B的养犬场进口,也有的从英国进口.

    美国的爱犬者开始对这种犬产生了兴趣,并且购买幼犬作为养殖场的种犬。1942年,美国巴山基犬俱乐部成立并接受了由英国巴山基犬惧乐部起草的品种标准。1943年,美国养犬俱乐部被允许这种犬在优良品种登记簿上注册并赞成这个标准。在几个月里,就有59只巴山基犬注册。

    巴山基犬的大小和体形与猎狐犬差不多。对巴山基犬的第一印象是它是一种骄傲的小犬,再者就是它的漂亮、优雅和聪明。而事实上,它常常被拿来与小鹿做比较。

    巴山基犬的毛发是它最漂亮的外貌特征之一。为了适应它出生地的热带气候,它的毛发短而健康,而且在阳光照耀下十分光亮。在较冷的国家,它的毛发变得有些粗糙,但从未丧失它闪耀的光泽。总结其他显著的特征:很少吠叫;前额右褶皱的深沟;直立的耳朵;充满智慧、目光深邃的眼睛;尾巴向前卷曲。

巴山基犬在原产地使用时能够充分体现它的聪明和勇气。当地人用它指示、搜索,趋赶猎物到网中,猎取受伤的猎物。它还用来猎取老鼠(一种可恶的重约5.44~9.07千克长着长牙的动物),它的安静是它非常重要的优点。

    美国和英国的一些有机会了解巴山基犬的人发现它是一个有趣的伙伴。它是个迷人可爱的家伙,十分喜欢玩耍、充满好奇和非常活泼。它挑剔讲究的习性,比如说会像猫一样清洁身体而使自己没有犬味,适合在家里饲养。

    巴山基犬特有的高兴时的叫声令人毛骨悚然,这是一种很难描述的声音。这种声音有时介于格格笑和真假嗓徒然转换的笑之间。然而,当它发出这种声音时常常都是它十分高兴的时候,并且人们也禁不住会分享它的快乐。

    几千年以来,巴山基犬一直作为猎犬生存着。其最大的价格在于它的聪明和适应性,因为这种犬常常在猎人的视线之外工作。有时巴山基犬也十分的独立和冷漠。它对陌生人小心警惕,对朋友坦率沉静,对孩子殷勤爱慕。当遇到陌生人时,巴山基犬会首先主动表示它的态度而不会从后面靠近你。巴山基犬虽然不容易兴奋,但它是一种警惕的、活泼的、好奇心强的犬。

[体型]

公犬理想的身高为43.2厘米,母犬为40.6厘米。公犬43.2厘米和母犬40.6厘米,是从胸前到臀部这一点。公犬体重大约10.89千克,母犬大约9.98千克。较小体形的身高与体重的比例应在标准体形比率之内。

[头部]

头高傲地昂着。眼部:从黑褐色到咖啡色,杏仁形,斜置并且目光锐利,眼眶发黑。耳部:小而直立,苗条呈盔状,结构良好,向前置于头顶。头骨扁平,轮廓分明,宽度适中,向着眼部逐渐变细。前颜面从眼睛开始逐渐变细到吻部后嘎然而止。吻部比头骨短,既不粗糙也不长,但有一圈肉垫,两侧有褶皱是令人渴望的,但不成过多而形成垂肉。褶皱在小犬身上最显而易见,这是因为缺少隐蔽处,没有明显的黑色、三色和斑纹。鼻子――十分渴望为黑色。牙齿――整齐排列,剪状咬合。

[颈部,背线、身躯]

颈部长度适度。喉咙底部的毛发轻柔丰满。自然地垂作肩上。背线:与背齐平。躯体:背短,肢体连接短,止于腰部,肋骨向上,肘弯曲通度,呈椭圆形。肩膀前,胸纤细。胸的宽度适中。尾高高置于背线上,向前弯曲并卷曲地放在侧。

[前躯]

肩膀适度向后,肩胛骨和上臂长度大约相等。肘蜷缩紧紧抵着前胸。腿笔直,骨骼流畅,前臂比较长,肌肉明显。系部长度适中,强壮而且灵活。足爪:小,呈椭圆形,结实,长有厚厚的脚垫和弓形的脚趾。狼爪一般消失了。

[后躯及臀部]

适中宽度,强壮而有力,跗关节较长而且既不向外展也不向内翻,有长长的第二胯骨和适度弯曲的后腿膝关节。足爪:与前脚相似。

[毛发和毛色]

毛发短而且细致。毛发易弯曲。毛色  粟红色;纯黑;三色(纯黑和栗红色),或者有斑纹(柴红色的毛发上长着黑色斑纹);脚、胸和尾尖都是白色的。有时腿是纯色或带有星斑。大母的纯色从未成为过主要颜色。颜色和斑纹应是丰富的、清晰的和好区分的,在黑色和三色中的红色肢斑纹的条纹之间有一头明显的分界线。

[步态]

敏捷,不知疲劳地小跑。步幅大,平稳,背线保持平衡。从肩关节到脚和从髋关青到脚,保持完整,向身体下的中心线会聚。跑得越怏,越聚精会神。

[性格]

一种聪明、独立:但充满感情和警惕的猎犬。能够远离陌生人。

[失格]





标准通过日期:1990年5月  8日

标准执行日期:1990年6月28日

Basenji Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Basenji is a small, short haired hunting dog from Africa. It is short backed and lightly built, appearing high on the leg compared to its length. The wrinkled head is proudly carried on a well arched neck and the tail is set high and curled. Elegant and graceful, the whole demeanor is one of poise and inquiring alertness. The balanced structure and the smooth musculature enables it to move with ease and agility. The Basenji hunts by both sight and scent. Characteristics--The Basenji should not bark but is not mute. The wrinkled forehead, tightly curled tail and swift, effortless gait (resembling a racehorse trotting full out) are typical of the breed. Faults--Any departure from the following points must be considered a fault, and the seriousness with which the fault is regarded is to be in exact proportion to its degree.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Ideal height for dogs is 17 inches and bitches 16 inches. Dogs 17 inches and bitches 16 inches from front of chest to point of buttocks. Approximate weight for dogs, 24 pounds and bitches, 22 pounds. Lightly built within this height to weight ratio.

Head
The head is proudly carried. Eyes--Dark hazel to dark brown, almond shaped, obliquely set and farseeing. Rims dark. Ears--Small, erect and slightly hooded, of fine texture and set well forward on top of head. The skull is flat, well chiseled and of medium width, tapering toward the eyes. The foreface tapers from eye to muzzle with a perceptible stop. Muzzle shorter than skull, neither coarse nor snipy, but with rounded cushions. Wrinkles appear upon the forehead when ears are erect, and are fine and profuse. Side wrinkles are desirable, but should never be exaggerated into dewlap. Wrinkles are most noticeable in puppies, and because of lack of shadowing, less noticeable in blacks, tricolors and brindles. Nose--Black greatly desired. Teeth--Evenly aligned with a scissors bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck of good length, well crested and slightly full at base of throat. Well set into shoulders. Topline--Back level. Body--Balanced with a short back, short coupled and ending in a definite waist. Ribs moderately sprung, deep to elbows and oval. Slight forechest in front of point of shoulder. Chest of medium width. Tail is set high on topline, bends acutely forward and lies well curled over to either side.

Forequarters
Shoulders moderately laid back. Shoulder blade and upper arm of approximately equal length. Elbows tucked firmly against brisket. Legs straight with clean fine bone, long forearm and well defined sinews. Pasterns of good length, strong and flexible. Feet--Small, oval and compact with thick pads and well arched toes. Dewclaws are usually removed.

Hindquarters
Medium width, strong and muscular, hocks well let down and turned neither in nor out, with long second thighs and moderately bent stifles. Feet--Same as in \"Forequarters.\"

Coat and Color
Coat short and fine. Skin very pliant.
Color--Chestnut red; pure black; tricolor (pure black and chestnut red); or brindle (black stripes on a background of chestnut red); all with white feet, chest and tail tip. White legs, blaze and collar optional. The amount of white should never predominate over primary color. Color and markings should be rich, clear and well-defined, with a distinct line of demarcation between the black and red of tricolors and the stripes of brindles.

Gait
Swift, tireless trot. Stride is long, smooth, effortless and the topline remains level. Coming and going, the straight column of bones from shoulder joint to foot and from hip joint to pad remains unbroken, converging toward the centerline under the body. The faster the trot, the greater the convergence.

Temperament
An intelligent, independent, but affectionate and alert breed. Can be aloof with strangers.

Approved May 8, 1990
Effective June 28, 1990

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:55:16 | 显示全部楼层


美国猎狐犬(American Foxhound)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

[历史]

    根据众所周知的美国猎犬权威著作,第一次提及这种猎犬进口到美国的记录出现于戴索图的一个侍从的日记里。并进一步提到这种猎犬被用来追逐印第安人而不是狐狸和野兔。

    还是从这本权威著作中,我们了解到1650年罗伯特?布鲁克航海去美国好望角,他的一群猎犬跟随着他,根据这部著作,这些猎犬是几种美国猎犬血统的直系祖先并留在当地将近300年。1742年,维吉尼亚阿尔伯马尔地区的托马斯?沃克先生从英国进口了这种猎犬;1770年乔治华盛顿同意从英国进口猎犬,并于1785年受到一些来自拉斐特的声音像“莫斯科钟声”的法国猎犬。这些进口的猎犬经过发展后构建了现在一些维吉尼亚猎犬血统的基础。

    1808年,格洛斯特猎狐犬俱乐部进口了一些“最好的英国猎犬”,并且巴尔的摩猎犬俱乐部也从英国大量进口。接着罗塞尤从法国进口,爱尔兰在1830年进口。后者成为哈瑞?伯德森和“枪手”血统的直系。大约在1857年莫宾将军从田纳西州东部得到一头名为“田纳西领袖”的犬,这种犬经英国进口,成为“莫宾犬”,现在称为沃克犬(是另种著名的美国猎犬血统)。

    这个国家的猎狐犬被用于四个用途,这四个用途各不相同,因此要求具有不同特征的猎犬。

    (1)田野追踪猎犬,在田野追踪过程中竞相奔跑,速度和警惕的本性十分重要。

    (2)与措手追猎狐狸。需要声音特别,能慢慢跟踪的猎犬。

    (3)追踪猎犬或嗅迹猎犬,需要赛跑或追猎嗅迹,仅仅考虑速度。

    (4)大规模(据说15~20只或更多)群猎。当然,这个种类主要被打猎俱乐部和打猎牧场使用。

    美国猎犬种类在不同地域都发生了不同的变化,但是在最近几年,美国猎狐犬俱乐部和猎狐犬主人协会的猎犬在发展成更为标准的种类方面取得了较大飞跃。

[体型]

    当它以自然姿势站立,足爪在身体下方时,雄性肩高约55.9~63.5厘米;雌性肩高约53.3~61.0厘米。

[头部]

    脑袋:长度适中,后枕骨处略微圆拱,头盖骨宽耳丰满。

    耳朵:位置适度的低,长,如果向前拉,几乎能达到鼻尖(实际上达不到鼻尖);质地细腻,较宽,几乎完全无法直立。位置靠近头部,前边缘略微弯向面颊。耳尖圆。

    眼睛:眼睛大,位置分的比较开,眼神柔和,象猎犬的眼神,文雅而恳求;褐色或榛色。

    口吻:长度清晰,直,且呈正方形,止部适中。

    缺陷:非常平坦的脑袋,头顶狭窄;过度圆拱;眼睛小,眼神尖锐或象梗类犬,明显突出的眼睛;口吻长而尖细,象在眼睛下方被突然砍断,或口吻太短。罗马鼻或向上翻,形成盘子脸。耳朵短,位置太高,或趋向于高过耳根。

[身躯]

    颈部和喉咙:颈部从肩胛向上轻盈、自由地上升,结实,但没有抗肩膀,长度适中。喉咙整洁,皮肤没有折痕,在下颌拐角处有轻微的皱纹,是允许的。缺陷:粗、短、粗糙的颈部,直统统地从肩胛升起。喉咙的皮肤有褶皱和赘肉,达到一定程度。

[肩胛、胸部、肋骨]

    肩胛倾斜,整洁,肌肉发达,不过分沉重或抗肩膀,能为舒展的、理想的动作提供灵活性和力量。胸部有足够的深度为肺提供空间,从与深度的比例来看,比英国猎狐犬要窄,身高23英寸的美国猎狐犬胸围28英寸。肋骨扩张良好,且向后延伸,到距离腰窝3英寸处,是允许的。

[背部和腰部]

    背部长度适中,肌肉发达而结实。腰宽而适度圆拱。缺陷:过长或摇摆不定或拱起的背部。平坦、狭窄的腰部。

[前躯和足爪]

    前躯:直,具有正确的骨量。胶骨短而直。足爪:象狐狸。脚垫丰满而坚硬。圆拱的脚趾。强健的趾甲。缺陷:直,垂直的肩胛,胸宽不呈比例或缺乏深度。平坦的肋骨。外翻的肘部。膝关节向前或向后倾斜。前腿弯曲。足爪长,张开或散开。

[臀部、大腿、后躯和足爪]

    臀部和大腿,结实且肌肉发达,能产生巨大的推动力。膝关节结实且位置低。飞节稳固,匀称而适度倾斜。足爪紧凑而稳固。缺陷:牛肢,或飞节太直。缺乏肌肉和推动力。足爪张开。

[尾巴]

    尾巴:位置适度高;欢快的举着,但不能超过背部;轻微地卷曲;非常轻微的刷子状。缺陷:长尾巴,茶壶曲线或从根部向前倾斜。老鼠尾巴,整体缺乏毛发。

[被毛]

    被毛:紧密、坚硬的猎犬被毛,中等长度缺陷:短而薄的被毛,或质地柔软。

[颜色]

    任何颜色。

[步态]

[性格]

[失格]

[评分标准]

    外形得分比例





头部                   20

脑袋                    5

耳朵                    5

眼睛                    5

口吻                    5

身躯                   35

颈部                    5

胸部和肩胛             15

背部、腰部和肋骨       15

运动机构               35

前腿                   10

臀部、大腿和后腿       10

足爪                   15

被毛和尾巴             10

被毛                    5

尾巴                     5

总计  100

American Foxhound Breed Standard


Head
Skull--Should be fairly long, slightly domed at occiput, with cranium broad and full. Ears--Ears set on moderately low, long, reaching when drawn out nearly, if not quite, to the tip of the nose; fine in texture, fairly broad, with almost entire absence of erectile power--setting close to the head with the forward edge slightly inturning to the cheek--round at tip. Eyes-- Eyes large, set well apart, soft and houndlike--expression gentle and pleading; of a brown or hazel color. Muzzle--Muzzle of fair length--straight and square-cut--the stop moderately defined. Defects--A very flat skull, narrow across the top; excess of dome; eyes small, sharp and terrier like, or prominent and protruding; muzzle long and snippy, cut away decidedly below the eyes, or very short. Roman-nosed, or upturned, giving a dish-face expression. Ears short, set on high, or with a tendency to rise above the point of origin.

Body
Neck and Throat--Neck rising free and light from the shoulders, strong in substance yet not loaded, of medium length. The throat clean and free from folds of skin, a slight wrinkle below the angle of the jaw, however, is allowable. Defects--A thick, short, cloddy neck carried on a line with the top of the shoulders. Throat showing dewlap and folds of skin to a degree termed \"throatiness.\"

Shoulders, Chest and Ribs
Shoulders sloping--clean, muscular, not heavy or loaded--conveying the idea of freedom of action with activity and strength. Chest should be deep for lung space, narrower in proportion to depth than the English hound--28 inches (girth) in a 23-inch hound being good. Well-sprung ribs--back ribs should extend well back--a three-inch flank allowing springiness.

Back and Loins
Back moderately long, muscular and strong. Loins broad and slightly arched. Defects--Very long or swayed or roached back. Flat, narrow loins.

Forelegs and Feet
Forelegs--Straight, with fair amount of bone. Pasterns short and straight. Feet--Fox-like. Pad full and hard. Well-arched toes. Strong nails. Defects--Straight, upright shoulders, chest disproportionately wide or with lack of depth. Flat ribs. Out at elbow. Knees knuckled over forward, or bent backward. Forelegs crooked. Feet long, open or spreading.

Hips, Thighs, Hind Legs and Feet
Hips and thighs, strong and muscled, giving abundance of propelling power. Stifles strong and well let down. Hocks firm, symmetrical and moderately bent. Feet close and firm. Defects--Cowhocks, or straight hocks. Lack of muscle and propelling power. Open feet.

Tail
Set moderately high; carried gaily, but not turned forward over the back; with slight curve; with very slight brush. Defects--A long tail, Teapot curve or inclined forward from the root. Rat tail, entire absence of brush.

Coat
A close, hard, hound coat of medium length. Defects--A short thin coat, or of a soft quality.

Height
Dogs should not be under 22 or over 25 inches. Bitches should not be under 21 or over 24 inches measured across the back at the point of the withers, the hound standing in a natural position with his feet well under him.

Color
Any color.

Scale of Points
Head     
  Skull 5   
  Ears 5   
  Eyes 5   
  Muzzle 5 20
Body     
  Neck 5
   
  Chest and shoulders 15   
  Back, loin and ribs 15 35
Running Gear     
  Forelegs 10   
  Hips, thighs & hind legs 10   
  Feet 15 35
Coat and Tail     
  Coat 5   
  Tail 5 10
Total   100

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:56:18 | 显示全部楼层


阿富汗猎犬(Afghan Hound)AKC标准及介绍
[阿富汗猎犬简介]
阿富汗猎犬是一个贵族,他给人的印象是高贵而孤傲,没有任何平凡或粗陋的迹象。他的前躯笔直,头部高傲的昂着,眼睛凝视远方,象是在回忆逝去的岁月。这一品种的显著特点是:异国情调、或“东方式”的表情;长长的,丝状的“头发”;罕见的被毛;非常突出的臀骨;大大的足爪;还有让人感觉略显夸张后膝关节角度 (由于明显突出的‘裤料’),这些阿富汗猎犬的外观,使他成为犬中的帝王,这是长久以来,正确的传统所遗留下来的。

[阿富汗猎犬的头部]
头 部长度恰当,显得非常精致,脑袋和前脸显得均匀和谐。轻微突起的鼻梁骨,形成了罗马面貌,其中心线沿着前脸上升到轻微(或没有)的止部,消失在眼睛前面, 所以视线清晰,没有任何冲突,下颌显得非常有力,颌部长而强烈;嘴巴为钳状咬和,上下颚牙齿均匀匹配,完全对齐,无上颚突出或下颚突出。对这一品种,这样 的嘴是很难得的。剪状咬和更强烈,且比钳状咬和更容易繁殖,剪状咬和(下颚的牙齿紧贴上颚的牙齿内侧)不属于缺陷。后枕骨非常突出,头顶的“头发”是丝状 的、长长的毛发。耳朵:长,位置大约与外眼角在同一水平线,耳廓的长度可以延伸到鼻尖,被长而丝状的毛发所覆盖。眼睛:杏仁状(差不多是三角的),不能太突出,颜色深。鼻镜:大小合适,黑色。缺陷:粗糙,象被截断,上颚突出或下颚突出,眼睛圆、突出或颜色浅,过分夸张的罗马鼻,脑袋上缺乏“头发”。

[阿富汗猎犬的颈部]
颈部有足够的长度,结实而圆拱,呈曲线状与肩部连接,肩胛长而向后倾斜。缺陷:颈部太短或太粗,羊脖子,鹅脖子,颈部缺乏肌肉或骨骼。

[阿富汗猎犬的身躯]
从马肩隆到腰部,背线看起来几乎是完全水平的。腰部有力而结实,略微圆拱,消失在臀部。髋骨非常突出,肋骨扩张良好,而腰窝上提。肩高与体长(从胸到臀部的距离)大致相等,胸深,宽度适中。缺陷:弓背,凹陷的背部,鹅屁股,松弛的腰部,髋骨不突出,胸部太宽,而与肘部发生冲突。

[阿富汗猎犬的尾巴]
尾根位置不过分高,呈环状或末端弯曲;但不能过分卷曲,或卷在背后,或甩向身体一侧;且决不能太粗。

[阿富汗猎犬的腿]
前 肢直而结实,从肘部到骹骨的长度很大,肘部贴合身体,前足爪的长度和宽度都很大,脚趾圆拱,足爪上覆盖着浓厚的长被毛,质地精细,骹骨长而直,脚垫非常大 且支撑在地面上。肩关节角度恰当,使腿在身体下方合适的位置。太直的肩关节将导致骹骨被压垮,属于严重缺陷。阿富汗猎犬的四个足爪都与身躯保持同一方向, 既不向内弯,也不向外翻。后足爪宽且有足够的长度,脚趾圆拱,足爪上覆盖着浓厚的长被毛。后躯有力而肌肉发达,飞节与臀部间有足够的长度;飞节位置低,飞 节和膝关节的角度都非常恰当;从飞节到胯部略微弯曲呈弓形。缺陷:前后足爪向内弯或向外翻,脚垫缺乏足够的厚度,足爪太小,足爪有其他显著的缺点,骹骨松懈或被压垮,膝关节太直,飞节太长。

[阿富汗猎犬的被毛]
后 躯,腰窝,肋部,前躯,和腿部都覆盖着浓密、丝状的毛发,质地细腻;耳朵,四个足爪都有羽状饰毛;从前面的肩部开始;向后面延伸为马鞍形区域(包括腰窝和 肋骨以上部位)的毛发略短,且紧密,构成了成熟狗的平滑后背,这是阿富汗猎犬的传统特征。阿富汗猎犬是以自然形态出现,被毛不需要修剪或修整;在头顶上有 长而呈丝状的“头发”,这也是阿富汗猎犬的显著特点。在前肢和后肢的腕部的毛发较短是允许的。缺陷:成熟的狗缺乏短毛的马鞍形区域。

[阿富汗猎犬的身高]
雄性,27英寸,上下误差1英寸;雌性,25英寸,上下误差1英寸。

[阿富汗猎犬的体重]
雄性大约60磅;雌性大约50磅。

[阿富汗猎犬的颜色]
所有颜色都允许,但彩色或组合色更好。白色斑纹,尤其是出现在头部,则不理想。

[阿富汗猎犬的步态]
自 由奔跑时,阿富汗猎犬会高速飞奔,在有力而平顺的步伐中,显示出极大的弹性和弹力。如果不加约束,阿富汗猎犬奔跑的速度极快;向前奔跑时,后面的足爪直接 落在前足爪的足迹上,(前后足迹)都是笔直向前的。跑动时,头部和尾巴都高高昂起,阿富汗猎犬的整个外观就是非常时尚,且非常漂亮。

[阿富汗猎犬的气质]
孤傲而威严,但快乐。缺陷:凶狠或羞怯。

标准通过日期:1948年9月14日


Afghan Hound Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Afghan Hound is an aristocrat, his whole appearance one of dignity and aloofness with no trace of plainness or coarseness. He has a straight front, proudly carried head, eyes gazing into the distance as if in memory of ages past. The striking characteristics of the breed-exotic, or \"Eastern,\" expression, long silky topknot, peculiar coat pattern, very prominent hipbones, large feet, and the impression of a somewhat exaggerated bend in the stifle due to profuse trouserings-stand out clearly, giving the Afghan Hound the appearance of what he is, a king of dogs, that has held true to tradition throughout the ages.

Head
The head is of good length, showing much refinement, the skull evenly balanced with the foreface. There is a slight prominence of the nasal bone structure causing a slightly Roman appearance, the center line running up over the foreface with little or no stop, falling away in front of the eyes so there is an absolutely clear outlook with no interference; the underjaw showing great strength, the jaws long and punishing; the mouth level, meaning that the teeth from the upper jaw and lower jaw match evenly, neither overshot nor undershot. This is a difficult mouth to breed. A scissors bite is even more punishing and can be more easily bred into a dog than a level mouth, and a dog having a scissors bite, where the lower teeth slip inside and rest against the teeth of the upper jaw, should not be penalized. The occipital bone is very prominent. The head is surmounted by a topknot of long silky hair. Ears--The ears are long, set approximately on level with outer corners of the eyes, the leather of the ear reaching nearly to the end of the dog\'s nose, and covered with long silky hair. Eyes--The eyes are almond-shaped (almost triangular), never full or bulgy, and are dark in color. Nose--Nose is of good size, black in color. Faults--Coarseness; snipiness; overshot or undershot; eyes round or bulgy or light in color; exaggerated Roman nose; head not surmounted with topknot.

