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[亲宠交流] 名犬品种(纯种狗介绍)

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:03:51 | 显示全部楼层


美国可卡犬(Cocker Spaniel)AKC标准及简介

美国可卡犬简介
美国可卡犬是运动犬组中较小的成员。它拥有健壮、紧凑的身躯;整洁,轮廓分明,而且非常精致的头部。整体尺寸理想,非常匀称。站立时,肩胛下面是笔直的前腿,背线略微向结实、适度弯曲且肌肉发达的后腿倾斜。它的速度可以非常快,而且结合了强大的耐力。首先,它必须大方、欢快、健康、非常匀称,动作显示出渴望、喜爱工作。一个所有部位都非常匀称的狗,比一个优点和缺陷同样突出的狗要好的多。

美国可卡犬的体型
尺寸:成熟雄性的理想肩高为15英寸(38—39.5厘米);成熟雌性的理想肩高为14英寸(35—37厘米)。误差不应该超过 0.5英寸。雄性肩高超过15.5英寸;雌性肩高超过14.5英寸属于失格。成年雄性肩高不足14.5英寸;成年雌性肩高不足13.5英寸属于缺陷。肩高是指以自然状态站立时(前肢和后肢下半部分垂直于地面),肩胛骨上端到地面的垂直距离。比例:从胸骨到大腿后的水平距离略大于从马肩隆最高点到地面的垂直距离。身躯必须有足够的长度,允许步伐直而舒展;它不能显得太长、太矮。

美国可卡犬的头部
达到最佳比例的头部,必须与其它部位保持平衡,具体表现如下:表情:表情显得聪明、警惕、温和、且吸引人。眼睛:眼球圆而丰满,直接注视前方。眼睑的形状略呈