Neck
The neck is of good length, strong and arched, running in a curve to the shoulders which are long and sloping and well laid back. Faults--Neck too short or too thick; a ewe neck; a goose neck; a neck lacking in substance.

Body
The back line appearing practically level from the shoulders to the loin. Strong and powerful loin and slightly arched, falling away toward the stern, with the hipbones very pronounced; well ribbed and tucked up in flanks. The height at the shoulders equals the distance from the chest to the buttocks; the brisket well let down, and of medium width. Faults--Roach back, swayback, goose rump, slack loin; lack of prominence of hipbones; too much width of brisket, causing interference with elbows.

Tail
Tail set not too high on the body, having a ring, or a curve on the end; should never be curled over, or rest on the back, or be carried sideways; and should never be bushy.

Legs
Forelegs are straight and strong with great length between elbow and pastern; elbows well held in; forefeet large in both length and width; toes well arched; feet covered with long thick hair; fine in texture; pasterns long and straight; pads of feet unusually large and well down on the ground. Shoulders have plenty of angulation so that the legs are well set underneath the dog. Too much straightness of shoulder causes the dog to break down in the pasterns, and this is a serious fault. All four feet of the Afghan Hound are in line with the body, turning neither in nor out. The hind feet are broad and of good length; the toes arched, and covered with long thick hair; hindquarters powerful and well muscled, with great length between hip and hock; hocks are well let down; good angulation of both stifle and hock; slightly bowed from hock to crotch. Faults--Front or back feet thrown outward or inward; pads of feet not thick enough; or feet too small; or any other evidence of weakness in feet; weak or broken down pasterns; too straight in stifle; too long in hock.

Coat
Hindquarters, flanks, ribs, forequarters, and legs well covered with thick, silky hair, very fine in texture; ears and all four feet well feathered; from in front of the shoulders; and also backwards from the shoulders along the saddle from the flanks and the ribs upwards, the hair is short and close, forming a smooth back in mature dogs - this is a traditional characteristic of the Afghan Hound. The Afghan Hound should be shown in its natural state; the coat is not clipped or trimmed; the head is surmounted (in the full sense of the word) with a topknot of long, silky hair - that is also an outstanding characteristic of the Afghan Hound. Showing of short hair on cuffs on either front or back legs is permissible. Fault--Lack of shorthaired saddle in mature dogs.

Height
Dogs, 27 inches, plus or minus one inch; bitches, 25 inches, plus or minus one inch.

Weight
Dogs, about 60 pounds; bitches, about 50 pounds.

Color
All colors are permissible, but color or color combinations are pleasing; white markings, especially on the head, are undesirable.

Gait
When running free, the Afghan Hound moves at a gallop, showing great elasticity and spring in his smooth, powerful stride. When on a loose lead, the Afghan can trot at a fast pace; stepping along, he has the appearance of placing the hind feet directly in the foot prints of the front feet, both thrown straight ahead. Moving with head and tail high, the whole appearance of the Afghan Hound is one of great style and beauty.

Temperament
Aloof and dignified, yet gay. Faults--Sharpness or shyness.

Approved September 14, 1948

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:01:19 | 显示全部楼层
工作犬组(Working Group)



藏獒(Tibetan Mastiff)AKC标准及简介


藏獒:预备犬组

藏獒的整体外观
    尊贵威猛。藏獒体型巨大,身体长度稍长于高度,强壮有力,骨骼肌肉发育良好,威严肃穆,表情冷静,头面宽阔,头骨宽大,眼炯炯有神,呈杏仁状,稍斜。肌肉宽大且伸展,形成一种立体感。它的尾巴很有特色,尾位与背部齐平并自然卷起附于背部,而下垂时会覆盖生殖器;与头部保持平衡。被毛和鬃毛很厚,尤其是颈部的鬃毛像一条厚围巾缠在颈部。

    藏獒的典型特色是警觉性高,主要用于家庭和财产的守卫,对陌生人有强烈的敌意和杀伤力,绝对忠诚地保护它的主人和财产。

藏獒的大小、比例、特质
    大小:公犬肩高最低26英寸,母犬肩高最低24英寸。公犬和母犬再矮也不得低于各自的最低高度1英寸。

    比例:身长稍长于高度,(长:高=10:9)如高比长,从胸骨到坐骨,应稍大于肩胛到地面的距离。

    特质:藏獒有给人深刻印象的特质。骨骼和身体都很健壮。比其他同等大小和比例的犬都要优秀,不仅仅在高度上,就连其他特质上,藏獒都是最优秀的犬。

藏獒的头部
   头面宽阔,头骨宽大,成狗有皱褶,从眼睛上端一直延伸到嘴角,对本犬种来说正确的头部特征和脸像对它的繁殖是非常重要的。

    表情:尊贵、机智、警觉、孤傲。

    眼睛:中等大小,眼睛深邃,自然分开呈杏仁状,稍斜,黑中闪着亮光,非常有神。

    耳朵:中等大小,V字型,自然下垂,紧贴面部靠前,警觉时自然提起,耳部覆盖着短且柔软的绒毛。

    面部:头面宽阔,头骨宽大,鼻梁坚挺。

    额段:深且明显。

    脸部肌肉:宽且大,从各种角度来看都非常的充实和立体。

    比例:从枕骨到头断和头断到鼻尖的比例基本相等。

    鼻子:宽且大,鼻内侧外翻。

    嘴唇:突出,厚实,上唇两侧适度下垂。

    咬合:呈剪刀式咬合,水平咬合也可以接受。牙齿的紧密是必须的。如此才能保持肌肉的平整。

    牙齿:长,健壮,后天遭破损的牙齿,不视为缺点。

    缺陷:缺齿,上颚或下颚突出的,或下前牙突出的。

藏獒的颈、背、躯干
    颈:颈部肌肉丰满,呈拱形。头部下方有垂皮。特别是公犬,头部围绕着厚厚的直立的鬃毛。

    背:背线直,脊背到尾骨是水平的。

    躯干:粗壮,背部挺直宽阔,肌肉发达,柔韧性好,整体有稍微下蹲的感觉。胸深,并低于上肘部,躯干长度略大于高度。

    尾巴:中等长度,长度不能超过踝关节,和背部呈一条直线,自然卷起。当警觉时,尾巴翘起,或朝向任何一边。尾巴双卷,或完全卷起而不能自然放松的是尾缺陷。

藏獒的前驱
    肩:双肩平顺,骨干的肌肉发达。

    前腿:直立,骨骼肌肉粗大,覆有短的粗毛。直立时会有轻微的倾斜。

    前足:猫足,相当大,健壮结实,趾与趾之间有毛。指甲可能是黑色或白色。单个的悬趾可能出现在前足。

藏獒的后躯
    后躯:强壮有力,肌肉发达,所有部分都有棱角。从后面看,后腿和膝盖是平行的。跗关节强壮,自然下垂(大约是腿长的1/3)与足垂直。

   足:一个或是两个的悬趾(狼爪)可能会出现在后足上,可选择于出生后切除。

藏獒的被毛
    总的来说,公犬的皮毛看起来比母犬厚。被毛的质量比数量更重要,双层的被毛相当浓密,丰厚的颈部鬃毛及原来柔软的内层绒毛将会在夏天变得稀疏。毛发浓密坚韧直立,丰厚的下层皮毛显得特别的粗犷。颈部和肩部有更长更粗的毛,特别是显示在公犬身上。藏獒的外貌是自然的,无谓的修饰是不被接受的。当然,悬趾的切除,又另当别论。

藏獒的颜色
栗色、褐色、蓝/灰色,所有的颜色都可能有或没有棕色或金黄色的饰斑,而饰斑的颜色深浅不一。足部有白毛出现是可以接受的。饰斑可能在下列部位出现:眼睛上方的圆点,或可能围绕在眼周围,脸的内侧,咽喉,前腿下部分和前腿内侧的延伸部分,后腿的内侧,后腿膝关节的前方和腿前宽阔的地方,后跗关节到脚趾,臀部和尾巴的下端。臀部和尾巴下端的毛可能比其他部位的颜色稍浅。内层绒毛在黑色或棕色的公犬身上可能是棕色或灰色,如果黑色、褐色、白色出现在身体的其他部位,或是身上出现大块的白斑,视为缺点。另外,除上述颜色以外的其他颜色,也可以接受,但也视为缺点。

藏獒的步态
    藏獒的步伐是轻盈而有弹性的,自然而有力。从侧面看启动和停止都出现最有力,最伸展的动态,而运动时发出的声音和有力感比速度更加重要。

藏獒的习性
   藏獒非常机敏,独立,自主意识和领域意识强。远离陌生人,对自己的领域和财产高度的保护。在展示会上会显得保留或比较温柔,但是作为一种护卫犬种,任何胆怯的表现都不被接受,而且是一种严重的缺陷。当然,任何的事物实地去观察要比阅读资料更为重要,更为清楚。

2004年11月8日批准
2005年1月生效

Tibetan Mastiff


General Appearance
Noble and impressive: a large, powerful, heavy, well built dog, well muscled, with much substance and bone, and of solemn but kindly appearance. The Tibetan Mastiff stands well up on the pasterns, with strong, tight, cat feet, giving an alert appearance. The body is slightly longer than tall. The head is broad and impressive, with massive back skull, the eyes deep-set and almond shaped, slightly slanted, the muzzle broad and well-padded, giving a square appearance. The typical expression of the breed is one of watchfulness. The tail is well feathered and carried over the back in a single curl falling over the loin, balancing the head. The coat and heavy mane is thick, with coarse guard hair and a wooly undercoat. The tail and britches are well feathered.

The Tibetan Mastiff has been used primarily as a family and property guardian for many millennia, and is aloof and watchful of strangers, and highly protective of its people and property.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size: Dogs - minimum of 26 inches at the withers. Bitches - minimum of 24 inches at the withers. Dogs and bitches that are more than one inch below the minimum heights to be severely faulted. Proportion: Slightly longer than tall (9-10), (i.e.,the height to length, measured from sternum to ischium should be slightly greater than the distance from withers to ground). Substance: The Tibetan Mastiff should have impressive substance, both in bone and structure, as well as strength. When dogs are judged equal in type, proportion and movement, the more substantial dog, in terms of substance and bone, not merely height, is to be given preference.

Head
Broad, heavy and strong. Some wrinkling in maturity, extending from above eyes down to corner of mouth. A correct head and expression is essential to the breed. Expression: Noble, intelligent, watchful and aloof. Eyes: Very expressive, medium size, any shade of brown. Rims to be black except in blue/grey, blue/grey and tan dogs and brown dogs, the darkest possible shade of grey or brown. Eyes deep-set, well apart, almondshaped, and slightly slanting. Any other color or shape to be severely faulted since it detracts from the typical expression. Ears: Medium size, V-shaped, pendant, set-on high , dropping forward and hanging close to head. Raised when alert, on level with the top of the skull. The ear leather is thick, covered with soft short hair, and when measured, should reach the inner corner of the eye. Skull: Broad and large, with strongly defined occiput. Broad back skull. Stop: Deep and well defined. Muzzle: Broad, well filled and square when viewed from all sides. Proportions: Measurement from occiput to stop and stop to end of nose, equal or slightly shorter. Nose: Broad, well pigmented, with open nostrils. Black, except with blue/grey or blue/grey and tan dogs, the darkest shade of grey and brown dogs, the darkest shade of brown. Any other color to be severely faulted. Lips: Well developed, thick, with moderate flews and slightly pendulous lower lips. Bite: Complete scissor bite. Level bite acceptable. Essential that dentition fits tightly, to maintain square form of muzzle. Teeth: Canine teeth large, strong, broken teeth not to be faulted. Faults: Missing teeth, overshot, undershot bite.

Neck, Topline and Body
Neck: The neck is well muscled, moderately arched, and may have moderate dewlap. The neck, especially in dogs, is shrouded by a thick upstanding mane. Topline: Topline straight and level between withers and croup. Body: The chest is rather deep, of moderate breadth, with reasonable spring of rib. Brisket reaching to just below elbows. Underline with pronounced (but not exaggerated) tuck-up. The back is muscular with firmly muscled loin. There is no slope or angle to the croup. Tail: Medium to long, but not reaching below hock joint; well feathered. Set high on line with top of back. When alert or in motion, curled over back or to one side. Tails that are double curled or carried in an incomplete curl to be faulted.

Forequarters
Shoulders: Well laid back, muscular, strongly boned, with moderate angulation to match the rear angulation. Legs: Straight, with substantial bone and muscle, well covered with short, coarse hair, feathering, and with strong pasterns that have a slight slope. Feet: Cat feet. Fairly large, strong, compact, may have feathering between toes. Nails may be either black and/or white, regardless of coat color. A single dewclaw may be present on the front feet.

Hindquarters
Hindquarters: Powerful, muscular, with all parts being moderately angulated. Seen from behind, the hind legs and stifle are parallel. The hocks are strong, well let down (approximately one-third the overall length of the leg), and perpendicular. Feet: A single or double dewclaw may be present on the rear feet. Removal of rear dewclaws, if present, optional.

Coat
In general, dogs carry noticeably more coat than bitches. The quality of the coat is of greater importance than quantity. Double-coated, with fairly long, thick coarse guard hair, with heavy soft undercoat in cold weather which becomes rather sparse in warmer months. Hair is fine but hard, straight and stand-off; never silky, curly or wavy. Heavy undercoat, when present, rather woolly. Neck and shoulders heavily coated, especially in dogs, giving mane-like appearance. Tail and britches densely coated and heavily feathered. The Tibetan Mastiff is shown naturally. Trimming is not acceptable except to provide a clean cut appearance of feet. Dogs are not to be penalized if shown with a summer coat.

Color
Black, brown, and blue/grey, all with or without tan markings, and various shades of gold. Tan ranges from a very rich shade through a lighter color. White markings on breast and feet acceptable. Tan markings may appear at any or all of the following areas: above eyes as spots, around eyes (including spectacle markings), on each side of the muzzle, on throat, on lower part of front forelegs and extending up the inside of the forelegs, on inside of rear legs showing down the front of the stifle and broadening out to the front of the rear legs from hock to toes, on breeches, and underside of tail. Undercoat, as well as furnishings on breeches and underside of tail, may be lighter shades of the dominant color. The undercoat on black and tan dogs also may be grey or tan. Other markings such as sabling, brindling, white on other areas of the body, or large white markings, to be faulted. All other coat colors, while accepted, are to be faulted.

Gait
The gait of a Tibetan Mastiff is powerful, steady and balanced, yet at the same time, light-footed. When viewed from the side, reach and drive should indicate maximum use of the dog\'s moderate angulation. Back remains level and firm. Sound and powerful movement more important than speed.

Temperament
The Tibetan Mastiff is a highly intelligent, independent, strong willed and rather reserved dog. He is aloof with strangers and highly protective of his charges and his property. In the ring he may exhibit reserve or lack of enthusiasm, but any sign of shyness is unacceptable and must be severely faulted as inappropriate for a guardian breed. Conversely, given its aloof nature, judges should also beware of putting a premium on showiness.

Approved: November 8, 2004
Effective: January 1, 2005

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:02:06 | 显示全部楼层


标准雪纳瑞Standard Schnauzer Breed Standard
[简介]
标准雪纳瑞是一种精力充沛、体格魁梧的狗,发达的肌肉和充足的骨量构成了他坚强的体格;他的身高与体长的比例呈正方形。被毛浓密、粗硬且粗糙不平是这一品种非常重要的特点,他还长有弯弯的眉毛和刚毛的胡须。缺陷:任何背离上述标准(精力充沛、活泼、正方形比例、刚毛)的现象都属于缺陷,在比赛中,将根据背离上述标准的程度进行扣分。
[体型]
理想的身高是公狗肩高约18.5~19.5英寸、母狗肩高约17.5~18.5英寸。任何背离这一范围的现象都属于缺陷,如果肩高超出或不到这一范围,而且超过1英寸,就被视为失格。肩高与体长相等。
[头部]
头部结实、呈矩形、而且很长;从耳朵开始经过眼睛到鼻镜,略略变窄。整个头部的长度大约为后背长度(从马肩隆到尾根处)的一半。头部应该显得与性别及整个体型相称。表情警觉、智商很高、勇敢。眼睛:中等大小的眼睛;深褐色;卵形,而且方向是向前的;既不能呈圆形、也不能突出。眉毛弯弯的,而且是刚毛,但眉毛不能太长,以至于影响视力或遮住眼睛。
耳朵位置高,发育良好,中等厚度,如果剪耳,耳朵应该竖立。如果未剪耳,应该是中等大小的耳朵,呈V字形,向前折叠,内侧边缘*近面颊。缺陷:立耳或垂耳都属于缺陷。
脑袋(从后枕骨到止部)宽度(两耳朵之间)适中,不超过整个脑袋长度的三分之二。脑袋平坦;既不圆、也不显得不平整;头皮平整。止部轻微而刚毛的眉毛非常夸张。口吻结实,与脑袋平行而且长度与脑袋一致;口吻末端呈钝楔形,有夸张的刚毛胡须,使整个头部呈矩形外观。口吻的轮廓线与脑袋的轮廓线平行。鼻镜大,黑色而且丰满。嘴唇黑色,紧。面颊部咬合肌发达,但不能太夸张以至于变成“厚脸皮”,而破坏了矩形头部的整体外观。
咬合:一口完整的白牙齿,坚固而完美的剪状咬合。上下颚有力,不能是上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合。缺陷:钳状咬合在比赛中属于缺陷,但与上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合相比,缺陷的程度轻一些。
[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部结实,中等粗细和长度,呈优雅的弧线形,与肩部结合简洁。皮肤紧凑,恰倒好处的包裹着喉咙,既没有褶皱,也没有赘肉。背线不是绝对水平,而是从马肩隆处的第一节脊椎开始,到臀部(尾根处)略微向下倾,并略呈弧形。背部结实、坚固,直而短。腰部发育良好,从最后一根肋骨到臀部的距离尽可能短。
身躯紧凑,结实,结合简短且坚固,拥有足够的适应性和敏捷度。缺陷:过于苗条或笨重;身躯过大或粗糙。胸部宽度适中,肋骨扩张良好,如果观察横断面,应该呈卵形。胸骨明显可辨。胸部的深度为最低的位置与肘部齐平,从胃部向后,逐渐向上收。缺陷:过度上收。臀部丰满、略圆。尾巴:尾根位置稍高,向上竖立。需要断尾,保留的长度应该在1~2英寸之间。缺陷:松鼠尾。
[前躯]
肩部:肩胛骨倾斜且肌肉发达,所以肩膀平坦,而且肩胛骨圆形的顶端正好与肘部处在同一垂直线上。肩胛骨向前倾斜的一端与前肢结合,从侧面观察,应该尽可能是直角。这样的角度可以使前肢得到最大的伸展性,而不受任何牵制。
前肢笔直,垂直于地面,从任何角度观察,都没有弯曲的现象;两腿湿度分开;骨量充足;肘部紧贴身体,肘尖指向后面。前肢的狼爪可以被切除。
足爪小、紧凑且圆,脚垫厚实,黑色的指甲非常结实。脚趾紧密、略呈拱形(猫足),趾尖笔直向前。
[后躯]
肌肉非常发达,与前肢保持恰当比例,绝对不能比肩部更高。大腿粗壮,后膝关节角度合适。第二节大腿,从膝盖到飞节这一段,与颈部的延长线平行。脚腕,从飞节到足爪这一部分,短,而且与地面完全垂直,而且从后面观察,彼此平行。狼爪,如果后肢上有狼爪,一般都会切除。足爪与前肢相同。
[被毛]
紧密、粗硬、刚毛而且尽可能浓密,柔软而紧密的底毛,粗糙的披毛,按毛发纹理逆向观察,毛发向后方生长,既不光滑也不平坦。披毛(身躯上的毛发)经过修剪(很明显),但只突出了身体的轮廓。
被毛的质地是最重要的特征,在比赛中,狗后背上的毛发长度在3/4到2英寸最为理想。耳朵、头部、颈部、胸部、腹部和尾巴下面的毛发都需要修剪,以突出这一品种的特点。口吻和眼睛上面的毛发比较长一些,形成眉毛和胡须;腿上的毛发比身躯上的要长一些。这些“修饰”使毛发看起来质地粗糙,但不能太夸张,以至影响其工作犬整洁优雅的整体外观。缺陷:被毛柔软、光滑、卷曲、稀疏或蓬松;太长或太短;底毛稀疏或缺少底毛;过分修饰;缺乏修饰。
[颜色]
椒盐色或纯黑色。
椒盐色:典型的椒盐色是混合了黑色和白色毛发,及白色镶黑色的毛发,不同深浅的椒盐色及铁灰色及灰银色。理想的情况是,椒盐色标准雪纳瑞拥有灰色底毛,但褐色底毛或驼色底毛也可以接受。在与身体上颜色协调的前提下,面部的“面具”颜色越深越好。椒盐色的狗,其椒盐色毛发在眉毛、胡须、面颊、喉咙下面、胸部、尾巴下面、腿下部、身体下面和腿的内侧,会淡出至浅灰色或银白色。
黑色:理想的黑色标准雪纳瑞是真正的纯色,没有任何褪色、变色、混合了灰色或褐色。当然,底毛也是纯黑色。但是,年老或长期日晒,肯定会造成严重褪色。在胸前有小快白色污迹不算缺陷。被割伤或咬伤留下的疤痕而引起的褪色不属于缺陷。
缺陷:除了指定颜色以外的任何颜色,如椒盐色混合了铁锈色、棕色、红色、黄色和褐色;缺乏胡椒色;斑点或条纹;背上有黑色条纹;在黑色鞍状部分没有椒盐色毛发或黑色的雪纳瑞有灰色毛发;黑色雪纳瑞有其他颜色底毛。
[步态]
完美、有力、敏捷、大方、正确且标准的步态是由于后腿有力而且后腿角度合理,能很好的产生驱动力。前肢伸展的幅度与后腿保持平衡。在小跑时,后体坚固而水平,没有摇摆、起伏或拱起。从后面观察,虽然在小跑中,足爪可能会向内*,但决不能相碰或交*。加速时,足爪可能会向身体的中心线*。
缺陷:侧行或迂回前进;划奖步,起伏、摇摆;无力、晃动、僵硬、做作的臀部动作;前肢向内或向外翻;马步,从后面观察有交*或相碰。
[气质]
标准雪纳瑞具有极高的智商,聪明、乐于接受训练,勇敢,对气候和疾病有很强的忍耐力和抵御力。他天性合群,非常英勇而且极度忠诚。
缺陷:对缺陷需要认真对待,任何背离上述原则(高智商、英勇、可*)的标准雪纳瑞,例如害羞或非常神经质都属于严重缺陷,并需要淘汰。特别恶劣的属于失格。
[失格]
公狗肩高低于18英寸或高于20英寸。母狗肩高低于17英寸或高于19英寸。
品质非常恶劣的狗。
标准通过日期:1991年2月9日
标准执行日期:1991年3月27日

[以下为标准雪纳瑞AKC标准英文原版]

Standard Schnauzer Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Standard Schnauzer is a robust, heavy-set dog, sturdily built with good muscle and plenty of bone; square-built in proportion of body length to height. His rugged build and dense harsh coat are accentuated by the hallmark of the breed, the arched eyebrows and the bristly mustache and whiskers. Faults--Any deviation that detracts from the Standard Schnauzer\'s desired general appearance of a robust, active, square-built, wire-coated dog. Any deviation from the specifications in the Standard is to be considered a fault and should be penalized in proportion to the extent of the deviation.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Ideal height at the highest point of the shoulder blades, 18½ to 19½ inches for males and 17½ inches to 18½ inches for females. Dogs measuring over or under these limits must be faulted in proportion to the extent of the deviation. Dogs measuring more than one half inch over or under these limits must be disqualified. The height at the highest point of the withers equals the length from breastbone to point of rump.

Head
Head strong, rectangular, and elongated; narrowing slightly from the ears to the eyes and again to the tip of the nose. The total length of the head is about one half the length of the back measured from the withers to the set-on of the tail. The head matches the sex and substance of the dog. Expression alert, highly intelligent, spirited. Eyes medium size; dark brown; oval in shape and turned forward; neither round nor protruding. The brow is arched and wiry, but vision is not impaired nor eyes hidden by too long an eyebrow.
Ears set high, evenly shaped with moderate thickness of leather and carried erect when cropped. If uncropped, they are of medium size, V-shaped and mobile so that they break at skull level and are carried forward with the inner edge close to the cheek. Faults--Prick, or hound ears.

Skull ( Occiput to Stop ) moderately broad between the ears with the width of the skull not exceeding two thirds the length of the skull. The skull must be flat; neither domed nor bumpy; skin unwrinkled. There is a slight stop which is accentuated by the wiry brows. Muzzle strong, and both parallel and equal in length to the topskull; it ends in a moderately blunt wedge with wiry whiskers accenting the rectangular shape of the head. The topline of the muzzle is parallel with the topline of the skull. Nose is large, black and full. The lips should be black, tight and not overlapping. Cheeks--Well developed chewing muscles, but not so much that \"cheekiness\" disturbs the rectangular head form.

Bite-A full complement of white teeth, with a strong, sound scissors bite. The canine teeth are strong and well developed with the upper incisors slightly overlapping and engaging the lower. The upper and lower jaws are powerful and neither overshot nor undershot. Faults--A level bite is considered undesirable but a lesser fault than an overshot or undershot mouth.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck strong, of moderate thickness and length, elegantly arched and blending cleanly into the shoulders. The skin is tight, fitting closely to the dry throat with no wrinkles or dewlaps. The topline of the back should not be absolutely horizontal, but should have a slightly descending slope from the first vertebra of the withers to the faintly curved croup and set-on of the tail. Back strong, firm, straight and short. Loin well developed, with the distance from the last rib to the hips as short as possible.

Body compact, strong, short-coupled and substantial so as to permit great flexibility and agility. Faults--Too slender or shelly; too bulky or coarse.

Chest of medium width with well sprung ribs, and if it could be seen in cross section would be oval. The breastbone is plainly discernible. The brisket must descend at least to the elbows and ascend gradually to the rear with the belly moderately drawn up. Fault--Excessive tuck-up. Croup full and slightly rounded. Tail set moderately high and carried erect. It is docked to not less than one inch nor more than two inches. FaultSquirrel tail.

Forequarters
Shoulders-The sloping shoulder blades are strongly muscled, yet flat and well laid back so that the rounded upper ends are in a nearly vertical line above the elbows. They slope well forward to the point where they join the upper arm, forming as nearly as possible a right angle when seen from the side. Such an angulation permits the maximum forward extension of the forelegs without binding or effort. Forelegs straight, vertical, and without any curvature when seen from all sides; set moderately far apart; with heavy bone; elbows set close to the body and pointing directly to the rear. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. Feet small and compact, round with thick pads and strong black nails. The toes are well closed and arched (cat\'s paws) and pointing straight ahead.

Hindquarters
Strongly muscled, in balance with the forequarters, never appearing higher than the shoulders. Thighs broad with well bent stifles. The second thigh, from knee to hock, is approximately parallel with an extension of the upper neck line. The legs, from the clearly defined hock joint to the feet, are short and perpendicular to the ground and, when viewed from the rear, are parallel to each other. Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs are generally removed. Feet as in front.

Coat
Tight, hard, wiry and as thick as possible, composed of a soft, close undercoat and a harsh outer coat which, when seen against the grain, stands up off the back, lying neither smooth nor flat. The outer coat (body coat) is trimmed (by plucking) only to accent the body outline.

As coat texture is of the greatest importance, a dog may be considered in show coat with back hair measuring from 3/4 to 2 inches in length. Coat on the ears, head, neck, chest, belly and under the tail may be closely trimmed to give the desired typical appearance of the breed. On the muzzle and over the eyes the coat lengthens to form the beard and eyebrows; the hair on the legs is longer than that on the body. These \"furnishings\" should be of harsh texture and should not be so profuse as to detract from the neat appearance or working capabilities of the dog. Faults--Soft, smooth, curly, wavy or shaggy; too long or too short; too sparse or lacking undercoat; excessive furnishings; lack of furnishings.

Color
Pepper and salt or pure black.

Pepper and Salt-The typical pepper and salt color of the topcoat results from the combination of black and white hairs, and white hairs banded with black. Acceptable are all shades of pepper and salt and dark iron gray to silver gray. Ideally, pepper and salt Standard Schnauzers have a gray undercoat, but a tan or fawn undercoat is not to be penalized. It is desirable to have a darker facial mask that harmonizes with the particular shade of coat color. Also, in pepper and salt dogs, the pepper and salt mixture may fade out to light gray or silver white in the eyebrows, whiskers, cheeks, under throat, across chest, under tail, leg furnishings, under body, and inside legs.

Black-Ideally the black Standard Schnauzer should be a true rich color, free from any fading or discoloration or any admixture of gray or tan hairs. The undercoat should also be solid black. However, increased age or continued exposure to the sun may cause a certain amount of fading and burning. A small white smudge on the chest is not a fault. Loss of color as a result of scars from cuts and bites is not a fault.

Faults-Any colors other than specified, and any shadings or mixtures thereof in the topcoat such as rust, brown, red, yellow or tan; absence of peppering; spotting or striping; a black streak down the back; or a black saddle without typical salt and pepper coloring-and gray hairs in the coat of a black; in blacks, any undercoat color other than black.

Gait
Sound, strong, quick, free, true and level gait with powerful, well angulated hindquarters that reach out and cover ground. The forelegs reach out in a stride balancing that of the hindquarters. At a trot, the back remains firm and level, without swaying, rolling or roaching. When viewed from the rear, the feet, though they may appear to travel close when trotting, must not cross or strike. Increased speed causes feet to converge toward the center line of gravity.

Faults-Crabbing or weaving; paddling, rolling, swaying; short, choppy, stiff, stilted rear action; front legs that throw out or in (East and West movers); hackney gait, crossing over, or striking in front or rear.

Temperament
The Standard Schnauzer has highly developed senses, intelligence, aptitude for training, fearlessness, endurance and resistance against weather and illness. His nature combines high-spirited temperament with extreme reliability.

Faults--In weighing the seriousness of a fault, greatest consideration should be given to deviation from the desired alert, highly intelligent, spirited, reliable character of the Standard Schnauzer. Dogs that are shy or appear to be highly nervous should be seriously faulted and dismissed from the ring. Vicious dogs shall be disqualified.

Disqualifications
Males under 18 inches or over 20 inches in height. Females under 17 inches or over 19 inches in height.
Vicious dogs.

Approved February 9, 1991
Effective March 27, 1991

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西伯利亚雪橇犬(哈士奇)AKC标准及介绍

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的品种标准
一般外观
西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇属于中型工作犬,脚步轻快,动作优美。身体紧凑,有着很厚的被毛,耳朵直立,尾巴象刷子,显示出北方地区的遗传特征。步态很有特点:平滑、不费力。他最早的作用就是拉小车,现在仍十分擅长此项工作,拖曳较轻载重量时能以中等速度行进相当远的距离。他的身体比例和体形反映了力量、速度和忍耐力的最基本的平衡状况。雄性肌肉发达,但是轮廓不粗糙;雌性充满女性美,但是不孱弱。在正常条件下,一只肌肉结实、发育良好的西伯利亚雪橇犬也不能拖曳过重的东西。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的大小、比例、外型
高度:雄性,肩高21-23英寸;雌性20-22英寸。
重量:雄性,45-60磅;雌性35-50磅。重量要身高协调。以上的数据代表了高度和重量的极限值,在此之外的不能优先考虑。骨架过大或超重度会影响比赛成绩。从侧面看,从肩点到臀部最末点的长度要略大于从地面到马肩隆顶点的身高。
不合格:雄性超过23英寸,雌性超过22英寸。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的头部
表情坚定,但是友好;好奇,甚至淘气。
眼睛杏仁状,分隔的距离适中,稍斜。眼睛可以是棕色或蓝色;两眼颜色不同,或每只眼都有两种颜色是不能接受的。缺陷:眼睛太斜;靠得太近。
耳朵大小适中,三角形,相距较近,位于头部较高的位置。耳朵厚,覆盖着厚厚的毛,背部略微呈拱形,有力的竖起,尖部略圆,笔直地指向上方。缺陷:耳朵和头的比例失调,显得过大;分得太开;竖起不够有力。
颅骨中等大小,与身体的比例恰当;顶部稍圆,从最宽的地方到眼睛逐渐变细。缺陷:头部笨拙或过于沉重;头部的轮廓太过分明。
额段:角度非常明显,鼻梁从上至下都很直。缺点:额段角度不够明确。
口鼻长度中等、从鼻子的末端到额段的长度等于从额段到枕骨的长度。口鼻的宽度适中,逐渐变细,末端既不尖也不方。缺陷:口鼻国细或太粗;太短或太长。
鼻镜:灰色、棕褐色或黑色犬的鼻镜为黑色;古铜色犬为肝色;纯白色犬可能会有颜色鲜嫩的鼻镜。粉色条纹“雪鼻”也可以接受。嘴唇着色均匀,闭合紧密。牙齿剪状咬合。缺陷:非剪状咬合。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的颈、背线、躯体
颈:长度适中、拱形,犬站立时直立昂起。小跑时颈部伸展,头略微向前伸。缺陷:颈部过短,过粗;过长。胸:深,强壮,但是不太宽,最深点正好位于肘部的后面,并且与其水平。肋骨从脊椎向外充分扩张,但是侧面扁平,以便自由活动。缺陷:胸部过宽;“桶状肋骨”;肋骨太平坦或无力。背部:背直而强壮,从马肩隆到臀部的背线平直。中等长度,不能因为身体过长而变圆或松弛。腰部收紧,倾斜,比胸腔窄,轻微折起。臀部以一定的角度从脊椎处下溜,但是角度不能太陡,以免影响后腿的后蹬力。缺陷:背部松弛,无力;拱状的背部;背线倾斜。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的尾巴
尾巴上的毛很丰富,像狐狸尾巴,恰好位于背线之下,犬立正时尾巴通常以优美的镰刀形曲线背在背上。尾巴举起时不卷在身体的任何一侧,也不平放在背上。正常情况下,应答时犬会摇动尾巴。尾巴上的毛中等长度,上面、侧面和下面的毛长度基本一致,因此看起来很像一个圆的狐狸尾巴。缺陷:尾巴平放或紧紧地卷着;尾根的位置太高或太低。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的前半身
肩部:肩胛骨向后收。从肩点到肘部,上臂有一个略微向后的角度,不能与地面垂直。肩部和胸腔间的肌肉和韧带发达。缺陷:肩部笔直;肩部松弛。前腿:站立时从前面看,腿之间的距离适中,平行,笔直,肘部接近身体,不向里翻,也不向外翻。从侧面看,骨交节有一定的倾斜角度,强壮、灵活。骨骼结实有力,但是不显沉重。腿从肘部到地面的距离略大于肘部到马肩隆顶部的长度。前腿的上爪可以去除。倾斜:骨交节无力;骨骼太笨重;从前面看两腿分得太宽或太窄;肘部外翻。椭圆形的脚,不长。爪子中等大小,紧密,脚趾和肉垫间有丰富的毛。肉垫紧密,厚实。当犬自然站立时,脚爪不能外翻或内翻。缺陷:八字脚,或脚趾无力;脚爪太大、笨拙;脚爪太小、纤细;脚趾内翻或外翻。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的后半身
站立时从后面看,两条后腿的距离适中,两腿平行。大腿上半部肌肉发达,有力,膝关节充分弯曲,踝关节轮廓分明,距地的位置较低。如果有上爪,可以去除。缺陷:膝关节笔直,cow-hocks,后部太窄或太宽。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的被毛
西伯利亚雪橇犬的被毛为双层,中等长度,看上去毛很浓密,但是不能太长掩盖犬本身清晰的轮廓。下层毛柔软,浓密,长度足以支撑外层被毛。外层毛的粗毛平直,光滑伏贴,不粗糙,不能直立。应该指出的是,换毛期没有下层被毛是正常的。可以修剪胡须以及脚趾间和脚周围的毛,以使外表看起来更整洁。修剪其他部位的毛是不能允许的,并要受到严厉惩罚。缺陷:被毛长,粗糙,杂乱蓬松;质地太粗糙或太柔滑;修剪除上述被允许的部位以外的被毛。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的颜色
从黑到纯白的所有颜色都可以接受。头部有一些其他色斑是常见的,包括许多其他品种未发现的图案。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的步态
西伯利亚雪橇犬的标准步态是平稳舒畅,看上去不费力。脚步快而轻,在比赛场地时不要拉得太紧,应该中速快跑,展示前肢良好的伸展性以及后肢强大的驱动力。行进时从前向后看,西伯利亚雪橇犬不是单向运动,随着速度的加快,腿逐渐向前伸展,直至脚趾全部落在身体纵向中轴线上。当脚印集中在一条线上后,前腿和后腿都笔直地向前伸出,肘部和膝关节都不能外翻或内翻。每条后腿都按照同侧前腿的路线运动。犬运步时,背线保持紧张和水平。缺陷:短,跳跃式或起伏式的步法;行动笨拙或滚动步法;交*或螃蟹式的步法。

西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇的性情
西伯利亚雪橇犬的典型性格为友好,温柔,警觉并喜欢交往。他不会呈现出护卫犬强烈的领地占有欲,不会对陌生人产生过多的怀疑,也不会攻击其他犬类。成年犬应该具备一定程度的谨慎和威严。此犬种聪明,温顺,热情,是合适的伴侣和忠诚的工作者。

总结
西伯利亚雪橇犬、哈士奇最重要的特征是中等体型,适中的骨骼,比例平衡,行动自如,特有的被毛,可爱的头部和耳朵,正确的尾巴,以及良好的性格。如果骨骼外观过于夸张或体重超重,步法拘禁或笨拙,被毛长,粗糙都会受到处罚。西伯利亚雪橇犬不能出现超重,外貌粗鲁,以至于像一个做苦功的;或者体重太轻,纤细,类似赛跑犬。无论公母,西伯利亚雪橇犬都表现出强大的忍耐力。虽然这里没有明确指出,但是除了上面提到的那些缺陷,一些适用于所有犬种的明显的身体结构缺陷也适用于西伯利亚雪橇犬的评判。

不合格
雄性犬高于23.5英寸,雌性犬高于22英寸。

1990.10.9批准
1990.11.28生效

Siberian Husky Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Siberian Husky is a medium-sized working dog, quick and light on his feet and free and graceful in action. His moderately compact and well furred body, erect ears and brush tail suggest his Northern heritage. His characteristic gait is smooth and seemingly effortless. He performs his original function in harness most capably, carrying a light load at a moderate speed over great distances. His body proportions and form reflect this basic balance of power, speed and endurance. The males of the Siberian Husky breed are masculine but never coarse; the bitches are feminine but without weakness of structure. In proper condition, with muscle firm and well developed, the Siberian Husky does not carry excess weight.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height--Dogs, 21 to 23½ inches at the withers. Bitches, 20 to 22 inches at the withers. Weight--Dogs, 45 to 60 pounds. Bitches, 35 to 50 pounds. Weight is in proportion to height. The measurements mentioned above represent the extreme height and weight limits with no preference given to either extreme. Any appearance of excessive bone or weight should be penalized. In profile, the length of the body from the point of the shoulder to the rear point of the croup is slightly longer than the height of the body from the ground to the top of the withers. Disqualification--Dogs over 23½ inches and bitches over 22 inches.

Head
Expression is keen, but friendly; interested and even mischievous. Eyes almond shaped, moderately spaced and set a trifle obliquely. Eyes may be brown or blue in color; one of each or parti-colored are acceptable. Faults--Eyes set too obliquely; set too close together. Ears of medium size, triangular in shape, close fitting and set high on the head. They are thick, well furred, slightly arched at the back, and strongly erect, with slightly rounded tips pointing straight up. Faults--Ears too large in proportion to the head; too wide set; not strongly erect. Skull of medium size and in proportion to the body; slightly rounded on top and tapering from the widest point to the eyes. Faults--Head clumsy or heavy; head too finely chiseled. Stop--The stop is well-defined and the bridge of the nose is straight from the stop to the tip. Fault--Insufficient stop. Muzzle of medium length; that is, the distance from the tip of the nose to the stop is equal to the distance from the stop to the occiput. The muzzle is of medium width, tapering gradually to the nose, with the tip neither pointed nor square. Faults Muzzle either too snipy or too coarse; muzzle too short or too long. Nose black in gray, tan or black dogs; liver in copper dogs; may be flesh-colored in pure white dogs. The pink-streaked \"snow nose\" is acceptable. Lips are well pigmented and close fitting. Teeth closing in a scissors bite. Fault--Any bite other than scissors.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck medium in length, arched and carried proudly erect when dog is standing. When moving at a trot, the neck is extended so that the head is carried slightly forward. Faults--Neck too short and thick; neck too long. Chest deep and strong, but not too broad, with the deepest point being just behind and level with the elbows. The ribs are well sprung from the spine but flattened on the sides to allow for freedom of action. Faults--Chest too broad; \"barrel ribs\"; ribs too flat or weak. Back--The back is straight and strong, with a level topline from withers to croup. It is of medium length, neither cobby nor slack from excessive length. The loin is taut and lean, narrower than the rib cage, and with a slight tuck-up. The croup slopes away from the spine at an angle, but never so steeply as to restrict the rearward thrust of the hind legs. Faults--Weak or slack back; roached back; sloping topline.

Tail
The well furred tail of fox-brush shape is set on just below the level of the topline, and is usually carried over the back in a graceful sickle curve when the dog is at attention. When carried up, the tail does not curl to either side of the body, nor does it snap flat against the back. A trailing tail is normal for the dog when in repose. Hair on the tail is of medium length and approximately the same length on top, sides and bottom, giving the appearance of a round brush. Faults--A snapped or tightly curled tail; highly plumed tail; tail set too low or too high.

Forequarters
Shoulders--The shoulder blade is well laid back. The upper arm angles slightly backward from point of shoulder to elbow, and is never perpendicular to the ground. The muscles and ligaments holding the shoulder to the rib cage are firm and well developed. Faults--Straight shoulders; loose shoulders. Forelegs--When standing and viewed from the front, the legs are moderately spaced, parallel and straight, with the elbows close to the body and turned neither in nor out. Viewed from the side, pasterns are slightly slanted, with the pastern joint strong, but flexible. Bone is substantial but never heavy. Length of the leg from elbow to ground is slightly more than the distance from the elbow to the top of withers. Dewclaws on forelegs may be removed. Faults--Weak pasterns; too heavy bone; too narrow or too wide in the front; out at the elbows. Feet oval in shape but not long. The paws are medium in size, compact and well furred between the toes and pads. The pads are tough and thickly cushioned. The paws neither turn in nor out when the dog is in natural stance. Faults--Soft or splayed toes; paws too large and clumsy; paws too small and delicate; toeing in or out.

Hindquarters
When standing and viewed from the rear, the hind legs are moderately spaced and parallel. The upper thighs are well muscled and powerful, the stifles well bent, the hock joint well-defined and set low to the ground. Dewclaws, if any, are to be removed. Faults--Straight stifles, cow-hocks, too narrow or too wide in the rear.

Coat
The coat of the Siberian Husky is double and medium in length, giving a well furred appearance, but is never so long as to obscure the clean-cut outline of the dog. The undercoat is soft and dense and of sufficient length to support the outer coat. The guard hairs of the outer coat are straight and somewhat smooth lying, never harsh nor standing straight off from the body. It should be noted that the absence of the undercoat during the shedding season is normal. Trimming of whiskers and fur between the toes and around the feet to present a neater appearance is permissible. Trimming the fur on any other part of the dog is not to be condoned and should be severely penalized. Faults--Long, rough, or shaggy coat; texture too harsh or too silky; trimming of the coat, except as permitted above.

Color
All colors from black to pure white are allowed. A variety of markings on the head is common, including many striking patterns not found in other breeds.

Gait
The Siberian Husky\'s characteristic gait is smooth and seemingly effortless. He is quick and light on his feet, and when in the show ring should be gaited on a loose lead at a moderately fast trot, exhibiting good reach in the forequarters and good drive in the hindquarters. When viewed from the front to rear while moving at a walk the Siberian Husky does not single-track, but as the speed increases the legs gradually angle inward until the pads are falling on a line directly under the longitudinal center of the body. As the pad marks converge, the forelegs and hind legs are carried straightforward, with neither elbows nor stifles turned in or out. Each hind leg moves in the path of the foreleg on the same side. While the dog is gaiting, the topline remains firm and level. Faults--Short, prancing or choppy gait, lumbering or rolling gait; crossing or crabbing.

Temperament
The characteristic temperament of the Siberian Husky is friendly and gentle, but also alert and outgoing. He does not display the possessive qualities of the guard dog, nor is he overly suspicious of strangers or aggressive with other dogs. Some measure of reserve and dignity may be expected in the mature dog. His intelligence, tractability, and eager disposition make him an agreeable companion and willing worker.

Summary
The most important breed characteristics of the Siberian Husky are medium size, moderate bone, well balanced proportions, ease and freedom of movement, proper coat, pleasing head and ears, correct tail, and good disposition. Any appearance of excessive bone or weight, constricted or clumsy gait, or long, rough coat should be penalized. The Siberian Husky never appears so heavy or coarse as to suggest a freighting animal; nor is he so light and fragile as to suggest a sprint-racing animal. In both sexes the Siberian Husky gives the appearance of being capable of great endurance. In addition to the faults already noted, the obvious structural faults common to all breeds are as undesirable in the Siberian Husky as in any other breed, even though they are not specifically mentioned herein.

Disqualification
Dogs over 23½ inches and bitches over 22 inches.

Approved October 9, 1990
Effective November 28, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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萨摩耶Samoyed

萨摩耶(Samoyed)AKC标准
[整体构造]

(a)萨摩犬简介
萨摩犬,原本是一种工作犬,常出现在美丽的图画中。机警、有力、非常活泼、高贵而文雅。由于他是在寒冷地区的工作犬,所以他拥有非常浓厚的、能抵御各种气候条件的被毛。良好的修饰、非常好的毛发质地比毛发数量更重要,雄性的“围脖”比雌性更浓厚一些。他的后背不能太长,软弱的后背使他无法胜任其正常的工作,失去了工作犬的价值,但与此同时,太紧凑的身体对一种拖曳犬来说,也非常的不利。繁殖者应该采取折中方案,身体不长但肌肉发达,允许例外;胸部非常深;且肋骨扩张良好;颈部结实;前躯直而腰部非常结实。雄性外貌显得雄壮,而没有不必要的攻击性;雌性的外貌或构造显得娇柔但气质上不显得软弱。雌性的后背也许比雄性略长一些。他们的外观都显得具有极大的耐力,但不显粗糙。由于胸很深,所以腿部要有足够的长度,一条腿很短的狗是非常不受欢迎的。后臀显得非常发达,后膝关节适度倾斜,而且后膝关节存在任何问题或牛肢都将受到严厉的处罚。整体外观还包括了动作和整体结构,应该显得平衡和谐,体质非常好。
(b)体质
体质是具有充足的骨量和肌肉,相对这样尺寸的狗,骨骼比预想的要粗重的多,但也不能太过分,而影响了灵活性和速度,这在萨摩犬的构造中非常重要,骨骼与身体比例恰当。萨摩犬的骨量不能太大而显得笨拙,骨量也不能太小,看起来象赛跑犬。体重与高度比例恰当。

(c)高度
雄性:21~23.5英寸;雌性:19~21英寸。任何太大或太小的萨摩犬都要按照背离的程度进行扣分。
(d)被毛(质地和状态)
萨摩犬拥有双层被毛,身体上覆盖一层短、浓密、柔软、絮状、紧贴皮肤的底毛,披毛是透过底毛的较粗较长的毛发,披毛直立在身体表面,决不能卷曲。披毛围绕颈部和肩部形成“围脖”(雄性比雌性要多一些)。毛发的质量关系到能否抵御各种气候,所以质量比数量要重要。下垂的被毛是不受欢迎的。被毛应该闪烁着银光。雌性的被毛通常没有大多数雄性那么长,而且质地要软一些。
(e)颜色
萨摩犬的颜色为纯白色;白色带很浅的浅棕色、奶酪色;整体为浅棕色。此外其他颜色都属于失格。[动作]

(a)步态
萨摩犬的步态为小跑,不是踱步。他的动作轻快、灵活,步伐有节奏。步态舒展、平稳、有力,前躯伸展充分、后躯驱动有力。小跑时,后体驱动力非常强大。缓慢行进或小跑时,足迹不重叠,当速度增加时,脚垫向内收缩,最后,足迹落在身体中心线下,后肢足迹落在前肢的足迹上,后肢向前滑动。膝关节既不向内弯,也不向外翻。后背保持坚固、坚实、水平。起伏不定的、呆板不自然的步态属于缺陷。
(b)后肢
第一节大腿非常发达,后膝关节角度恰当(约与地面成45度角)。飞节非常发达、清晰,位置在身高的30%。在自然站立的姿势下,从后面观察,后腿彼此平行,后腿结实;非常发达;既不向内弯、也不向外翻。后膝关节太直属于缺陷。双倍接缝或牛肢也都属于缺陷。只有在有机会看到狗充分运动的情况下才能确定其是否有牛肢。
(c)前肢
前肢(脚腕以上)直、彼此平行;脚腕结实、坚固、直,但相当的柔韧,配合具有弹性的足爪。由于胸部较深,所以前肢要有足够的长度,从地面到肘部的距离约占肩高的55%,一条腿很短的狗是非常不受欢迎的。肩胛长而倾斜,向后倾斜约45度角,且位置稳固。肩胛或肘部向外翻属于缺陷。马肩隆分开约1~1.5英寸。

(d)足爪
足爪长、大、有点平(象兔足),脚趾略微展开,但不能张的太开;脚趾圆拱;脚垫厚实、坚硬,脚趾间有保护性毛发。自然站立的姿态下,足爪既不向内弯也不向外翻,但是略略向内弯一点会更有吸引力。脚趾外翻、鸽子脚、圆形足爪(猫足)都属于缺陷。足爪上的羽状饰毛不是重点,但一般雌性饰毛比雄性要丰富一些。
[头部]
(a)构造
脑袋呈楔形、宽、头顶略凸、但不圆拱或象苹果头,两耳与止部中心点呈等边三角形。口吻:中等长度、中等宽度,既不粗糙、也不过长,向鼻镜方向略呈锥形,与整体大小及脑袋的宽度成正确的比例。口吻必须深,胡须不必去除。止部:不生硬,但很清晰。嘴唇:黑色,嘴角略向上翘,形成具有特色的“萨摩式微笑”。唇线不显得粗糙,也没有过度下垂的上唇。

耳朵
耳朵结实而厚;直立;三角形且尖端略圆;不能太大或太尖,也不能太小(象熊耳朵)。耳朵的大小是根据头部的尺寸和整体大小确定。它们之间距离分的比较开,靠近头部外缘,它们应该显得灵活;被许多毛发覆盖着,毛发丰满,但耳朵前面没有。耳朵的长度应该与耳根内侧到外眼角的距离一致。

眼睛
眼睛颜色深一些比较好,位置分的较开,且深;杏仁状;下眼睑指向耳根。深色眼圈比较理想。圆眼睛或突出的眼睛属于缺陷;兰眼睛属于失格。

鼻镜
黑色最理想,但棕色、肝色、炭灰色也可以接受。有时,鼻镜的颜色会随着年龄、气候的变化而改变。

颚部和牙齿
结实、整齐的牙齿,剪状咬和。上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和属于缺陷。
(b)表情
表情为“萨摩表情”,这一点非常重要,主要指在萨摩犬警惕时或决心干点什么的时候,其闪亮的眼神、和热烈的脸庞。其表情由眼睛、耳朵和嘴构成,警惕时,耳朵直立、嘴略向嘴角弯曲,形成“萨摩式微笑”。
[躯干]
(a)颈部
结实、肌肉发达,骄傲地昂起,立正时,在倾斜的肩上支撑着高贵的头部。颈部与肩结合,形成优美的拱形。

(b)胸部
胸深,肋骨从脊柱向外扩张,到两侧变平,不影响肩部动作且前肢能自由运动。不能是桶状胸。理想的深度应该达到肘部,最深的部分应该在前肢后方,约第九条肋骨的位置。胸腔内的心脏和肺能得到身体的保护,胸的深度大于宽度。

(c)腰和背
马肩隆为背部最高点,腰部结实而略拱。后背从(马肩隆到腰)直,中等长度,连接既不太长、也不太短。其身体的比例为“接近正方形”,即长度比高度约多出 5%。雌性可能比雄性更长一些。腹部肌肉紧绷,形状良好,与后胸连成优美的曲线(收腹)。臀部略斜,丰满,必须延伸到非常轻微的尾根。
[尾巴]
尾巴长度适中,如果尾巴下垂,尾骨的长度应该能延伸到飞节。尾巴上覆盖着长长的毛发,警惕时会卷到后背上,或卷向一侧,当休息时,有时尾巴会放下。位置不能太高或太低,应该灵活、松弛。不能紧卷在背后,卷两圈属于缺陷。裁判在评判时,必须看到萨摩将尾巴卷到后背一次。
[气质]
聪明、文雅、忠诚、适应性强、警惕、活跃、热中于服务,友善但保守。不能迟疑或羞怯,不过分好斗,无理由的好斗是要受到严厉处罚的。
[失格]
除了白色、奶酪色、浅棕色或白色带浅棕色外的其他颜色。
兰眼睛。

[以下为萨摩耶(Samoyed)AKC标准英文原版]

Samoyed Breed Standard
General Conformation
(a) General Appearance - The Samoyed, being essentially a working dog, should present a picture of beauty, alertness and strength, with agility, dignity and grace. As his work lies in cold climates, his coat should be heavy and weather-resistant, well groomed, and of good quality rather then quantity. The male carries more of a \"ruff\" than the female. He should not be long in the back as a weak back would make him practically useless for his legitimate work, but at the same time, a close-coupled body would also place him at a great disadvantage as a draft dog. Breeders should aim for the happy medium, a body not long but muscular, allowing liberty, with a deep chest and well-sprung ribs, strong neck, straight front and especially strong loins. Males should be masculine in appearance and deportment without unwarranted aggressiveness; bitches feminine without weakness of structure or apparent softness of temperament. Bitches may be slightly longer in back than males. They should both give the appearance of being capable of great endurance but be free from coarseness. Because of the depth of chest required, the legs should be moderately long. A very short-legged dog is to be deprecated. Hindquarters should be particularly well developed, stifles well bent and any suggestion of unsound stifles or cowhocks severely penalized. General appearance should include movement and general conformation, indicating balance and good substance.

(b) Substance - Substance is that sufficiency of bone and muscle which rounds out a balance with the frame. The bone is heavier than would be expected in a dog of this size but not so massive as to prevent the speed and agility most desirable in a Samoyed. In all builds, bone should be in proportion to body size. The Samoyed should never be so heavy as to appear clumsy nor so light as to appear racy. The weight should be in proportion to the height.

(c) Height - Males--21 to 23½ inches; females--19 to 21 inches at the withers. An oversized or undersized Samoyed is to be penalized according to the extent of the deviation.

(d) Coat (Texture and Condition) - The Samoyed is a doublecoated dog. The body should be well covered with an undercoat of soft, short, thick, close wool with longer and harsh hair growing through it to form the outer coat, which stands straight out from the body and should be free from curl. The coat should form a ruff around the neck and shoulders, framing the head (more on males than on females). Quality of coat should be weather resistant and considered more than quantity. A droopy coat is undesirable. The coat should glisten with a silver sheen. The female does not usually carry as long a coat as most males and it is softer in texture.

(e) Color - Samoyeds should be pure white, white and biscuit, cream, or all biscuit. Any other colors disqualify.

Movement
(a) Gait - The Samoyed should trot, not pace. He should move with a quick agile stride that is well timed. The gait should be free, balanced and vigorous, with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. When trotting, there should be a strong rear action drive. Moving at a slow walk or trot, they will not single-track, but as speed increases the legs gradually angle inward until the pads are finally falling on a line directly under the longitudinal center of the body. As the pad marks converge the forelegs and hind legs are carried straight forward in traveling, the stifles not turned in nor out. The back should remain strong, firm and level. A choppy or stilted gait should be penalized.

(b) Rear End - Upper thighs should be well developed. Stifles well bent-approximately 45 degrees to the ground. Hocks should be well developed, sharply defined and set at approximately 30 percent of hip height. The hind legs should be parallel when viewed from the rear in a natural stance, strong, well developed, turning neither in nor out. Straight stifles are objectionable. Double-jointedness or cowhocks are a fault. Cowhocks should only be determined if the dog has had an opportunity to move properly.

(c) Front End - Legs should be parallel and straight to the pasterns. The pasterns should be strong, sturdy and straight, but flexible with some spring for proper let-down of feet. Because of depth of chest, legs should be moderately long. Length of leg from the ground to the elbow should be approximately 55 per cent of the total height at the withers-a very short-legged dog is to be deprecated. Shoulders should be long and sloping, with a layback of 45 degrees and be firmly set. Out at the shoulders or out at the elbows should be penalized. The withers separation should be approximately 1-1½ inches.

(d) Feet - Large, long, flattish-a hare-foot, slightly spread but not splayed; toes arched; pads thick and tough, with protective growth of hair between the toes. Feet should turn neither in nor out in a natural stance but may turn in slightly in the act of pulling. Turning out, pigeon-toed, round or cat-footed or splayed are faults. Feathers on feet are not too essential but are more profuse on females than on males

Head
(a) Conformation - Skull is wedge-shaped, broad, slightly crowned, not round or apple-headed, and should form an equilateral triangle on lines between the inner base of the ears and the central point of the stop. Muzzle--Muzzle of medium length and medium width, neither coarse nor snipy; should taper toward the nose and be in proportion to the size of the dog and the width of skull. The muzzle must have depth. Whiskers are not to be removed. Stop--Not too abrupt, nevertheless well defined. Lips--Should be black for preference and slightly curved up at the corners of the mouth, giving the \"Samoyed smile.\" Lip lines should not have the appearance of being coarse nor should the flews drop predominately at corners of the mouth. Ears--Strong and thick, erect, triangular and slightly rounded at the tips; should not be large or pointed, nor should they be small and \"bear-eared.\" Ears should conform to head size and the size of the dog; they should be set well apart but be within the border of the outer edge of the head; they should be mobile and well covered inside with hair; hair full and stand-off before the ears. Length of ear should be the same measurement as the distance from inner base of ear to outer corner of eye. Eyes--Should be dark for preference; should be placed well apart and deep-set; almond shaped with lower lid slanting toward an imaginary point approximately the base of ears. Dark eye rims for preference. Round or protruding eyes penalized. Blue eyes disqualifying. Nose--Black for preference but brown, liver, or Dudley nose not penalized. Color of nose sometimes changes with age and weather. Jaws and Teeth--Strong, well-set teeth, snugly overlapping with scissors bite. Undershot or overshot should be penalized.

(b) Expression - The expression, referred to as \"Samoyed expression,\" is very important and is indicated by sparkle of the eyes, animation and lighting up of the face when alert or intent on anything. Expression is made up of a combination of eyes, ears and mouth. The ears should be erect when alert; the mouth should be slightly curved up at the corners to form the \"Samoyed smile.\"

Torso
(a) Neck - Strong, well muscled, carried proudly erect, set on sloping shoulders to carry head with dignity when at attention. Neck should blend into shoulders with a graceful arch.

(b) Chest - Should be deep, with ribs well sprung out from the spine and flattened at the sides to allow proper movement of the shoulders and freedom for the front legs. Should not be barrel-chested. Perfect depth of chest approximates the point of elbows, and the deepest part of the chest should be back of the forelegs-near the ninth rib. Heart and lung room are secured more by body depth than width.

(c) Loin and Back - The withers forms the highest part of the back. Loins strong and slightly arched. The back should be straight to the loin, medium in length, very muscular and neither long nor short-coupled. The dog should be \"just off square\"--the length being approximately 5 per cent more than the height. Females allowed to be slightly longer than males. The belly should be well shaped and tightly muscled and, with the rear of the thorax, should swing up in a pleasing curve (tuck-up). Croup must be full, slightly sloping, and must continue imperceptibly to the tail root.

Tail - The tail should be moderately long with the tail bone terminating approximately at the hock when down. It should be profusely covered with long hair and carried forward over the back or side when alert, but sometimes dropped when at rest. It should not be high or low set and should be mobile and loose -- not tight over the back. A double hook is a fault. A judge should see the tail over the back once when judging.

Disposition - Intelligent, gentle, loyal, adaptable, alert, full of action, eager to serve, friendly but conservative, not distrustful or shy, not overly aggressive. Unprovoked aggressiveness is to be severely penalized.

Disqualification
Any color other than pure white, cream, biscuit, or white and biscuit.
Blue eyes.

Approved August 10, 1993
Effective September 29, 1993

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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阿拉斯加雪撬犬(Alaskan malamute)AKC标准
[简介]
阿拉斯加雪撬犬是一种古老地极地雪橇犬,它们结实、有力,肌肉发达而且胸很深。当它们站立时,头部竖直,眼神显得警惕、好奇,给人的感觉是充满活力而且非常骄傲。头部宽阔。耳朵呈三角形,警惕时保持竖立。口吻大,宽度从根部向鼻尖渐收。口吻既不显得长而突出,也不显得短而粗。被毛浓密,披毛有足够的长度以保护内层柔软的底毛。阿拉斯加马拉密犬有各种不同的颜色。它们脸部的斑纹是很显著的特点。头上有“帽子”,脸部是全白或有条纹或斑纹。尾巴上长着软毛,翻卷在背后,看起来象波浪状羽毛。阿拉斯加雪橇犬必须有粗壮的骨骼,健康的腿、良好的足爪、深深的胸和有力的肩膀,而且其他身体组织也要同样健壮,才能承担起它们的工作。步态必须坚定、和谐且非常有效率。它们并不只是用来比较拉雪橇的速度,阿拉斯加马拉密犬应该有足够的力量和耐力,任何一条狗,如果具有妨碍它完成工作的特点,例如性情急噪等,都被认为是很大的缺陷。

[体型]
阿拉斯加雪撬犬的体型大小完全是自然形成的。最理想的体型大小是:雄性肩高25英寸(63.5CM),体重85磅(38.3KG);雌性肩高23英寸(58.4CM),体重75磅(33.8KG)。不过,身高和体重与其他一些素质(比例、步态等)相比,并非最为重要的。在比赛中,只有其他条件如比例、步态等都非常接近的情况下,身高体重越接近上述标准,获胜的机会越大。胸深大约为肩高的一半,胸最深的位置应该位于前肢后方。身体的长度(从马肩隆到骨盆最高点的距离)略大于肩高。身材不能显得肥胖,骨量与身体呈正常比例。
[头部]
头部宽且深,不显得粗糙或笨拙,与身体的比例恰当。表情柔和、充满友爱。眼睛在头部的位置略斜,眼睛的颜色为褐色,杏仁状,中等大小。眼睛的颜色越深越好。兰色的眼睛属于失格。耳朵的大小适中,但与头部相比显得略小一些。耳朵为三角形,耳尖稍圆。耳朵分的很开,位于脑袋外侧靠后的位置,与外眼角成一直线。当耳朵竖着的时候,就象是站在脑袋上一样。竖立的耳朵也许略向前倾,但当狗在工作时,有时耳朵也会折向脑袋。耳朵位置过高属于缺陷。两耳间的脑袋宽,且略略隆起,从头顶向眼睛的方向渐渐变窄、变平,靠近面颊的部分变的比较平坦。两眼间有轻微的皱纹。脑袋的轮廓线和口吻的轮廓线象两条略向下折的,连在一起的直线。与脑袋相比,口吻显得长而大,宽度和深度是从与脑袋结合的位置向鼻镜的方向逐渐变小。除了红色被毛的狗以外,其他颜色的狗都应该是黑色的鼻镜、眼圈和嘴唇。红色被毛的狗允许是褐色的鼻镜、眼圈和嘴唇。带有浅色条纹的“雪鼻”是可以接受的。嘴唇紧密闭合。上下颚宽大,牙齿巨大。咬和为剪状咬和,上颚突出或下颚突出式咬和都属于缺陷。
[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部结实,略呈弧形。胸部相当发达。身躯结构简洁,但不属于短小型。后背很直,略向臀部倾斜。腰部硬实且肌肉发达。腰部太长会削弱整个后背,属于缺陷。
尾巴
尾巴的位置在脊柱的末端。当它们不工作的时候,尾巴会翻卷在背后。它们的尾巴不会紧紧地卷在后背上,尾巴上的毛也不是短短的象刷子。阿拉斯加马拉密犬的尾巴上长着软毛,看起来象波浪状羽毛。
[前躯]
肩膀适度倾斜;前肢骨骼粗壮且肌肉发达,从前面观察,从肩部到腕部都很直。从侧面观察,腕部短而结实,略有倾斜。足爪属于雪鞋型的,紧且深,配合合适的脚垫,显得稳固、简洁。足爪大,足趾紧且略拱。足趾间长有保护性的毛发。脚垫厚实、坚韧;趾甲短而结实。
[后躯]
后腿宽,而且整个大腿肌肉非常发达;后膝关节适度倾斜;飞节适度倾斜,且适当向下。从背后观察,不论是站立时还是行走中,后腿都与相应的前腿处于同一直线,既不分的太开,也不靠的太近。后腿上的狼爪是不需要的,当幼犬出生后就需要将狼爪切除。
[被毛]
阿拉斯加马拉密犬拥有浓密、粗硬的披毛,披毛不能长,也不能软。底毛浓厚,有1~2英寸厚,含油脂,且柔软。披毛的长度是随着底毛而变化的。身体两侧的被毛较短,向前延伸到肩部和脖子的时候,被毛逐渐变长,向下和向后,到臀部及尾巴,被毛都是逐渐变长。阿拉斯加马拉密犬在整个夏季,通常被毛都比较短,也不那么浓密。在比赛中,这一品种是不允许修剪被毛的,除了为了整洁而修剪足爪上的毛。
[颜色]
一般从浅灰色到黑色及不同程度的红色都有。只有一种纯色是可以接受的,就是纯白色。白色是下半部身体的主要颜色,白色还分布于腿、足爪和脸上的斑纹中。额头及领部有白色斑纹,或颈部有斑点都是有吸引力的,可以接受。身体被不连续的颜色覆盖或有不均匀的色斑属于缺陷。

[步态]
阿拉斯加马拉密犬的步态是稳定、和谐且有力的。以它的体型和构造来看,相当敏捷。从侧面观察,后躯提供的强大驱动力通过肌肉发达的腰部传递给前躯。前躯得到后面传递过来的驱动力,步伐流畅。从前面或从后面观察,腿始终保持直线,既不太靠近,也不太分开。快步跑时,足爪向身体中线靠拢。步态不自然或步态没有效率,容易疲倦都属于缺陷。
[气质]
阿拉斯加马拉密犬非常友好,属于“朋友狗”,而不是“孤僻狗”。它是忠诚、深情的伙伴,但一般给人的印象是高贵、成熟。
[总结]
重点:在评判阿拉斯加马拉密犬时,需要着重考虑的是这是一种在极地拖曳雪橇和货物的狗。所以在评分中,需要看其背离前面描述的要求的程度及在一些细节方面造成的对完成工作的影响程度来定。阿拉斯加马拉密犬的腿必须超常的结实和有力。不论是前面还是后面,不论是站立还是移动,腿和足爪有任何问题都属于严重缺陷。
下面所列的情况都属于缺陷:镰刀腿;牛肢;飞节不好;直肩膀,缺乏角度;步态不自然(包括不能符合稳定、和谐、有力的标准);呆板;骨量不足;比例失调。  
[失格] 蓝眼睛
标准通过日期 1994年4月12日
标准执行日期 1994年5月31日



[以下为阿拉斯加雪撬犬(Alaskan malamute)AKC标准英文原版]

Alaskan Malamute Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Alaskan Malamute, one of the oldest Arctic sled dogs, is a powerful and substantially built dog with a deep chest and strong, well-muscled body. The Malamute stands well over the pads, and this stance gives the appearance of much activity and a proud carriage, with head erect and eyes alert showing interest and curiosity. The head is broad. Ears are triangular and erect when alerted. The muzzle is bulky, only slight diminishing in width from root to nose. The muzzle is not pointed or long, yet not stubby. The coat is thick with a coarse guard coat of sufficient length to protect a woolly undercoat. Malamutes are of various colors. Face markings are a distinguishing feature. These consist of a cap over the head, the face either all white or marked with a bar and/or mask. The tail is well furred, carried over the back, and has the appearance of a waving plume.

The Malamute must be a heavy boned dog with sound legs, good feet, deep chest and powerful shoulders, and have all of the other physical attributes necessary for the efficient performance of his job. The gait must be steady, balanced, tireless and totally efficient. He is not intended as a racing sled dog designed to compete in speed trials. The Malamute is structured for strength and endurance, and any characteristic of the individual specimen, including temperament, which interferes with the accomplishment of this purpose, is to be considered the most serious of faults.

Size, Proportion, Substance
There is a natural range in size in the breed. The desirable freighting sizes are males, 25 inches at the shoulders, 85 pounds; females, 23 inches at the shoulders, 75 pounds. However, size consideration should not outweigh that of type, proportion, movement and other functional attributes. When dogs are judged equal in type, proportion, movement, the dog nearest the desirable freighting size is to be preferred. The depth of chest is approximately one half the height of the dog at the shoulders, the deepest point being just behind the forelegs. The length of the body from point of shoulder to the rear point of pelvis is longer than the height of the body from ground to top of the withers. The body carries no excess weight, and bone is in proportion to size.

Head
The head is broad and deep, not coarse or clumsy, but in proportion to the size of the dog. The expression is soft and indicates an affectionate disposition. The eyes are obliquely placed in the skull. Eyes are brown, almond shaped and of medium size. Dark eyes are preferred. Blue Eyes are a Disqualifying Fault. The ears are of medium size, but small in proportion to the head. The ears are triangular in shape and slightly rounded at the tips. They are set wide apart on the outside back edges of the skull on line with the upper corner of the eye, giving ears the appearance, when erect, of standing off from the skull. Erect ears point slightly forward, but when the dog is at work, the ears are sometimes folded against the skull. High set ears are a fault.

The skull is broad and moderately rounded between the ears, gradually narrowing and flattening on top as it approaches the eyes, rounding off to cheeks that are moderately flat. There is a slight furrow between the eyes. The topline of the skull and the topline of the muzzle show a slight break downward from a straight line as they join. The muzzle is large and bulky in proportion to the size of the skull, diminishing slightly in width and depth from junction with the skull to the nose. In all coat colors, except reds, the nose, lips, and eye rims\' pigmentation is black. Brown is permitted in red dogs. The lighter streaked \"snow nose\" is acceptable. The lips are close fitting. The upper and lower jaws are broad with large teeth. The incisors meet with a scissors grip. Overshot or undershot is a fault.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is strong and moderately arched. The chest is well developed. The body is compactly built but not short coupled. The back is straight and gently sloping to the hips. The loins are hard and well muscled. A long loin that may weaken the back is a fault. The tail is moderately set and follows the line of the spine at the base. The tail is carried over the back when not working. It is not a snap tail or curled tight against the back, nor is it short furred like a fox brush. The Malamute tail is well furred and has the appearance of a waving plume.

Forequarters
The shoulders are moderately sloping; forelegs heavily boned and muscled, straight to the pasterns when viewed from the front. Pasterns are short and strong and slightly sloping when viewed from the side. The feet are of the snowshoe type, tight and deep, with well-cushioned pads, giving a firm, compact appearance. The feet are large, toes tight fitting and well arched. There is a protective growth of hair between the toes. The pads are thick and tough; toenails short and strong.

Hindquarters
The rear legs are broad and heavily muscled through the thighs; stifles moderately bent; hock joints are moderately bent and well let down. When viewed from the rear, the legs stand and move true in line with the movement of the front legs, not too close or too wide. Dewclaws on the rear legs are undesirable and should be removed shortly after puppies are whelped.

Coat
The Malamute has a thick, coarse guard coat, never long and soft. The undercoat is dense, from one to two inches in depth, oily and woolly. The coarse guard coat varies in length as does the undercoat. The coat is relatively short to medium along the sides of the body, with the length of the coat increasing around the shoulders and neck, down the back, over the rump, and in the breeching and plume. Malamutes usually have a shorter and less dense coat during the summer months. The Malamute is shown naturally. Trimming is not acceptable except to provide a clean cut appearance of feet.

Color
The usual colors range from light gray through intermediate shadings to black, sable, and shadings of sable to red. Color combinations are acceptable in undercoats, points, and trimmings. The only solid color allowable is all white. White is always the predominant color on underbody, parts of legs, feet, and part of face markings. A white blaze on the forehead and/or collar or a spot on the nape is attractive and acceptable. The Malamute is mantled, and broken colors extending over the body or uneven splashing are undesirable.

Gait
The gait of the Malamute is steady, balanced, and powerful. He is agile for his size and build. When viewed from the side, the hindquarters exhibit strong rear drive that is transmitted through a well-muscled loin to the forequarters. The forequarters receive the drive from the rear with a smooth reaching stride. When viewed from the front or from the rear, the legs move true in line, not too close or too wide. At a fast trot, the feet will converge toward the centerline of the body. A stilted gait, or any gait that is not completely efficient and tireless, is to be penalized.

Temperament
The Alaskan Malamute is an affectionate, friendly dog, not a \"one man\" dog. He is a loyal, devoted companion, playful in invitation, but generally impressive by his dignity after maturity.

Summary
IMPORTANT: In judging Malamutes, their function as a sledge dog for heavy freighting in the Arctic must be given consideration above all else. The degree to which a dog is penalized should depend upon the extent to which the dog deviates from the description of the ideal Malamute and the extent to which the particular fault would actually affect the working ability of the dog. The legs of the Malamute must indicate unusual strength and tremendous propelling power. Any indication of unsoundness in legs and feet, front or rear, standing or moving, is to be considered a serious fault. Faults under this provision would be splay-footedness, cowhocks, bad pasterns, straight shoulders, lack of angulation, stilted gait (or any gait that isn\'t balanced, strong and steady), ranginess, shallowness, ponderousness, lightness of bone, and poor overall proportion.

Disqualifications
Blue Eyes

Approved April 12, 1994
Effective May 31, 1994

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大白熊犬(Great Pyrenees)AKC标准及简介
一、[简介]

大白熊犬给人的印象是非常高雅、美丽,他结合了巨大的体形和威严的气质。他的被毛是白色或以白色为主,夹杂了灰色、或不同深浅的茶色斑纹。他非常聪明而、和善、具有王者之气。不论站立还是运动,都显示出与众不同的优雅,他总是显得坚实和协调,明确地反映出培养这一品种的目的:在各种气候条件下、在比利牛斯山陡峭的山坡上,看守羊群。

[体型]

大小:雄性肩高约27~32英寸、雌性肩高约25~29英寸。27英寸的雄性体重约100磅、25英寸的雌性体重约85磅。体重与身体的整体尺寸及体质相称。比例:肩高比体长(从马肩隆到大腿后部<臀部>的距离)略短一些,比例为矩形的、身体协调的狗。长度略大于高度、身体前后角度协调。体质:大白熊犬的身体为中型(不特别胖、也不特别瘦),在没有触摸其骨骼和肌肉时,容易被浓密的被毛所欺骗。与其体型及优雅的外貌相协调,充足的骨量和肌肉提供了平衡的身体结构。缺陷:大小-肩高小于下限或大于上限。体质-骨骼太重或太轻,影响身体结构的平衡。

二、[头部]

正确的头部和表情是这一品种的要点。对整体来说,头部不显得过于沉重。外观呈楔形,顶部略圆。表情:表情文雅、聪明、沉默。眼睛:中等大小;杏仁形;略斜;颜色为丰富的深棕色;眼眶为黑色,眼睑紧贴眼球。耳朵:尺寸从小到中等都可以,V字形、尖端略圆,耳根与眼睛齐平,正常情况下耳朵下垂,平坦,紧贴头部。有一个典型的现象是脸上部和下部的毛发的会合位置,正好是从外眼角到耳根这一线。脑袋和口吻:口吻长度与脑袋长度大致相等。脑袋的长度和宽度大致相等。口吻与脑袋的结合很平滑。面颊平坦。口吻在眼睛下方,丰满。两眼睛间有轻微的皱纹,没有明显的止部。眉骨稍微有点突出。上唇紧贴上颚并覆盖下唇。下颚结实。鼻镜和嘴唇为黑色。牙齿:剪状咬和比较理想,钳状咬和也可以接受。下颚门牙不能向后。缺陷:过于沉重的头部;脑袋太窄或太小;表情狡猾;有明显的止部;眼睑、嘴唇和鼻镜缺少色素;眼睛圆、三角、眼睑松懈、眼睛小;上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和;歪嘴。

三、[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:坚硬的肌肉配合中等长度,赘肉相当少。背线:背线水平。身躯:胸部宽度适中,肋骨支撑良好,卵形,胸深达到肘部。背和腰宽阔,连接结实,且略有褶皱。臀部略向下倾斜,尾根位于背平面以下。尾巴:尾骨有足够的长度,延伸到飞节,尾巴有漂亮的羽状饰毛。休息时,尾巴下垂,激动时,可能卷到后背(形成轮状)。在展示时,尾巴的饰毛能形成\"牧羊犬曲线\"是非常重要的。行走时,尾巴可能卷到后背或下垂,这两种情况都是允许的。

缺陷:桶状胸。

四、[前躯]

肩部:肩膀向后倾斜放置,肌肉发达,隐藏在身躯里。前臂与肩胛连接处的角度约为90度,前臂从与肩胛骨的结合处向后延伸到肘部这一段,决不能垂直于地面。肩胛骨与前臂骨的长度大致相等。从地面到肘部的距离与从肘部到马肩隆的距离大致相等。前肢:前肢有充足的骨量和肌肉,与平衡的身体结构相称。不论站立时还是行走时,肘部都贴近身体且笔直向后。从侧面观察,前肢正好位于马肩隆以下位置,直且垂直于地面。从前面观察,从肩经过肘部到脚腕呈一直线。前脚腕结实而灵活。两条前肢各有一个狼爪。前足爪:圆形,紧凑,脚垫厚实,脚趾圆拱。

五、[后躯]

后躯的角度与前躯类似。大腿:第一节大腿肌肉坚实,与骨盆成直角。第一节大腿与第二节大腿长度一致,观察轮廓可以发现第一节大腿与第二节大腿在后膝关节处成中等角度。后脚腕长度中等,当狗自然站立时,垂直于地面。从侧面观察,飞节角度适中。从后面观察,后腿(从臀部到后脚腕)直且相互平行。后肢有足够的骨量和肌肉,与平衡的身体结构相称。每条后腿都有两个狼爪。后足爪:后肢的脚尖略向外翻。这样的后肢(牛肢)是这一品种所特有的,不是缺陷。足爪与前肢相同,圆形,紧凑,脚垫厚实,脚趾圆拱。缺陷:后肢没有两个狼爪。

六、[被毛]

能抵御任何气候条件的被毛是由两层毛组成的,披毛长、平坦、厚实,毛发粗硬,毛直或略呈波浪形;底毛浓密、纤细、棉絮状。雄性颈部和肩部的毛发尤其浓密,形成围脖或鬃毛。尾巴上较长的毛发形成羽状饰毛。饰毛还延伸到前肢后面和大腿后面,形成\"裤子\"的效果。脸部和耳朵的毛发短而质地好。正确的被毛比毛量更为重要。缺陷:卷曲的被毛;直立的被毛(象萨摩犬)。

七、[颜色]

白色或白色带有灰色、红褐色或不同深浅的茶色斑纹。不同大小的斑纹可以出现在耳朵、头部(包括面具)、尾巴、及身体(很少的污迹)。底毛可以是白色或深色。上面描述的各种颜色和斑纹(位置)都是这一品种所特有的,没有好坏之分。缺陷:披毛的斑纹超过身体的1/3。

八、[步态]

大白熊犬的步态平稳而优雅,准确且保持直线,显示出力量和敏捷。和谐的伸展和有力的驱动产生正确的步幅。速度增加时,足爪向身体中心线靠拢。轻松而有效的动作比速度更重要。

九、[气质]

他的气质和品格是非常重要的。在自然情况下,大白熊犬是自信、温和及友善的。会在需要时保护他的领地、羊群或家庭,他通常显得从容、沉着,具有耐心且宽容。他的意志非常坚强,独立且略有保留,对他负责的人类或动物都很关心、忠诚,而且勇敢。

虽然,大白熊犬在比赛中有所保留,但明显的羞怯、神经质、对人类有攻击性都极不收欢迎,并属于严重缺陷。


标准通过日期:1990年6月12 日
标准执行日期:1990年8月1日

Great Pyrenees Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Great Pyrenees dog conveys the distinct impression of elegance and unsurpassed beauty combined with great overall size and majesty. He has a white or principally white coat that may contain markings of badger, gray, or varying shades of tan. He possesses a keen intelligence and a kindly, while regal, expression. Exhibiting a unique elegance of bearing and movement, his soundness and coordination show unmistakably the purpose for which he has been bred, the strenuous work of guarding the flocks in all kinds of weather on the steep mountain slopes of the Pyrenees.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--The height at the withers ranges from 27 inches to 32 inches for dogs and from 25 inches to 29 inches for bitches. A 27 inch dog weighs about 100 pounds and a 25 inch bitch weighs about 85 pounds. Weight is in proportion to the overall size and structure. Proportion--The Great Pyrenees is a balanced dog with the height measured at the withers being somewhat less than the length of the body measured from the point of the shoulder to the rearmost projection of the upper thigh (buttocks). These proportions create a somewhat rectangular dog, slightly longer than it is tall. Front and rear angulation are balanced. Substance--The Great Pyrenees is a dog of medium substance whose coat deceives those who do not feel the bone and muscle. Commensurate with his size and impression of elegance there is sufficient bone and muscle to provide a balance with the frame. Faults--Size--Dogs and bitches under minimum size or over maximum size. Substance--Dogs too heavily boned or too lightly boned to be in balance with their frame.

Head
Correct head and expression are essential to the breed. The head is not heavy in proportion to the size of the dog. It is wedge shaped with a slightly rounded crown. Expression--The expression is elegant, intelligent and contemplative. Eyes--Medium sized, almond shaped, set slightly obliquely, rich dark brown. Eyelids are close fitting with black rims. Ears--Small to medium in size, V-shaped with rounded tips, set on at eye level, normally carried low, flat, and close to the head. There is a characteristic meeting of the hair of the upper and lower face which forms a line from the outer corner of the eye to the base of the ear. Skull and Muzzle--The muzzle is approximately equal in length to the back skull. The width and length of the skull are approximately equal. The muzzle blends smoothly with the skull. The cheeks are flat. There is sufficient fill under the eyes. A slight furrow exists between the eyes. There is no apparent stop. The boney eyebrow ridges are only slightly developed. Lips are tight fitting with the upper lip just covering the lower lip. There is a strong lower jaw. The nose and lips are black. Teeth--A scissor bite is preferred, but a level bite is acceptable. It is not unusual to see dropped (receding) lower central incisor teeth. Faults--Too heavy head (St. Bernard or Newfoundland-like). Too narrow or small skull. Foxy appearance. Presence of an apparent stop. Missing pigmentation on nose, eye rims, or lips. Eyelids round, triangular, loose or small. Overshot, undershot, wry mouth.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--Strongly muscled and of medium length, with minimal dewlap. Topline--The backline is level. Body--The chest is moderately broad. The rib cage is well sprung, oval in shape, and of sufficient depth to reach the elbows. Back and loin are broad and strongly coupled with some tuck-up. The croup is gently sloping with the tail set on just below the level of the back. Tail--The tailbones are of sufficient length to reach the hock. The tail is well plumed, carried low in repose and may be carried over the back, \"making the wheel,\" when aroused. When present, a \"shepherd\'s crook\" at the end of the tail accentuates the plume. When gaiting, the tail may be carried either over the back or low. Both carriages are equally correct. Fault-- Barrel ribs.

Forequarters
Shoulders--The shoulders are well laid back, well muscled, and lie close to the body. The upper arm meets the shoulder blade at approximately a right angle. The upper arm angles backward from the point of the shoulder to the elbow and is never perpendicular to the ground. The length of the shoulder blade and the upper arm is approximately equal. The height from the ground to the elbow appears approximately equal to the height from the elbow to the withers. Forelegs--The legs are of sufficient bone and muscle to provide a balance with the frame. The elbows are close to the body and point directly to the rear when standing and gaiting. The forelegs, when viewed from the side, are located directly under the withers and are straight and vertical to the ground. The elbows, when viewed from the front, are set in a straight line from the point of shoulder to the wrist. Front pasterns are strong and flexible. Each foreleg carries a single dewclaw. Front Feet--Rounded, close-cupped, well padded, toes well arched.

Hindquarters
The angulation of the hindquarters is similar in degree to that of the forequarters. Thighs--Strongly muscular upper thighs extend from the pelvis at right angles. The upper thigh is the same length as the lower thigh, creating moderate stifle joint angulation when viewed in profile. The rear pastern (metatarsus) is of medium length and perpendicular to the ground as the dog stands naturally. This produces a moderate degree of angulation in the hock joint, when viewed from the side. The hindquarters from the hip to the rear pastern are straight and parallel, as viewed from the rear. The rear legs are of sufficient bone and muscle to provide a balance with the frame. Double dewclaws are located on each rear leg. Rear Feet--The rear feet have a structural tendency to toe out slightly. This breed characteristic is not to be confused with cow-hocks. The rear feet, like the forefeet, are rounded, close-cupped, well padded with toes well arched. Fault--Absence of double dewclaws on each rear leg.

Coat
The weather resistant double coat consists of a long, flat, thick, outer coat of coarse hair, straight or slightly undulating, and lying over a dense, fine, woolly undercoat. The coat is more profuse about the neck and shoulders where it forms a ruff or mane which is more pronounced in males. Longer hair on the tail forms a plume. There is feathering along the back of the front legs and along the back of the thighs, giving a \"pantaloon\" effect. The hair on the face and ears is shorter and of finer texture. Correctness of coat is more important than abundance of coat. Faults--Curly coat. Stand-off coat (Samoyed type).

Color
White or white with markings of gray, badger, reddish brown, or varying shades of tan. Markings of varying size may appear on the ears, head (including a full face mask), tail, and as a few body spots. The undercoat may be white or shaded. All of the above described colorings and locations are characteristic of the breed and equally correct. Fault--Outer coat markings covering more than one third of the body.

Gait
The Great Pyrenees moves smoothly and elegantly, true and straight ahead, exhibiting both power and agility. The stride is well balanced with good reach and strong drive. The legs tend to move toward the center line as speed increases. Ease and efficiency of movement are more important than speed.

Temperament
Character and temperament are of utmost importance. In nature, the Great Pyrenees is confident, gentle, and affectionate. While territorial and protective of his flock or family when necessary, his general demeanor is one of quiet composure, both patient and tolerant. He is strong willed, independent and somewhat reserved, yet attentive, fearless and loyal to his charges both human and animal.

Although the Great Pyrenees may appear reserved in the show ring, any sign of excessive shyness, nervousness, or aggression to humans is unacceptable and must be considered an extremely serious fault.

Approved June 12, 1990
Effective August 1, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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巨型雪纳瑞Giant Schnauzer Breed Standard
[简介]
巨型雪纳瑞与标准雪纳瑞十分接近,从一般外观来看,简直就是一个巨大的、有力的标准雪纳瑞的翻版,只是将轮廓加粗一些。精力充沛、结构稳固。身体的高度和长度的比例接近正方形,活泼、强壮而肌肉发达。气质包括了热情和机警;聪明而可*;沉着、警觉、勇敢、容易训练、对家庭非常忠实,爱玩闹,安静时显得和蔼;警觉时显得有支配力。健康而可信赖的气质、粗糙的外表、能应付各种气候的浓密的刚毛、使这一品种成为了力量和耐力具佳、具有一种或多种用途的工作犬。
[头部]
结实、矩形外观,而且很长;从耳朵经过眼睛到鼻镜略略变窄。整个长度约等于后背长度(从马肩隆到尾根的长度)的一半。头部与性别及整体结构相配。口吻的轮廓与脑袋的轮廓平行;止部轻微而眉毛突出。脑袋(从后枕骨到止部):两耳间宽度适中,后枕骨不十分明显。头顶平坦;没有皱纹。面颊:面颊平坦,但咬和肌发达;没有“厚脸皮”现象而影响了头部的矩形外观(连胡须)。口吻:结实、且填满眼睛下方空间;与脑袋轮廓线平行且长度相等;末端呈钝楔形。鼻镜大、黑色、丰满;嘴唇紧、无交叠、黑色。咬和:完整而健康的白色牙齿(6/6门牙、2/2犬齿、8/8前臼齿、4/6臼齿)、剪状咬和。上下颚有力而结构完美。失格:上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和。耳朵:如果是剪耳,尖角的形状和长度要一致,在脑袋上的位置对称且长度不能太夸张。耳位高且竖立,内边缘与另一耳朵内边缘的延伸线尽可能接近小的钟形。如果未剪耳,耳朵呈V字形、纽扣耳、中等长度和厚度,耳位高,从高处折向脑袋。眼睛:中等大小,深褐色、位置深。眼睛呈卵形,眼神锐利、眼睑紧凑。眉毛不会太长而影响视力或遮住眼睛。颈部:结实、呈优美的弧线,中等长度,与肩部连接整洁,喉部皮肤紧凑;与整体的高度及长度协调。
[身躯]
紧凑、坚固、短联结、结实,非常有力而敏捷。身体的最高点是马肩隆,到地面的高度与身体的长度(从胸骨到臀部的距离)相等。腰部肌肉发达、在紧凑的身躯中尽可能短。
[前躯]
前躯有一个平坦、略斜的肩部和高高的马肩隆。前肢直,不论从那个角度观察都是垂直的,脚腕结实、骨量充足。前肢背深深的胸部分开,前胸没有任何萎缩的样子。肘部贴紧身体,肘尖笔直向后。胸部:宽度中等,肋骨扩张良好,不能是桶状胸,胸腔纵向截面呈现卵形。胸骨清晰可辨,前胸结实;胸深达到肘部,向后逐渐上收,与上提的腹部联结。肋骨的扩张度从第一条肋骨开始逐渐展开,可以使肘部贴近身体自由的运动。肩部:倾斜的肩胛,肌肉发达,而且平坦。肩胛骨适当向后倾斜,所以,肩胛骨的圆弧形上部末端与肘部几乎处在同一垂直线上。肩胛下部向前倾斜与前臂连接,形成的角度几乎为直角,这样的角度可以给前肢提供最大的伸展自由,没有任何粘连或勉强。肩胛骨和前臂骨都足够长,给予胸部足够的深度。
[背部]
短、直、结实且坚固
[尾巴]
尾根位置高度适中,兴奋时,尾巴向上举。在第二节尾椎(最多不超过第三节尾椎)的位置断尾(成熟后,尾巴长度约在3~4.5英寸)。
[后躯]
后躯肌肉发达,与前躯平衡;第一节大腿倾斜,在膝关节处呈恰当的角度,第二节大腿大致与颈部延长线平行,从飞节到足爪的长度短,在狗自然站立时,与地面垂直,从后面观察,彼此平行。后躯不过分夸张或比马肩隆高。臀部丰满而略圆。足爪:适度圆拱,紧凑的猫足,既不向内弯、也不向外翻,脚垫厚实坚硬,黑色的趾甲。狼爪:后肢如果有狼爪,必须切除;如果前肢有狼爪,可以切除或保留。
[步态]
评判其运动是看小跑。步态应该是舒展、平稳且有力,前躯伸展良好而后躯驱动有力。前肢和后肢既不向内弯也不向外翻。速度增加时,正确的结构将使狗保持直线运动,后体结实、稳固且平坦。
[被毛]
坚硬的刚毛,非常浓密;有柔软的底毛和粗糙的披毛,如果逆着毛发纹理观察,毛发既不光滑也不平整。头顶毛发粗糙,有粗糙的胡须、眉毛,雪纳瑞的典型外观。
[颜色]
纯黑色或椒盐色。黑色:真正的纯黑色,胸部有很小的白色斑纹是允许的,其他的斑纹都属于失格。椒盐色:外层披毛为组合色毛发(白色带黑色的毛发或黑色带白色的毛发),还有一些黑色或白色毛发,看起来象是灰色。理想的颜色:色素浓烈、中等灰色(胡椒色)均匀的遍布全身的被毛,底毛为灰色。允许的颜色:从深铁灰色到银灰色等不同深浅的“胡椒色”。每种颜色的椒盐色都应该有深色“面具”以强调表情;“面具”颜色与身体颜色协调。眉毛、胡须、面颊、喉咙、胸部、腿和尾巴下面的颜色浅一些,但也包括在“胡椒色”内。有斑纹属于失格。
[高度]
雄性肩高在25.5~27.5英寸,雌性肩高在23.5~25.5英寸,中等大小最好。身材大小的优先程度不如类型、比例、结构、气质等因素。一般不需要太小的狗,因为其缺少力量;也不需要太大的狗,其缺少敏捷度和机动性,都不适合做一个好的工作犬。

[缺陷]
前面描述的是一个理想的巨型雪纳瑞,任何与前面的描述相违背的地方都是缺陷,并要根据违背的程度扣分。
裁判将开除任何对胆怯的狗和凶恶的狗。
胆怯:犬只将在以下方面被判定为胆怯,如拒绝站立接受检查,躲避裁判;如害怕别人从身后*近,如明显的害怕突发和异常的声音。
凶恶:攻击或试图攻击任何一个裁判或牵犬师则被认定为凶恶,对其他犬有攻击性或有好斗倾向将不被认定为凶恶。
[失格]
上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和。
除了描述以外的斑纹和颜色。
标准通过日期:1983年10月11日


[以下为巨型雪纳瑞AKC标准英文原版]

Giant Schnauzer Breed Standard
General Description
The Giant Schnauzer should resemble, as nearly as possible, in general appearance, a larger and more powerful version of the Standard Schnauzer, on the whole a bold and valiant figure of a dog. Robust, strongly built, nearly square in proportion of body length to height at withers, active, sturdy, and well muscled. Temperament which combines spirit and alertness with intelligence and reliability. Composed, watchful, courageous, easily trained, deeply loyal to family, playful, amiable in repose, and a commanding figure when aroused. The sound, reliable temperament, rugged build, and dense weather-resistant wiry coat make for one of the most useful, powerful, and enduring working breeds.

Head
Strong, rectangular in appearance, and elongated; narrowing slightly from the ears to the eyes, and again from the eyes to the tip of the nose. The total length of the head is about one-half the length of the back (withers to set-on of tail). The head matches the sex and substance of the dog. The top line of the muzzle is parallel to the top line of the skull; there is a slight stop which is accentuated by the eyebrows. Skull--(Occiput to Stop). Moderately broad between the ears: occiput not too prominent. Top of skull flat; skin unwrinkled. Cheeks--Flat, but with well-developed chewing muscles; there is no \"cheekiness\" to disturb the rectangular head appearance (with beard). Muzzle--Strong and well filled under the eyes; both parallel and equal in length to the topskull; ending in a moderately blunt wedge. The nose is large, black, and full. The lips are tight, and not overlapping, black in color. Bite--A full complement of sound white teeth (6/6 incisors, 2/2 canines, 8/8 premolars, 4/6 molars) with a scissors bite. The upper and lower jaws are powerful and well formed. Disqualifying Faults--Overshot or undershot. Ears-- When cropped, identical in shape and length with pointed tips. They are in balance with the head and are not exaggerated in length. They are set high on the skull and carried perpendicularly at the inner edges with as little bell as possible along the other edges. When uncropped, the ears are V-shaped button ears of medium length and thickness, set high and carried rather high and close to the head. Eyes--Medium size, dark brown, and deep-set. They are oval in appearance and keen in expression with lids fitting tightly. Vision is not impaired nor eyes hidden by too long eyebrows. Neck--Strong and well arched, of moderate length, blending cleanly into the shoulders, and with the skin fitting tightly at the throat; in harmony with the dog\'s weight and build.

Body
Compact, substantial, short-coupled, and strong, with great power and agility. The height at the highest point of the withers equals the body length from breastbone to point of rump. The loin section is well developed, as short as possible for compact build.

Forequarters
The forequarters have flat, somewhat sloping shoulders and high withers. Forelegs are straight and vertical when viewed from all sides with strong pasterns and good bone. They are separated by a fairly deep brisket which precludes a pinched front. The elbows are set close to the body and point directly backwards. Chest-- Medium in width, ribs well sprung but with no tendency toward a barrel chest; oval in cross section: deep through the brisket. The breastbone is plainly discernible, with strong forechest; the brisket descends at least to the elbows, and ascends gradually toward the rear with the belly moderately drawn up. The ribs spread gradually from the first rib so as to allow space for the elbows to move close to the body. Shoulders--The sloping shoulder blades (scapulae) are strongly muscled, yet flat. They are well laid back so that from the side the rounded upper ends are in a nearly vertical line above the elbows. They slope well forward to the point where they join the upper arm (humerus), forming as nearly as possible a right angle. Such an angulation permits the maximum forward extension of the forelegs without binding or effort. Both shoulder blades and upper arm are long, permitting depth of chest at the brisket.

Back
Short, straight, strong, and firm.

Tail
The tail is set moderately high and carried high in excitement. It should be docked to the second or not more than the third joint (approximately one and one-half to about three inches long at maturity).

Hindquarters
The hindquarters are strongly muscled, in balance with the forequarters; upper thighs are slanting and well bent at the stifles, with the second thighs (tibiae) approximately parallel to an extension of the upper neckline. The legs from the hock joint to the feet are short, perpendicular to the ground while the dog is standing naturally, and from the rear parallel to each other. The hindquarters do not appear over-built or higher than the shoulders. Croup full and slightly rounded. Feet--Well-arched, compact and catlike, turning neither in nor out, with thick tough pads and dark nails. Dewclaws--Dewclaws, if any, on hind legs should be removed; on the forelegs, may be removed.

Gait
The trot is the gait at which movement is judged. Free, balanced and vigorous, with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. Rear and front legs are thrown neither in nor out. When moving at a fast trot, a properly built dog will single-track. Back remains strong, firm, and flat.

Coat
Hard, wiry, very dense; composed of a soft undercoat and a harsh outer coat which, when seen against the grain, stands slightly up off the back, lying neither smooth nor flat. Coarse hair on top of head; harsh beard and eyebrows, the Schnauzer hallmark.

Color
Solid black or pepper and salt. Black--A truly pure black. A small white spot on the breast is permitted; any other markings are disqualifying faults. Pepper and Salt--Outer coat of a combination of banded hairs (white with black and black with white) and some black and white hairs, appearing gray from a short distance. Ideally; an intensely pigmented medium gray shade with \"peppering\" evenly distributed throughout the coat, and a gray undercoat. Acceptable; all shades of pepper and salt from dark iron-gray to silver-gray. Every shade of coat has a dark facial mask to emphasize the expression; the color of the mask harmonizes with the shade of the body coat. Eyebrows, whiskers, cheeks, throat, chest, legs, and under tail are lighter in color but include \"peppering.\" Markings are disqualifying faults.

Height
The height at the withers of the male is 25&frac12; to 27&frac12; inches, and of the female, 23&frac12; to 25&frac12; inches, with the mediums being desired. Size alone should never take precedence over type, balance, soundness, and temperament. It should be noted that too small dogs generally lack the power and too large dogs, the agility and maneuverability, desired in the working dog.

Faults
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Giant Schnauzer. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

The judge shall dismiss from the ring any shy or vicious Giant Schnauzer.

Shyness A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it repeatedly shrinks away from the judge; if it fears unduly any approach from the rear; if it shies to a marked degree at sudden and unusual noises.

Viciousness A dog that attacks or attempts to attack either the judge or its handler, is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness.

Disqualifications
Overshot or undershot.
Markings other than specified.

Approved October 11, 1983

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 12:08:59 | 显示全部楼层


圣伯纳犬(Saint Bernard)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[历史]

圣伯纳犬因阿尔卑斯山之圣伯纳修道院而得名。(在公元980年)阿尔卑斯山的山道是十分危险的,有些旅客冒险要经常穿越,它是因为守护这些人而得名的。早些时候的那些纪事没有证明,是最可惜的。(18世纪)修道院里的教士们把这种犬饲养起来,它们的用途上可以在危险山中作为向导,它们不但可以寻找到迷路失踪的人,还可以使他们苏醒过来。圣伯纳犬属于短毛品种这一类的,为防止它们之间有近亲繁殖的现象出现,所以让苏格兰犬的品种加入其中,就出现了现在人们所知道的毛茸茸的品种。曾经救援了40个生命,叫“巴里”的圣伯纳犬于1814年去世,这是它一生立下的最伟大的功绩。

短毛型

[简介]

充满力量、比例匀称且轮廓丰满,每一部分都很结实且肌肉发达,有力的头部和非常聪明的表情。面部有深色面具,使表情显得严厉,但不凶恶。

[体型]

公犬最低69.9厘米(27.5英寸),母犬最低64.8厘米(25.5英寸)。母犬体形较公犬小,而且更精致。

[头部]

如同身躯一样,头部显得充满力量而壮观。魁梧的脑袋,宽阔,略拱且两侧(上颊骨)倾斜,构成优雅的曲线,轮廓坚实。一道深沟从口吻根部开始,经过两眼之间,穿过整个脑袋。开始的一半非常清晰,向后逐渐消失在后枕骨。头部侧面线条从外眼角开始分岔,到头部后面。前额的皮肤,眼睛上方,有明显的皱纹比较理想,或多或少,但清晰,向深沟聚拢。当他警惕或注意什么的时候,皱纹更多,但不会造成愁眉苦脸的样子。过分夸张的皱纹不受欢迎。从脑袋到口吻的过度(止部)突然且陡峭会比较理想。口吻短,不呈锥形,口吻的垂直深度比长度要大。鼻梁不能圆拱、直,有些狗有时看起来象被截断的。口吻宽、显著,鼻梁上从口吻根部到鼻镜有浅沟。上嘴唇非常发达,不能非常整齐,而是形成一个优美的曲线覆盖在下颚上,略显下垂。下嘴唇不应该下垂的很深。牙齿整齐、结实,剪状咬和或钳状咬和,虽然,有些很优秀的狗会出现下颚突出式咬和,但不理想,上颚突出式咬和属于缺陷。口腔顶部(天花板)以黑色为好。

鼻镜:非常坚实、宽阔、带有宽大的鼻孔,象嘴唇一样,必须为黑色。

耳朵:中等大小,位置高一些会比较好,耳根处有非常发达的边缘,耳根竖立在头部,使耳朵在离头部稍远的位置,下垂的耳朵,边缘靠着头部,没有旋转。耳翼为柔嫩的圆角三角形,尖端略长。当他警惕时,耳朵前边缘稳稳的靠在头部边上,而后边缘离头部略远。如果耳朵轻松的安在头部,耳根直接靠在头部,会形成头部的卵形外观,很不醒目,反之,有力的耳根会形成方形的头部,宽阔且非常醒目。

眼睛:大部分靠前,而不在侧面,中等大小,深褐色,眼神聪明、友善,深度合适,严格意义上,下眼睑不能完全贴和眼球,因为皮肤的皱纹会使眼睑内翻。眼睑过度下垂、太红、瞬膜太厚、眼睛颜色太浅都属于缺陷。

[颈部]

位置高,非常结实,当他警惕时或注意什么的时候会向上举,其他时候则水平放置或略向下。颈部与头部结合处有明显凹痕。颈背肌肉非常发达且圆,从侧面观察颈部显得很短。喉咙和颈部的赘肉非常明显;但过分夸张就不好了。

[肩部]

倾斜、宽阔,肌肉非常发达且有力,马肩隆非常坚固。

[胸部]

非常良好的圆拱,深度适中,达到肘部。

[背部]

非常宽,到腰部为止都非常直,臀部略斜,与非常轻微的尾根结合。

[后躯]

充分发育,腿部肌肉非常发达。

[腹部] 明显的位于非常有力的腰部以下,非常轻微的上提。

[尾巴]

从臀部开始的部分非常有力、宽阔,尾巴长,尾尖也很有力。休息时,垂直悬挂,只有最后1/3部分略向上弯的话,不被认为是缺陷。有大多数的狗,尾巴悬挂的方式略斜,所以,是以字母\"f\"的形状。在警惕时,所有的狗,或多或少都会将尾巴上卷,但决不能举的太高或卷到背后。略有卷曲的尾巴是允许的。

[前臂]

非常有力而且肌肉格外发达。

[小臂]

直、结实。

[后腿]

飞节角度中等,不希望有狼爪,如果有,应该不影响步态。

[足爪]

宽,有结实的脚趾,脚趾略紧,趾关节高一些比较好。有时后肢内侧出现狼爪是不良基因造成的,它们对狗本身没有任何用处,在评判时也不考虑,一般都通过外科手术切除。

[被毛]

非常浓密、短(短毛型)、平滑的躺着,毛质硬,但触摸上去的感觉不粗糙。大腿的毛发更浓密一些,尾巴根部毛发略长且密,向尾尖方向逐渐变短。尾巴的毛发浓密但不能象旗子。

[颜色]

白色带红色或红色带白色,红色包括了不同浓度红色斑点、碎块,带白色斑纹。红色和黄褐色是一样的。必须的斑纹是白色胸部、足爪和尾巴尖,颈部有\"领子\"或斑纹,后者和脸部有白筋比较理想。决不能只有一种颜色或没有白色。缺陷:除了面部和耳朵有深色\"面具\"外,其他任何颜色都属于缺陷。颜色可以分为披风型和斑块型。

[性格]

圣伯纳犬是超大型犬类的其中之一,它有非常温顺的性格,很容易与人接近,而且对待小孩子更是十分宽容、忍让。如给予足够的空间,食物,运动量,能成为很好的家庭犬。

[主要缺陷]

任何背离标准的情况都属于缺陷,例如:下凹的后背,背部长度不合比例,飞节角度太大,过直的后躯,脚趾间有向上生长的毛发,肘部外翻,牛肢或软弱的脚腕。

长毛型

长毛型大致与短毛型一样,只是毛发不是短毛,而是中等长度、略呈波浪形的毛发,毛发不能卷曲、也不粗糙,尤其是从腰部到臀部的毛发,起伏的很厉害,相对短毛型的区别不大,只需要略做说明。毛发浓而密,中等长度。卷曲的毛发、旗帜状的尾巴都属于缺陷。脸部和耳朵的毛发短而柔软,耳根处长有长毛是允许的,前肢略有饰毛,大腿毛发浓密。



标准通过日期:1998年4月13日

标准执行日期:1998年5月31日

Saint Bernard Breed Standard


Shorthaired

General
Powerful, proportionately tall figure, strong and muscular in every part, with powerful head and most intelligent expression. In dogs with a dark mask the expression appears more stern, but never ill-natured.

Head
Like the whole body, very powerful and imposing. The massive skull is wide, slightly arched and the sides slope in a gentle curve into the very strongly developed, high cheek bones. Occiput only moderately developed. The supra-orbital ridge is very strongly developed and forms nearly a right angle with the long axis of the head. Deeply imbedded between the eyes and starting at the root of the muzzle, a furrow runs over the whole skull. It is strongly marked in the first half, gradually disappearing toward the base of the occiput. The lines at the sides of the head diverge considerably from the outer corner of the eyes toward the back of the head. The skin of the forehead, above the eyes, forms rather noticeable wrinkles, more or less pronounced, which converge toward the furrow. Especially when the dog is alert or at attention the wrinkles are more visible without in the least giving the impression of morosity. Too strongly developed wrinkles are not desired. The slope from the skull to the muzzle is sudden and rather steep.

The muzzle is short, does not taper, and the vertical depth at the root of the muzzle must be greater than the length of the muzzle. The bridge of the muzzle is not arched, but straight; in some dogs, occasionally, slightly broken. A rather wide, well-marked, shallow furrow runs from the root of the muzzle over the entire bridge of the muzzle to the nose. The flews of the upper jaw are strongly developed, not sharply cut, but turning in a beautiful curve into the lower edge, and slightly overhanging. The flews of the lower jaw must not be deeply pendant. The teeth should be sound and strong and should meet in either a scissors or an even bite; the scissors bite being preferable. The undershot bite, although sometimes found with good specimens, is not desirable. The overshot bite is a fault. A black roof to the mouth is desirable.

Nose (Schwamm) - Very substantial, broad, with wide open nostrils, and, like the lips, always black.

Ears - Of medium size, rather high set, with very strongly developed burr (Muschel) at the base. They stand slightly away from the head at the base, then drop with a sharp bend to the side and cling to the head without a turn. The flap is tender and forms a rounded triangle, slightly elongated toward the point, the front edge lying firmly to the head, whereas the back edge may stand somewhat away from the head, especially when the dog is at attention. Lightly set ears, which at the base immediately cling to the head, give it an oval and too little marked exterior, whereas a strongly developed base gives the skull a squarer, broader and much more expressive appearance.

Eyes - Set more to the front than the sides, are of medium size, dark brown, with intelligent, friendly expression, set moderately deep. The lower eyelids, as a rule, do not close completely and, if that is the case, form an angular wrinkle toward the inner corner of the eye. Eyelids which are too deeply pendant and show conspicuously the lachrymal glands, or a very red, thick haw, and eyes that are too light, are objectionable.

Neck
Set high, very strong and when alert or at attention is carried erect. Otherwise horizontally or slightly downward. The junction of head and neck is distinctly marked by an indentation. The nape of the neck is very muscular and rounded at the sides which makes the neck appear rather short. The dewlap of throat and neck is well pronounced: too strong development, however, is not desirable.

Shoulders
Sloping and broad, very muscular and powerful. The withers are strongly pronounced.

Chest
Very well arched, moderately deep, not reaching below the elbows.

Back
Very broad, perfectly straight as far as the haunches, from there gently sloping to the rump, and merging imperceptibly into the root of the tail.

Hindquarters
Well-developed. Legs very muscular.

Belly
Distinctly set off from the very powerful loin section, only little drawn up.

Tail
Starting broad and powerful directly from the rump is long, very heavy, ending in a powerful tip. In repose it hangs straight down, turning gently upward in the lower third only, which is not considered a fault. In a great many specimens the tail is carried with the end slightly bent and therefore hangs down in the shape of an \"f\". In action all dogs carry the tail more or less turned upward. However it may not be carried too erect or by any means rolled over the back. A slight curling of the tip is sooner admissible.

Upper Arms
Very powerful and extraordinarily muscular.

Lower Leg
Straight, strong.

Hind legs
Hocks of moderate angulation. Dewclaws are not desired; if present, they must not obstruct gait.

Feet
Broad, with strong toes, moderately closed, and with rather high knuckles. The so-called dewclaws which sometimes occur on the inside of the hind legs are imperfectly developed toes. They are of no use to the dog and are not taken into consideration in judging. They may be removed by surgery.

Coat
Very dense, short-haired (stockhaarig), lying smooth, tough, without however feeling rough to the touch. The thighs are slightly bushy. The tail at the root has longer and denser hair which gradually becomes shorter toward the tip. The tail appears bushy, not forming a flag.

Color
White with red or red with white, the red in its various shades; brindle patches with white markings. The colors red and brown-yellow are of entirely equal value. Necessary markings are: white chest, feet and tip of tail, noseband, collar or spot on the nape; the latter and blaze are very desirable. Never of one color or without white. Faulty are all other colors, except the favorite dark shadings on the head (mask) and ears. One distinguishes between mantle dogs and splash-coated dogs.

Height at Shoulder
Of the dog should be 27&frac12; inches minimum, of the bitch 25&frac12; inches. Female animals are of finer and more delicate build.

Considered as Faults
Are all deviations from the Standard, as for instance a swayback and a disproportionately long back, hocks too much bent, straight hindquarters, upward growing hair in spaces between the toes, out at elbows, cowhocks and weak pasterns.

Longhaired

The longhaired type completely resembles the shorthaired type except for the coat which is not shorthaired (stockhaarig) but of medium length plain to slightly wavy, never rolled or curly and not shaggy either. Usually, on the back, especially from the region of the haunches to the rump, the hair is more wavy, a condition, by the way, that is slightly indicated in the shorthaired dogs. The tail is bushy with dense hair of moderate length. Rolled or curly hair, or a flag tail, is faulty. Face and ears are covered with short and soft hair; longer hair at the base of the ear is permissible. Forelegs only slightly feathered; thighs very bushy.

Approved April 13, 1998
Effective May 31, 1998

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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罗威纳犬(Rottweller)
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[简介]

理想的罗威纳犬是一个中等大小,精力充沛而且非常有力的狗,黑色配有边界清晰的铁锈色斑纹。紧凑而坚固的结构显示出巨大的力量、敏捷度、耐力。雄性比雌性更加魁梧、骨架更大且骨量更多。雌性显得柔美但在结构和体质上不显得软弱。

[历史]

罗马军队撤退后,携带大型獒犬留在欧洲南方,后来这些犬便以猎取野猪闻名。中世纪时,德国罗维纳德饲育者把此罗马品种和土著牧羊犬配种成罗威那犬。罗威那肉店店主专门用此犬看守家畜或做警备用。因此,又称\"罗威那肉店犬\"。19世纪初,德国法律禁止传统追赶牛群方式,家畜类改有铁路运送,罗威那犬声望也随之下降。1900年,罗威那犬迷努力让此犬名气再升, 于1930年把此犬传入英国及美国。

[体型]

雄性高度约61.0~68.6厘米;雌性高度约55.9~63.5厘米。各性别的高度中间值为首选。身高在允许的范围之内的前提下,正确的比例非常重要。身体长度(从胸骨前端到臀部的距离)略大于肩高,身高与体长的最佳比例为9:10。罗威纳犬的身材既不粗糙、也不象贝壳状。胸部的深度大约为肩高的一半(50%)。其肌肉和骨骼非常发达,与身体结构匀称。显得非常有力且紧凑。

主要缺陷:比例不当,身高过高或过低,性别颠倒(象雌性的公狗或象雄性的母狗)。

[头部]

中等长度,两耳之间宽阔;前额轮廓适度圆拱;颧骨圆拱而止部清晰,上下颚非常有力。后脑与口吻的理想比例为3/2。前额干燥,但是在他警惕时,会出现一些皱纹。表情:高贵、警惕而自信。眼睛:中等大小,杏仁状,眼睑正好适合眼球,位置适度地深,既不突出、也不向后斜。理想的颜色为统一的深棕色。主要缺陷:黄色眼睛(食肉猛禽的眼睛颜色);两眼不同颜色或不同大小;眼眶无毛。失格:眼睑内翻;眼睑外翻。耳朵:中等大小,下垂,三角形;耳朵警惕地倾听时,与头顶处于同一平面,使头部外观变宽。耳朵距离分的比较开,下垂,耳朵内缘紧贴头部,末端接近面颊中间。主要缺陷:不恰当的形态(褶皱、折叠或始终远离头部/面颊)。口吻:鼻梁直,根部宽,而向鼻镜方向略微收缩变窄。口吻末端宽且下巴清晰。鼻镜宽阔多于圆拱,始终是黑色。嘴唇也始终为黑色,嘴角紧闭,口腔内色素越深越好。主要缺陷:口腔内缺乏色素(粉红色口腔)。牙齿和咬合:总共42颗牙齿(上颚20颗;下颚22颗),牙齿结实、位置准确、剪状咬和。主要缺陷:钳状咬合或缺齿。失格:上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合;歪嘴;缺齿2颗或更多。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:有力、肌肉发达、中等长度、略拱、无松弛的皮肤。背线:背部坚实而水平,从马肩隆后方笔直延伸到臀部。不论站立还是行走,背部都平行与地面。身躯:胸部宽、阔且深,延伸到肘部,明显突出的前胸和扩张良好、卵形的肋骨。背部直而结实,腰部短、深而肌肉发达。臀部宽、中等长度、略倾斜。成熟罗威纳的下腹曲线略微上提。雄性的阴囊中必须有两颗睾丸。失格:雄性单侧隐睾或隐睾。尾巴:断尾,在接近身体处保留一节到两节尾骨。尾巴的位置比长度更重要,正确的尾巴位置应该象是背线的延伸,不论站立还是行走,都水平放置。

[前躯]

肩胛长而向后倾斜,前臂长度与肩胛长度相等,所以肘部位于身体下侧。从马肩隆到肘部的距离与从肘部到地面的距离相等。腿强壮而直,骨量充足,位置不靠的太近。脚腕结实、有弹性、差不多垂直于地面。足爪圆、紧凑、脚趾圆拱,脚趾既不向内弯、也不向外翻。脚垫厚实而坚硬。趾甲短、结实、黑色。狼爪可以被切除。

[后躯]

后躯角度与前躯相称。上半部大腿相当长,非常宽且肌肉发达。膝关节角度恰当。下半部大腿长、宽而有力,肌肉发达,与结实的飞节连接。后脚腕几乎垂直于地面。从后面观察,后腿直、结实且彼此有足够的距离以稳固地支撑起身体。后足爪比前足爪略长一些,既不向内弯、也不向外翻。同样紧凑、圆拱的脚趾,脚垫厚实而坚硬,趾甲短、结实、黑色。狼爪必须被切除。

[被毛]

外层披毛直、粗硬、浓密、中等长度,平躺在身体上。底毛出现在颈部、大腿,但总量受到气候的影响。底毛不能透过披毛显示出来。头部、耳朵和腿部毛发短,臀部毛发长一些。罗威纳应该以自然面貌出现,不能修剪被毛。缺陷:波浪状被毛。主要缺陷:开放的、过分短的或卷曲的被毛;缺乏底毛或修剪毛发而改变了其毛发的自然长度。失格:长被毛。

[颜色]

始终为黑色带铁锈色到桃木色斑纹。黑色与铁锈色之间的划分界限清晰。斑纹出现在下列位置:两眼睛上方各有一个污点;面颊;口吻两侧有带状环绕,但不能出现在鼻梁上;喉咙;三角型斑纹出现在前胸两侧;前肢从腕部向下到脚趾;后腿内侧,向下到膝关节,并在飞节到脚趾位置扩展到腿前面。但后脚腕不完全排除黑色;尾巴下方;脚趾有黑色铅笔纹。底毛为灰色、棕色或黑色。铁锈色斑纹的数量和位置一样重要,总量不能超过身体颜色的10%。主要缺陷:稻草色、斑纹过多、不足或烟灰色斑纹,铁锈色斑纹与上述描述不一致。任何位置出现白色斑纹(少量铁锈色或白色毛发不作为斑纹处理)。失格:底色为除黑色以外的其他颜色,缺少斑纹。

[步态]

罗威纳的步态为小跑,他的动作平稳、和谐、有力且无阻碍,加速度快而后躯驱动力强大。动作轻松、有效且能适应不同地形。前后肢既不向内弯、也不向外翻。后肢足迹与前肢足迹重叠。小跑时,前后躯配合协调,保持背部水平、稳固且相对静止。速度增加时,四肢向身体下方中心线靠拢。

[性格]

罗威纳一般是一种平静、自信而勇敢的狗,其自信和冷漠使他不容易接近,也不随便表示友好。罗威纳对环境变化的态度是自信且反应平静。他具有保卫家园、家庭的天性,他是一种非常聪明的狗,坚强、有适应性,非常乐于工作,使他成为一种很好的伴侣犬、护卫犬和多用途犬种。

罗威纳在比赛场中的行为举止应该受到约束,乐于接受检查并能适应,能容忍裁判检查他的口腔、睾丸等。冷漠或有所保留的狗不属于缺陷,这是本品种的一般情况。对其他狗有攻击性或攻击倾向不属于缺陷。

任何羞怯的罗威纳都要从赛场离开,只有下列情况下,才会判定一个罗威纳是羞怯的:拒绝站立接受检查,躲闪裁判。威胁或恐吓某人(他/她),裁判从后方靠近进行正常检查时,有任何危险的征兆,都将离开。如果在赛场攻击任何人都属于失格。

[缺陷]

前面描述的是理想的罗威纳,任何背离前面描述的地方都属于缺陷,并需要根据背离的程度进行扣分。

[失格]

眼睑内翻;眼睑外翻。上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和;歪嘴;缺齿2颗或更多。雄性单侧隐睾或隐睾。底色为除黑色以外的其他颜色,缺少斑纹。在赛场攻击任何人。



标准通过日期:1990年5月 8日

标准执行日期:1990年7月28日

Rottweiler Breed Standard


General Appearance
The ideal Rottweiler is a medium large, robust and powerful dog, black with clearly defined rust markings. His compact and substantial build denotes great strength, agility and endurance. Dogs are characteristically more massive throughout with larger frame and heavier bone than bitches. Bitches are distinctly feminine, but without weakness of substance or structure.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Dogs--24 inches to 27 inches. Bitches--22 inches to 25 inches, with preferred size being mid-range of each sex. Correct proportion is of primary importance, as long as size is within the standard\'s range.

The length of body, from prosternum to the rearmost projection of the rump, is slightly longer than the height of the dog at the withers, the most desirable proportion of the height to length being 9 to 10. The Rottweiler is neither coarse nor shelly. Depth of chest is approximately fifty percent (50%) of the height of the dog. His bone and muscle mass must be sufficient to balance his frame, giving a compact and very powerful appearance.

Serious Faults--Lack of proportion, undersized, oversized, reversal of sex characteristics (bitchy dogs, doggy bitches).

Head
Of medium length, broad between the ears; forehead line seen in profile is moderately arched; zygomatic arch and stop well developed with strong broad upper and lower jaws. The desired ratio of backskull to muzzle is 3 to 2. Forehead is preferred dry, however some wrinkling may occur when dog is alert. Expression is noble, alert, and self-assured. Eyes of medium size, almond shaped with well fitting lids, moderately deep-set, neither protruding nor receding. The desired color is a uniform dark brown. Serious Faults--Yellow (bird of prey) eyes, eyes of different color or size, hairless eye rim. Disqualification--Entropion. Ectropion. Ears of medium size, pendant, triangular in shape; when carried alertly the ears are level with the top of the skull and appear to broaden it. Ears are to be set well apart, hanging forward with the inner edge lying tightly against the head and terminating at approximately mid-cheek. Serious Faults--Improper carriage (creased, folded or held away from cheek/head). Muzzle--Bridge is straight, broad at base with slight tapering towards tip. The end of the muzzle is broad with well developed chin. Nose is broad rather than round and always black. Lips-Always black; corners closed; inner mouth pigment is preferred dark. Serious Faults--Total lack of mouth pigment (pink mouth). Bite and Dentition--Teeth 42 in number (20 upper, 22 lower), strong, correctly placed, meeting in a scissors bite--lower incisors touching inside of upper incisors. Serious Faults--Level bite; any missing tooth. Disqualifications--Overshot, undershot (when incisors do not touch or mesh); wry mouth; two or more missing teeth.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--Powerful, well muscled, moderately long, slightly arched and without loose skin. Topline--The back is firm and level, extending in a straight line from behind the withers to the croup. The back remains horizontal to the ground while the dog is moving or standing. Body--The chest is roomy, broad and deep, reaching to elbow, with well pronounced forechest and well sprung, oval ribs. Back is straight and strong. Loin is short, deep and well muscled. Croup is broad, of medium length and only slightly sloping. Underline of a mature Rottweiler has a slight tuck-up. Males must have two normal testicles properly descended into the scrotum. Disqualification--Unilateral cryptorchid or cryptorchid males. Tail--Tail docked short, close to body, leaving one or two tail vertebrae. The set of the tail is more important than length. Properly set, it gives an impression of elongation of topline; carried slightly above horizontal when the dog is excited or moving.

Forequarters
Shoulder blade is long and well laid back. Upper arm equal in length to shoulder blade, set so elbows are well under body. Distance from withers to elbow and elbow to ground is equal. Legs are strongly developed with straight, heavy bone, not set close together. Pasterns are strong, springy and almost perpendicular to the ground. Feet are round, compact with well arched toes, turning neither in nor out. Pads are thick and hard. Nails short, strong and black. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters
Angulation of hindquarters balances that of forequarters. Upper thigh is fairly long, very broad and well muscled. Stifle joint is well turned. Lower thigh is long, broad and powerful, with extensive muscling leading into a strong hock joint. Rear pasterns are nearly perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, hind legs are straight, strong and wide enough apart to fit with a properly built body. Feet are somewhat longer than the front feet, turning neither in nor out, equally compact with well arched toes. Pads are thick and hard. Nails short, strong, and black. Dewclaws must be removed.

Coat
Outer coat is straight, coarse, dense, of medium length and lying flat. Undercoat should be present on neck and thighs, but the amount is influenced by climatic conditions. Undercoat should not show through outer coat. The coat is shortest on head, ears and legs, longest on breeching. The Rottweiler is to be exhibited in the natural condition with no trimming. Fault--Wavy coat. Serious Faults--Open, excessively short, or curly coat; total lack of undercoat; any trimming that alters the length of the natural coat. Disqualification--Long coat.

Color
Always black with rust to mahogany markings. The demarcation between black and rust is to be clearly defined. The markings should be located as follows: a spot over each eye; on cheeks; as a strip around each side of muzzle, but not on the bridge of the nose; on throat; triangular mark on both sides of prosternum;on forelegs from carpus downward to the toes; on inside of rear legs showing down the front of the stifle and broadening out to front of rear legs from hock to toes, but not completely eliminating black from rear of pasterns; un-der tail; black penciling on toes. The undercoat is gray, tan, or black. Quantity and location of rust markings is important and should not exceed ten percent of body color. Serious Faults--Straw-colored, excessive, insufficient or sooty markings; rust marking other than described above; white marking any place on dog (a few rust or white hairs do not constitute a marking). Disqualifications--Any base color other than black; absence of all markings.

Gait
The Rottweiler is a trotter. His movement should be balanced, harmonious, sure, powerful and unhindered, with strong forereach and a powerful rear drive. The motion is effortless, efficient, and ground-covering. Front and rear legs are thrown neither in nor out, as the imprint of hind feet should touch that of forefeet. In a trot the forequarters and hindquarters are mutually coordinated while the back remains level, firm and relatively motionless. As speed increases the legs will converge under body towards a center line.

Temperament
The Rottweiler is basically a calm, confident and courageous dog with a self-assured aloofness that does not lend itself to immediate and indiscriminate friendships. A Rottweiler is self-confident and responds quietly and with a wait-and-see attitude to influences in his environment. He has an inherent desire to protect home and family, and is an intelligent dog of extreme hardness and adaptability with a strong willingness to work, making him especially suited as a companion, guardian and general all-purpose dog.

The behavior of the Rottweiler in the show ring should be controlled, willing and adaptable, trained to submit to examination of mouth, testicles, etc. An aloof or reserved dog should not be penalized, as this reflects the accepted character of the breed. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs should not be faulted.

A judge shall excuse from the ring any shy Rottweiler. A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge. A dog that in the opinion of the judge menaces or threatens him/her, or exhibits any sign that it may not be safely approached or examined by the judge in the normal manner, shall be excused from the ring. A dog that in the opinion of the judge attacks any person in the ring shall be disqualified.

Summary
Faults - The foregoing is a description of the ideal Rottweiler. Any structural fault that detracts from the above described working dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Disqualifications
Entropion, ectropion. Overshot, undershot (when incisors do not touch or mesh); wry mouth; two or more missing teeth. Unilateral cryptorchid or cryptorchid males. Long coat. Any base color other than black; absence of all markings. A dog that in the opinion of the judge attacks any person in the ring.

Approved May 8, 1990
Effective June 28, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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葡萄牙水犬(Portuguese Water Dog)
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[简介]

众所周知,葡萄牙拥有漫长的海岸线,而这种水中工作的品种就是渔民培育的,他们英勇、但对大自然顺从,中等结构,可以在水中或陆地全天候工作。葡萄牙水犬是优秀的游泳者和潜水者,具有特殊的才干和毅力,帮助他的主人在海中寻回失落的渔具、驱赶鱼群、在小船间或小船与陆地间传递消息。他是一个忠诚的伴侣和警惕的卫士。这种聪明实用的品种,拥有两种被毛类型,卷曲或呈波浪状,相当宽且比例匀称的头部给人的印象深刻;粗犷、紧密接合的身躯;尾根有力而厚实,尾巴漂亮的举着,用来当舵。力量、热情和稳固是葡萄牙水犬留给人们无法磨灭的印象。

[历史]

葡萄牙水犬曾在葡萄牙的各处海岸都有,在那里,人们用它将鱼赶至网中,找回丢失的工具和破了的鱼网,并在船与船、船与岸之间充当信使。葡萄牙水犬乘坐颠簸的拖网渔船从葡萄牙海岸出发,到冰岛附近的冰冷海水中捕鳕鱼。

    在葡萄牙语中,这种犬叫做cao de Agua,cao的意思是犬,de Agua的意思是水。在它的故乡,这种犬也叫做葡萄牙猎鱼犬。cao de Agua de Pelo Ondulado是长毛品种的名称,cao de Agua de Pelo Encaradolado是卷毛品种的名称。

    葡萄牙水犬聪明沉着,外形粗犷健壮。有不脱落的丰厚被毛,这种被毛不引起过敏症,而且防水,脚上有蹼,是理想的户外犬,能胜任大量工作。公犬高50.8~58.4厘米,体重19.05~27.22千克,母犬高43.2~53. 3厘米,体重15.9~22.68千克,体形小一些的犬用于小船上,而体形大的犬则用于大船上。

    葡萄牙水犬在参加表演时,被毛有两种修剪方式,可任选一种,包括狮子式(躯干后部和吻部修剪得很短,而身体其他部位保持长毛的状态)和工作式。喜欢将犬的被毛修剪成狮子式的人说这样可以展示犬肌肉有力,喜欢工作式的人则认为这样的被毛易梳理,适宜犬中户外进行各种活动。

    一些人认为葡萄牙水犬来自公元前700年的中亚,即中俄交界处的西伯利亚大草原。居住在那儿的早期居民饲养牛羊骆驼和马,根据他们住的地点不同,饲养的牲畜种类也不同。他们也饲养犬来放牧这些家畜。这些犬生活在与世隔绝的地方,形成了特定的类型,非常像长毛的葡萄牙水犬。

    有种理论认为这种亚洲牧羊犬的一部分被凶猛的北非柏柏尔人 (Berbers)抓获,这些人穿过北非来到摩洛哥,他们的后代摩尔人在8世纪来到葡萄牙,随身带着水猎犬。

    另一种理论声称,亚洲牧犬随着哥特人(德国部落的一个联邦)离开了非洲的大草原。后来东哥特人往西走,他们的犬变成了德国的pudel犬。另外一部分哥特人――西哥特人往南走,与罗马人打仗,他们的犬发展成狮子犬。在公元400年,西哥特人入侵西班牙和葡萄牙,而他们的犬从此在那儿定居。

    这些理论解释了为什么狮子犬和葡萄牙水犬可能有着共同的祖先。曾经狮子犬是种长毛犬,与葡萄牙水犬中的一种很相象。一些长毛的水猎犬与利比利亚人一起成长。早期,塞提伯瑞斯(Celtiberians)从现在属于德国西南部的地区出发,穿过比利牛斯山脉,行迹遍布欧洲西部。他们在古西班牙(伊比利业)和爱尔兰,威尔士和布列塔尼亚半岛居住下来。现在认为爱尔兰水犬是葡萄牙水犬的后代。

    几个世纪以来,葡萄牙水犬一直生括在葡萄牙南部悬崖林立的海岸边,与世隔绝,保持着粗犷的外表。但20世纪早期,农业社会经历了巨变,葡萄牙的渔民迅速从海岸边消失,葡萄牙水犬也一样。

    19世纪30年代,一个葡萄牙船业巨头同时也是一个爱犬者,瓦斯科?博苏德(Dr. Vasco Bensuade)开始尽力挽救这个品种的犬,葡萄牙犬俱乐部重新建立,这个品种的犬在犬展中亮相,从此制定了标准,葡萄牙水犬被列入工作犬组。

    1954年,几头葡萄牙水犬由葡萄牙出口到英国,英国养犬俱乐部将其列入工作犬组。尽管这种犬在英国被接受,但还是迅速衰落了,和1957年后未被登记在册。

    1958年,纽约的哈瑞顿(Harrington)夫妇收到了从英国来的作为稀有品种交换的一对葡萄牙水犬,美国人开始对这种犬感兴趣。在对葡萄牙水犬感兴趣的美国人中,有一对夫妇,康涅狄格州的贺伯特?米勒(Herbert Miller)夫妇,第一次从葡萄牙直接进口这种犬(他们从塞豪诺?布瑞克处买了一头雌性幼犬。这位女士以前曾是女斗牛士,她继承了葡萄牙的博苏德养犬俱乐部。

    1972年8月13日,16位葡萄牙水犬爱好者还有他们的爱犬在米勒家聚会,成立了美国葡萄牙水犬俱乐部。那时在美国只有12只葡萄牙水犬。经过养犬人的不懈努力,到1982年6月3日,葡萄牙水犬的数量已超过650只,分布于41个州,并有50多个技艺精湛的养犬人。1981年6月3日,葡萄牙水犬被列入混合犬组。3个月后,这种犬赢得了第一个冠军,1983年8月1日葡萄牙水犬被美国养犬俱乐部正式承认,并于1984年1月1日作为工作犬组参加比赛。

[体型]

尺寸:雄性肩高约50.8~58.4厘米,理想肩高为55.9厘米;雌性肩高约43.2~53.3厘米,理想肩高为48.3厘米。体重:雄性约19.05~27.22千克;雌性约15.88~22.68千克。比例:矩形,体长(从前胸到臀部最后点)略大于身高(肩高)。体质:结实、坚固的骨骼,非常发达,既不精细也不粗糙,坚固的结构,肌肉发达的身躯。

[头部]

头部具有显著特点;特别大,比例匀称且头顶特别宽。表情:坚定、敏锐而专注。眼睛:中等大小、分的较开,略微倾斜。圆形,既不突出也不凹陷。黑色或不同色调的褐色,颜色越深越好。眼眶色素充足,黑色、黑白两色或白色的狗,眼眶为黑色;褐色狗的眼眶为褐色。瞬膜颜色深,不外露。耳朵:位于眼睛之上,耳廓为心形且薄,除了后面略微张开外,其他部分都贴着头部。耳朵不能延伸到下颚。脑袋:从轮廓上看,比口吻略长,后半部比前半部弯曲的厉害。正面观察时,脑袋非常宽而且呈半球形,中间略凹。前额突出,中间有皱纹,从止部向后枕骨延伸,长度约2/3。后枕骨非常清晰。止部:非常清晰。口吻:坚固,根部比鼻镜端宽。颚部:结实,无上颚突出或下颚突出。鼻镜:宽,鼻孔宽阔。色素充足,黑色、黑白两色或白色的狗,鼻镜为黑色;褐色狗的鼻镜为不同色调的褐色。嘴唇:厚实,尤其是前部,无飘唇。嘴唇及口腔黏膜,如上颚、舌下、牙龈等地方的颜色:黑色、黑白两色或白色的狗,为彻底的黑色或大部分为黑色;褐色狗的为不同色调的褐色。咬和:剪状咬和或钳状咬和。牙齿:当嘴唇闭合时,看不见牙齿。犬齿结实。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:直、短、圆,且高高昂起。无赘肉。背线:水平而坚固。身躯:胸宽而深,延伸到肘部。肋骨长且扩张良好,给肺部提供足够的容量。腹部上提,形成优美的曲线。背部:宽肌肉发达,腰部短而平稳地与臀部接合。臀部稳固而略倾斜,臀骨几乎不可见。尾巴:不断尾,尾根粗而尖端细,位置略低于背线,不能延伸到飞节。当狗很专著时,尾巴会上卷为环形,但不能延伸到腰部。在游泳和潜水时,尾巴的作用很大。

[前躯]

肩部适度倾斜、肌肉非常发达。前臂有力。前肢强壮、直且长,前臂肌肉非常发达。腕骨的骨量充足,前面比侧面宽。?f骨长而结实。狼爪可以被切除。足爪:圆且宁可平一些。脚趾的既无关节上拱也不太长。脚趾间有蹼,是一层柔软的皮肤,上面覆盖着毛发,延伸到趾甲处。中央脚垫非常厚实,其他脚垫则正常。指甲略微向上,离开地面。黑色、白色、褐色或带斑纹的趾甲都可以接受。

[后躯]

有力;与前躯比例匀称。腿:从后面观察,彼此平行、直,且大腿肌肉非常发达。臀部:发达。脚腕和飞节强壮,跖骨长,无狼爪。足爪的要求与前躯一样。

[被毛]

身体上均匀地覆盖着丰厚、浓密、强壮、健康的毛发,除了前臂与胸部结合处及腹股沟处的毛发稀薄一些。无底毛、鬃毛或围脖。被毛有两种变化。

卷毛型:毛发紧密,呈柱状卷曲,略显黯淡,耳朵的毛发有时是波浪状的。

波浪型:毛发为向下的波浪状,无卷曲,略有光泽。

两种被毛不分优劣,一视同仁。

[修剪]

有两种修剪方式是可以接受的。

狮子型:毛发一旦长到一定长度,就将身体中段、后躯及口吻的毛发修剪掉,尾巴末端的毛发保留完整长度。

寻回犬型:为了保持自然的面貌和完整平滑的轮廓线,整体都延着狗的身体轮廓线修剪,保持被毛不超过2.5厘米长。尾巴末端的毛发保留完整长度。

按照正确的方法修剪,不论狮子型还是寻回犬型都可以接受,没有区别。

[颜色]

黑色、白色、及不同色调的褐色,或黑色或褐色带有白色。白色被毛的狗,如果鼻镜、嘴、眼圈是黑色的,就不是白化病,可以接受。不论是黑色、白色还是黑白双色的狗,其皮肤都必须是明确的兰灰色。

[步态]

散步时步伐短、活跃。小跑时,步伐迅速,动作平稳。

[性格]

英勇、顽固、勇敢而耐疲劳。异常聪明,是忠实的同伴。乐于服从自己的主人。他对自己照顾的对象和服务对象都很顺从。

[概要]

葡萄牙水犬是一种勇敢、顺从、精力充沛而不夸张的狗,构造实用;可靠,骨量充足,肌肉发达,能全天候在水中或陆地上工作。

[缺陷]

任何背离上面描述的地方都属于缺陷。无论如何,这些特点对维持其正确的类别是不可缺少的。不容忽视。下面列出了一些主要缺陷。

[失格]

性格:羞怯、凶恶或错误的举止。

头部:平淡、整体尺寸小;头顶窄;口吻象被截断。

体质:骨量不足或骨骼纤细;缺乏肌肉。

被毛:稀少,天生毛发太短,部分或全部毛发平贴身体,毛刷状或刚毛状的被毛质地,毛发脆弱,双层毛。

尾巴:除了描述现象外的情况。位置太低。过于粗重或运动时下垂。

颜色:任何背离上面描述的颜色;除了黑色或不同色调褐色以外的其他颜色眼睛,粉红色或局部着色的鼻镜、嘴唇、眼圈。

咬合:上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合。





标准通过日期:1991年1月15日

标准执行日期:1991年2月27日


Portuguese Water Dog Breed Standard


General Appearance
Known for centuries along Portugal\'s coast, this seafaring breed was prized by fishermen for a spirited, yet obedient nature, and a robust, medium build that allowed for a full day\'s work in and out of the water. The Portuguese Water Dog is a swimmer and diver of exceptional ability and stamina, who aided his master at sea by retrieving broken nets, herding schools of fish, and carrying messages between boats and to shore. He is a loyal companion and alert guard. This highly intelligent utilitarian breed is distinguished by two coat types, either curly or wavy; an impressive head of considerable breadth and well proportioned mass; a ruggedly built, well-knit body; and a powerful, thickly based tail, carried gallantly or used purposefully as a rudder. The Portuguese Water Dog provides an indelible impression of strength, spirit, and soundness.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--Height at the withers--Males, 20 to 23 inches. The ideal is 22 inches. Females, 17 to 21 inches. The ideal is 19 inches. Weight--For males, 42 to 60 pounds; for females, 35 to 50 pounds. Proportion--Off square; slightly longer than tall when measured from prosternum to rearmost point of the buttocks, and from withers to ground. Substance--Strong, substantial bone; well developed, neither refined nor coarse, and a solidly built, muscular body.

Head
An essential characteristic; distinctively large, well proportioned and with exceptional breadth of topskull. Expression--Steady, penetrating, and attentive. Eyes-- Medium in size; set well apart, and a bit obliquely. Roundish and neither prominent nor sunken. Black or various tones of brown in color. Darker eyes are preferred. Eye rims fully pigmented with black edges in black, black and white, or white dogs; brown edges in brown dogs. Haws are dark and not apparent. Ears--Set well above the line of the eye. Leather is heart shaped and thin. Except for a small opening at the back, ears are held nicely against the head. Tips should not reach below the lower jaw.

Skull--In profile, it is slightly longer than the muzzle, its curvature more accentuated at the back than in the front. When viewed head-on, the top of the skull is very broad and appears domed, with a slight depression in the middle. The forehead is prominent, and has a central furrow, extending two-thirds of the distance from stop to occiput. The occiput is well defined. Stop--Well defined. Muzzle--Substantial; wider at the base than at the nose. Jaws--Strong and neither over nor undershot. Nose--Broad, well flared nostrils. Fully pigmented; black in dogs with black, black and white, or white coats; various tones of brown in dogs with brown coats. Lips-- Thick, especially in front; no flew. Lips and mucous membranes of the roof of the mouth, under tongue, and gums are quite black, or well ticked with black in dogs with black, black and white, or white coats; various tones of brown in dogs with brown coats. Bite--Scissors or level. Teeth--Not visible when the mouth is closed. Canines strongly developed.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--Straight, short, round, and held high. Strongly muscled. No dewlap. Topline--Level and firm. Body--Chest is broad and deep, reaching down to the elbow. Ribs are long and well-sprung to provide optimum lung capacity. Abdomen well held up in a graceful line. Back is broad and well muscled. Loin is short and meets the croup smoothly. Croup is well formed and only slightly inclined with hip bones hardly apparent. Tail--Not docked; thick at the base and tapering; set on slightly below the line of the back; should not reach below the hock. When the dog is attentive the tail is held in a ring, the front of which should not reach forward of the loin. The tail is of great help when swimming and diving.

Forequarters
Shoulders are well inclined and very strongly muscled. Upper arms are strong. Forelegs are strong and straight with long, well muscled forearms. Carpus is heavy-boned, wider in front than at the side. Pasterns are long and strong. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet are round and rather flat. Toes neither knuckled up nor too long. Webbing between the toes is of soft skin, well covered with hair, and reaches the toe tips. Central pad is very thick, others normal. Nails held up slightly off the ground. Black, brown, white, and striped nails are allowed.

Hindquarters
Powerful; well balanced with the front assembly. Legs, viewed from the rear, are parallel to each other, straight and very strongly muscled in upper and lower thighs. Buttocks are well developed. Tendons and hocks are strong. Metatarsus long, no dewclaws. Feet similar in all respects to forefeet.

Coat
A profuse, thickly planted coat of strong, healthy hair, covering the whole body evenly, except where the forearm meets the brisket and in the groin area, where it is thinner. No undercoat, mane or ruff. There are two varieties of coat:

Curly--Compact, cylindrical curls, somewhat lusterless. The hair on the ears is sometimes wavy.

Wavy--Falling gently in waves, not curls, and with a slight sheen.

No preference will be given to coat type, either curly or wavy.

Clip
Two clips are acceptable:

Lion Clip--As soon as the coat grows long, the middle part and hindquarters, as well as the muzzle, are clipped. The hair at the end of the tail is left at full length.

Retriever Clip--In order to give a natural appearance and a smooth unbroken line, the entire coat is scissored or clipped to follow the outline of the dog, leaving a short blanket of coat no longer than one inch in length. The hair at the end of the tail is left at full length.

No discrimination will be made against the correct presentation of a dog in either Lion Clip or Retriever Clip.

Color
Black, white, and various tones of brown; also combinations of black or brown with white. A white coat does not imply albinism provided nose, mouth, and eyelids are black. In animals with black, white, or black and white coats, the skin is decidedly bluish.

Gait
Short, lively steps when walking. The trot is a forward striding, well balanced movement.

Temperament
An animal of spirited disposition, self-willed, brave, and very resistant to fatigue. A dog of exceptional intelligence and a loyal companion, it obeys its master with facility and apparent pleasure. It is obedient with those who look after it or with those for whom it works.

Summary Statement
The Portuguese Water Dog is spirited yet obedient, robust, and of unexaggerated, functional conformation; sure, substantially boned and muscled, and able to do a full day\'s work in and out of the water.

Faults
Any deviation from the described ideal is a fault. However, those inherent characteristics that are imperative for the maintenance of proper type, and therefore cannot be overlooked, are listed as Major Faults.

Major Faults
1. Temperament--Shy, vicious, or unsound behavior.
2. Head--Unimpressive; small in overall size; narrow in topskull; snipy in muzzle.
3. Substance--Light or refined in bone; lacking in muscle.
4. Coat--Sparse; naturally short, close-lying hair, partially or over all; wispy or wiry in texture; brittle; double-coated.
5. Tail--Other than as described. Extremely low set. Heavy or droopy in action.
6. Pigment--Any deviation from described pigmen- tation; other than black or various tones of brown eye color; pink or partial pigmentation in nose, lips, eyes, or eye rims.
7. Bite--Overshot or undershot.

Approved January 15, 1991
Effective February 27, 1991

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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纽芬兰犬(Newfoundland)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

纽芬兰犬是一种性情甜蜜的狗,即不笨拙,也没有坏脾气。他是一个深情的伴侣。纽芬兰犬是一种多用途的狗,在家里,在陆地上或在水里,他被设计成有工作能力并有天生的救命能力。

纽芬兰犬拥有夸张的、沉重的被毛,非常和谐,身躯深,骨骼沉重,肌肉发达且非常结实。一条好的纽芬兰犬会高贵地、自豪地昂着头。

下面描述的特征勾画了一个理想的纽芬兰犬,任何与之背离的情况,将根据背离的程度进行扣分。虽然这里没有明确指出,但是除了上面提到的那些缺陷,一些适用于所有犬种的明显的身体结构及运动方面的缺陷也适用于纽芬兰犬的评判。

[历史]

纽芬兰犬的祖先已经无法证实了,其中的一种说法是:维京人把它的祖先带到是纽芬兰岛上;另一种说法是:它的祖先是和法国的渔夫一起移民过来的,是大自然犬的后代。在岛上,作为海上救助犬的纽芬兰犬是非常优秀的,它也可以拉车的。它传入英国和法国的时间是在18世纪的时候,在英国,它的工作是做为船犬。旅客是非常喜欢它的,它有非常大的名气。在苏格兰,有一位剧作家(M.Barrie),在自己的创作剧本中写入了自己所喂养的纽芬兰犬。

这个品种是由加拿大的东海岸上,一个叫纽芬兰岛的地方起源的。纽芬兰犬的面部和熊非常的相似。它的能力是救助海难者。它属于工作犬,在改良的品种中,它是其中最有能力的一个,也可以成为人们的最佳伴侣,对人非常的忠实,对于家庭式的饲养方式它是可以适应的。

[体型]

成年雄性的平均肩高为71.1厘米;成年雌性的平均肩高为66.0厘米。成年雄性的体重约58.97~68.04千克;成年雌性的体重约为45.36~54.43千克。雄性的外观显得比雌性魁梧。尺寸越大越好,但不能以牺牲平衡、结构及正确的步态为代价。纽芬兰犬的长度(从肩到臀)略大于高度(马肩隆到地面)。纽芬兰犬拥有相当多的体质,肋骨扩张良好,坚实的肌肉和沉重的骨骼。

[头部]

头部魁梧,脑袋宽阔。脑袋:略有拱顶,后枕骨非常发达。面颊清晰。眼睛:深褐色(褐色或灰色的浅色眼睛将根据其对表情的影响程度而扣分),眼睛相对小,位置深,距离相当远,眼睑紧贴眼球,无倒卷。耳朵:相对小,三角形,尖端略圆,位于头顶平面或略高与眉毛,藏在头部。使耳朵向前,能延伸到同侧外眼角。表情:柔和而反映出这一品种独有的特点:仁爱、聪明且高贵。

前额和脸部平滑、无皱纹。止部的斜度适中,但由于眉骨发达,使其在轮廓上看起来显得突然。口吻:末端整齐,整个口吻都很宽,且深。深度和长度大致相等。从鼻镜到止部的长度略小于从止部到后枕骨。口吻上部圆,鼻梁的轮廓直而略拱。咬和:为剪刀状咬和或钳状咬和。下颚门牙如果是其他正常咬和,则不表示咬和不正,并属于小缺陷。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:结实,位于肩部前端,长度足够使头部能自豪的昂起。背部:结实、宽、肌肉发达,从马肩隆后方到臀部保持水平。胸部丰满、深,胸底深度延伸到肘部。肋骨扩张良好,前三分之一的肋骨略微收缩,不妨碍肘部运动。腰窝深。臀部宽,略斜。尾巴:尾巴呈臀部的自然延伸线。尾根部宽而结实。尾巴无扭曲,末端尾骨延伸到飞节。当狗轻松站立时,尾巴笔直下垂,末端允许略微卷曲。当狗运动时或兴奋时,尾巴上举,但不允许卷曲到背后。

[前躯]

肩部肌肉发达且向后倾斜,肘部正好在马肩隆最高点正下方。前肢肌肉发达,骨量充足,直且彼此平行,肘尖笔直向后。肘部到地面的距离等于肩高的一半。脚腕结实,略倾斜。足爪大小与整体的比例匀称,有蹼,猫足。狼爪切除。

[后躯]

后半部分非常有力、肌肉发达、骨量非常充足。从后面观察,后腿直且彼此平行。从侧面观察,大腿宽而且相当长。膝关节和飞节角度恰当,飞节以下部位垂直于地面。飞节尽量低一些,后足爪与前肢足爪类似,狼爪需要切除。

[被毛]

成年纽芬兰犬拥有平顺、防水的双层被毛,在任何位置逆向梳理都会落下。外层披毛粗硬、中等长度、丰满、毛发直或波浪状。底毛柔软浓密,虽然在夏季或炎热季节里,底毛会减少。脸部、口吻的毛发短而细。腿后面有羽状饰毛。尾巴上的毛发长而浓密。多余的毛发可以修剪掉,保持整洁,但胡须不能修剪。

[颜色]

相对结构、稳固性来说,颜色是次要的。

纽芬兰犬允许的颜色为:黑色、棕色、灰色及黑白双色。

单一颜色:黑色、棕色、或灰色,看起来应该是纯色或纯色在下列部位(部分或全部)带有白色:下巴、胸部、脚趾和尾巴尖。所有这些位置出现白色是典型的,不算缺陷。此外,黑色、灰色被毛出现浅青铜色或棕色、灰色出现浅色装饰都属于典型的颜色。

兰西尔色:白色为底色,带有黑色条纹。典型情况是头部为纯黑色、或黑色带有白色口吻(有没有白筋都可以)。有单独的黑色鞍状斑块,黑色臀部且黑色延伸到白色尾巴。

斑纹,出现在单一颜色或兰西尔色中,可能背离上面的描述,这种情况属于缺陷,并需要根据背离的程度扣分。纯净的白色或白色带很少的杂色是允许的。

但只有在其他品质都完全一样的前提下,才比较斑纹和颜色,但决不能因为漂亮的斑纹而牺牲类型、结构、稳固性等重要因素。

失格:除了上面明确描述的颜色外的其他颜色或颜色组合。

[步态]

纽芬兰犬的动作具有良好的伸展性和强大的驱动力。给人以毫不费力的印象。他的步态平顺且有节奏。能适应最多不同类型的地形,并用最少的步数。前后肢笔直向前。当速度增加时,足迹趋向于同一轨迹。运动中,皮肤轻微的晃动是这一品种所特有的。正确的前后躯结构及角度才能产生正确的步态。

[性格]

甜蜜可爱是纽芬兰犬的特点,而且是这一品种唯一的非常重要的性格特质。

[失格]

除了上面明确描述的颜色外的其他颜色或颜色组合。



标准通过日期:1990年5月 8日

标准执行日期:1990年7月28日

Newfoundland Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Newfoundland is a sweet-dispositioned dog that acts neither dull nor ill-tempered. He is a devoted companion. A multipurpose dog, at home on land and in water, the Newfoundland is capable of draft work and possesses natural lifesaving abilities.

The Newfoundland is a large, heavily coated, well balanced dog that is deep-bodied, heavily boned, muscular, and strong. A good specimen of the breed has dignity and proud head carriage.

The following description is that of the ideal Newfoundland. Any deviation from this ideal is to be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural and movement faults common to all working dogs are as undesirable in the Newfoundland as in any other breed, even though they are not specifically mentioned herein.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Average height for adult dogs is 28 inches, for adult bitches, 26 inches. Approximate weight of adult dogs ranges from 130 to 150 pounds, adult bitches from 100 to 120 pounds. The dog\'s appearance is more massive throughout than the bitch\'s. Large size is desirable, but never at the expense of balance, structure, and correct gait. The Newfoundland is slightly longer than tall when measured from the point of shoulder to point of buttocks and from withers to ground. He is a dog of considerable substance which is determined by spring of rib, strong muscle, and heavy bone.

Head
The head is massive, with a broad skull, slightly arched crown, and strongly developed occipital bone. Cheeks are well developed. Eyes are dark brown. (Browns and Grays may have lighter eyes and should be penalized only to the extent that color affects expression.) They are relatively small, deep-set, and spaced wide apart. Eyelids fit closely with no inversion. Ears are relatively small and triangular with rounded tips. They are set on the skull level with, or slightly above, the brow and lie close to the head. When the ear is brought forward, it reaches to the inner corner of the eye on the same side. Expression is soft and reflects the characteristics of the breed: benevolence, intelligence, and dignity.

Forehead and face are smooth and free of wrinkles. Slope of the stop is moderate but, because of the well developed brow, it may appear abrupt in profile. The muzzle is clean-cut, broad throughout its length, and deep. Depth and length are approximately equal, the length from tip of nose to stop being less than that from stop to occiput. The top of the muzzle is rounded, and the bridge, in profile, is straight or only slightly arched. Teeth meet in a scissors or level bite. Dropped lower incisors, in an otherwise normal bite, are not indicative of a skeletal malocclusion and should be considered only a minor deviation.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is strong and well set on the shoulders and is long enough for proud head carriage. The back is strong, broad, and muscular and is level from just behind the withers to the croup. The chest is full and deep with the brisket reaching at least down to the elbows. Ribs are well sprung, with the anterior third of the rib cage tapered to allow elbow clearance. The flank is deep. The croup is broad and slopes slightly. Tail--Tail set follows the natural line of the croup. The tail is broad at the base and strong. It has no kinks, and the distal bone reaches to the hock. When the dog is standing relaxed, its tail hangs straight or with a slight curve at the end. When the dog is in motion or excited, the tail is carried out, but it does not curl over the back.

Forequarters
Shoulders are muscular and well laid back. Elbows lie directly below the highest point of the withers. Forelegs are muscular, heavily boned, straight, and parallel to each other, and the elbows point directly to the rear. The distance from elbow to ground equals about half the dog\'s height. Pasterns are strong and slightly sloping. Feet are proportionate to the body in size, webbed, and cat foot in type. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters
The rear assembly is powerful, muscular, and heavily boned. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight and parallel. Viewed from the side, the thighs are broad and fairly long. Stifles and hocks are well bent and the line from hock to ground is perpendicular. Hocks are well let down. Hind feet are similar to the front feet. Dewclaws should be removed.

Coat
The adult Newfoundland has a flat, water-resistant, double coat that tends to fall back into place when rubbed against the nap. The outer coat is coarse, moderately long, and full, either straight or with a wave. The undercoat is soft and dense, although it is often less dense during the summer months or in warmer climates. Hair on the face and muzzle is short and fine. The backs of the legs are feathered all the way down. The tail is covered with long dense hair. Excess hair may be trimmed for neatness. Whiskers need not be trimmed.

Color
Color is secondary to type, structure, and soundness. Recognized Newfoundland colors are black, brown, gray, and white and black.

Solid Colors--Blacks, Browns, and Grays may appear as solid colors or solid colors with white at any, some, or all, of the following locations: chin, chest, toes, and tip of tail. Any amount of white found at these locations is typical and is not penalized. Also typical are a tinge of bronze on a black or gray coat and lighter furnishings on a brown or gray coat.

Landseer--White base coat with black markings. Typically, the head is solid black, or black with white on the muzzle, with or without a blaze. There is a separate black saddle and black on the rump extending onto a white tail.

Markings, on either Solid Colors or Landseers, might deviate considerably from those described and should be penalized only to the extent of the deviation. Clear white or white with minimal ticking is preferred.
Beauty of markings should be considered only when comparing dogs of otherwise comparable quality and never at the expense of type, structure and soundness.

Disqualifications-- Any colors or combinations of colors not specifically described are disqualified.

Gait
The Newfoundland in motion has good reach, strong drive, and gives the impression of effortless power. His gait is smooth and rhythmic, covering the maximum amount of ground with the minimum number of steps. Forelegs and hind legs travel straight forward. As the dog\'s speed increases, the legs tend toward single tracking. When moving, a slight roll of the skin is characteristic of the breed. Essential to good movement is the balance of correct front and rear assemblies.

Temperament
Sweetness of temperament is the hallmark of the Newfoundland; this is the most important single characteristic of the breed.

Disqualifications
Any colors or combinations of colors not specifically described are disqualified.

Approved May 8, 1990
Effective June 28, 1990

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那不勒斯獒 Neapolitan Mastiff


简介

  这是一个古老的品种,1940年代在意大利被重新发现,那不勒斯獒是一种重骨量、大块头、令人敬畏的品种,繁育的目的是做为警卫犬和保护犬,保护主人和财产。它的特征是松驰的皮肤覆盖了整个身体,头上有丰富的下垂的皱纹,以及很多的垂肉。此品种的精典是它显露兽性的外观,令人害怕的头部以及让人难忘的体型和态度。由于它的整体结构,它的运动有摇摆、笨拙的特点,不是文雅或绚丽的类型。

大小比例和体型

  健壮结实的、骨量沉重的犬,体型魁伟,在比例上呈长方形。身体的长度大约比宽度要多10%-15%。

  高度:雄性26-31英寸,雌性24-29英寸。成年犬的平均重量,雄性150磅,雌性110磅,但是一般体重都要比这个数大,只要比例和功能不受影响,体重越大越好。

  不魁伟的犬将被重重扣分直至取消比赛资格。

头部
  相对身体来说很大。与其它獒类不同的是它有很多皱纹,嘴唇下垂,融入丰厚的垂肉。头骨的上线和口必须是平行的。脸由厚厚的皱纹和折皱组成。必须要有的折皱是从眼睑的外边缘到喉咙处,从嘴唇的下部和底部到嘴唇的外边缘。

  严重缺陷:头骨的上线和口的不平行。

  失格:缺少皱纹和折皱。

  表情:休息时忧郁,受到威胁时警觉。视线敏锐。

  眼睛:深,几乎藏在下垂的上眼睑中。下眼睑下垂,显露出瞬瞙。

  眼睛颜色:暗琥珀色或暗棕色,与被毛颜色相一致。眼框的颜色与被毛的颜色是一样的。

  严重缺陷:发白的蓝色眼睛,眼框处的颜色不完整。

  耳朵:在面颊骨之上。可以剪耳,也可以不剪,但是通常会因为健康原因而剪成等边三角形。。如果不剪耳,耳朵大小适中,为三角形,紧贴面颊耷拉着,不能超过喉咙的下边缘。

  脑袋:在两耳之间是宽平的,前沿部分略拱起,覆盖着带皱纹的皮肤。在两面颊骨之间的头骨的宽度约等于到止部的长度。眉毛部分很发达。前额的皱纹很明显。后脑勺几乎看不出来。

  止部:很清楚,在口和前额的连接处形成一个直角,然后在前额骨与前面皱纹相接的地方,以一个更大的角度向后呈坡形倾斜。

  鼻子:大,鼻孔充分张开,颜色与被毛相同。鼻子是口部上线的延伸,不能比口的平面突出,也不能比口的平面靠后。

  严重缺陷:鼻子上的颜色不完整。

  口部:占据整个头的三分之一的长度,宽等于长。从前面看,口部很深,外边缘平行,使它看上去像个正方形。口部的上平面,从止部到鼻子尖是直的,但是皮肤的皱褶在上面形成一个山脊。 

  严重缺陷:口部的上平面向上弯曲或向下弯曲。

  嘴唇:沉重,厚,长。上嘴唇结合鼻孔的下部形成一个倒放的“V”。上嘴唇形成了口的底部和外部边缘,这些边缘的下半部分是由嘴角组成的。嘴角外翻以显示出下垂的上嘴唇,并与外眼角成一条线。

  咬合:剪状咬合或钳状咬合是标准,可以下颚略突出。齿系完整。

  缺陷:缺少1个以上的前臼齿。

  严重缺陷:上颚突出;明显的下颚突出,破坏了口的前平面的轮廓;缺少2个以上的前臼齿。

颈部、背线和身体

  颈部:略弓起,相当短,结实,肌肉发达。体积庞大,并且从下颌到颈部以下都分布着垂肉。

  失格:缺少垂肉。

  身体:犬的长度,即从肩处到臀处的长度,要比犬的高度,即从肩的最高点到地面的高度,要大10-15%。胸廓的深度等于犬和高度的一半。肋骨长且有弹性。

  胸:宽,深,肌肉发达。

  下线和折起:腹部的下线几乎水平。有极少或没有折起。

  背部:宽,强壮。肩胛骨的最高部分几乎上升到比强壮、水平的背线还高。

  腰:肌肉发达,和谐的与背部连在一起。

  臀部:宽,强壮,有肌肉且略呈坡形。臀部的顶点上升到与肩的最高点或比之略高。

  尾巴:位置比背线略低,在根部又宽又粗,到尖端逐渐变细。要断尾1/3。剩下的尾巴笔直或以轻微的“S”形悬着。当活动时,尾巴举为水平,或稍高于背线。

  严重缺陷:在背上笔直或弯曲的上举。扭结状的尾巴。

  失格:没有尾巴或尾巴太短,即少于从尾衔接处到跗骨关节长度的1/3。

前半部

  体型沉重,肌肉发达,与后半部相平衡。

Neapolitan Mastiff Breed Standard


General Appearance
An ancient breed, rediscovered in Italy in the 1940\'s, the Neapolitan Mastiff is a heavy-boned, massive, awe inspiring dog bred for use as a guard and defender of owner and property. He is characterized by loose skin, over his entire body, abundant, hanging wrinkles and folds on the head and a voluminous dewlap. The essence of the Neapolitan is his bestial appearance, astounding head and imposing size and attitude. Due to his massive structure, his characteristic movement is rolling and lumbering, not elegant or showy.

Size, Proportion, Substance
A stocky, heavy boned dog, massive in substance, rectangular in proportion. Length of body is 10% - 15% greater than height. Height: Dogs: 26 to 31 inches, Bitches: 24 to 29 inches. Average weight of mature Dogs: 150 pounds; Bitches: 110 pounds; but greater weight is usual and preferable as long as correct proportion and function are maintained.

The absence of massiveness is to be so severely penalized as to eliminate from competition

Head
Large in comparison to the body. Differentiated from that of other mastiff breeds by more extensive wrinkling and pendulous lips which blend into an ample dewlap. Toplines of cranium and the muzzle must be parallel. The face is made up of heavy wrinkles and folds. Required folds are those extending from the outside margin of the eyelids to the dewlap, and from under the lower lids to the outer edges of the lips. Severe Faults: Toplines of the cranium and muzzle not parallel. Disqualifications: Absence of wrinkles and folds. Expression: Wistful at rest, intimidating when alert. Penetrating stare. Eyes: Set deep and almost hidden beneath drooping upper lids. Lower lids droop to reveal haw. Eye Color: Shades of amber or brown, in accordance with coat color. Pigmentation of the eye rims same as coat color. Severe Faults: Whitish-blue eyes; incomplete pigmentation of the eye rims. Ears: Set well above the cheekbones. May be cropped or uncropped, but are usually cropped to an equilateral triangle for health reasons. If uncropped, they are medium sized, triangular in shape, held tight to the cheeks, and not extending beyond the lower margin of the throat. Skull: Wide flat between the ears, slightly arched at the frontal part, and covered with wrinkled skin. The width of the cranium between the cheekbones is approximately equal to its length from occiput stop. The brow is very developed. Frontal furrow is marked. Occiput is barely apparent. Stop: Very defined, forming a right angle at the junction of muzzle and frontal bones, and the sloping back at a greater angle where the frontal bones meet the frontal furrow of the forehead. Nose: Large with well-opened nostrils, and in color the same as the coat. The nose is an extension of the topline of the muzzle and should not protrude beyond nor recede behind the front plane of the muzzle. Severe Faults: Incomplete pigmentation of the nose. Muzzle: It is 1/3 the length of the whole head and is as broad as it is long. Viewed from the front, the muzzle is very deep with the outside borders parallel giving it a \"squared\" appearance. The top plane of the muzzle from stop to tip of nose is straight, but is ridged due to heavy folds of skin covering it. Severe Faults: Top plane of the muzzle curved upward or downward. Lips: Heavy, thick, and long, the upper lips join beneath the nostrils to form an inverted \"V\". The upper lips form the lower, outer borders of the muzzle, and the lowest part of these borders is made by the corners of the lips. The corners turn outward to reveal the flews, and are in line with the outside corners of the eyes. Bite: Scissors bite or pincer bite is standard; slight undershot is allowed. Dentition is complete. Faults: More than 1 missing premolar. Severe faults: Overshot jaw: pronounced undershot jaw which disrupts the outline of the front plane of the muzzle; more than 2 missing teeth.

Neck, Topline, And Body
Neck: Slightly arched, rather short, stocky and well-muscled. The voluminous and well-divided dewlap extends from the lower jaw to the lower neck. Disqualification: Absence of dewlap. Body: The length of the dog, measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of buttock is 10 - 15 percent greater than the height of the dog measured from the highest point of the shoulder to the ground. Depth of the ribcage is equal to half the total height of the dog. Ribs are long and well sprung. Chest: Broad and deep, well muscled. Underline and tuckup: The underline of the abdomen is practically horizontal. There is little or no tuckup. Back: Wide and strong. Highest part of shoulder blade barely rising above the strong, level topline of the back. Loin: well-muscled, and harmoniously joined to the back. Croup: Wide, strong, muscular and slightly sloped. The top of the croup rises slightly and is level with the highest point of the shoulder. Tail: Set on slightly lower than the topline, wide and thick at the root, tapering gradually toward the tip. It is docked by 1/3. At rest, the tail hangs straight or in slight \"S\" shape. When in action, it is raised to the horizontal or a little higher than the back. Severe Fault: Tail carried straight up or curved over the back. Kinked tail. Disqualification: Lack of tail or short tail, which is less than 1/3 the length from point of insertion of the tail to the hock - joint.

Forequarters
Heavily built, muscular, and in balance with the hindquarters. Shoulders: Long, well-muscled, sloping and powerful. Upper arms: Strongly muscled, powerful. In length, almost 1/3 the height of the dog. Elbows: Covered with abundant and loose skin; held parallel to the ribcage, neither tied in nor loose. Forelegs: Thick, straight, heavy bone, well muscled, exemplifying strength. About the same length as the upper arms. Set well apart. Pasterns: Thick and flattened from front to back, moderately sloping forward from the leg. Dewclaws: Front dewclaws are not removed. Feet: Round and noticeably large with arched, strong toes. Nails strong, curved and preferably dark-colored. Slight turn out of the front feet is characteristic.

Hindquarters
As a whole, they must be powerful and strong, in harmony with the forequarters. Thighs: About the same length as the forearms, broad, muscular. Stifles: Moderate angle, strong. Legs: Heavy and thick boned, well-muscled. Slightly shorter than thigh bones. Hocks: Powerful and long. Rear pasterns: (metatarsus) Heavy thick bones. Viewed from the side, they are perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from, the rear, parallel to each other. Rear dewclaws: Any dewclaws must be removed. Hind feet: Same as the front feet but slightly smaller.

Coat
The coat is short, dense and of uniform length and smoothness all over the body. The hairs are straight and not longer than 1 inch. No fringe anywhere.

Color
Solid coats of gray (blue), black, mahogany and tawny, and the lighter and darker shades of these colors. Some brindling allowable in all colors. When present, brindling must be tan (reverse brindle). There may be solid white markings on the chest, throat area from chin to chest, underside of the body, penis sheath, backs of the pasterns, and on the toes. There may be white hairs at the back of the wrists. Disqualifications: White markings on any part of the body not mentioned as allowed.

Gait
The Neapolitan Mastiff\'s movement is not flashy, but rather slow and lumbering. Normal gaits are the walk, trot, gallop, and pace. The strides are long and elastic, at the same time, powerful, characterized by a long push from the hindquarters and extension of the forelegs. Rolling motion and swaying of the body at all gaits is characteristic. Pacing in the show ring is not to be penalized. Slight paddling movement of the front feet is normal. The head is carried level with or slightly above the back.

Temperament
The Neapolitan Mastiff is steady and loyal to his owner, not aggressive or apt to bite without reason. As a protector of his property and owners, he is always watchful and does not relish intrusion by strangers into his personal space. His attitude is calm yet wary. In the show ring he is majestic and powerful, but not showy.

Faults
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Neapolitan Mastiff. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Disqualifications
Absence of wrinkles and folds
Absence of dewlap
Lack of tail or short tail, which is less than 1/3 the length from point of insertion of the tail to the hock.
White markings on any part of the body not mentioned.

Approved: January 13, 2004
Effective: May 1, 2004

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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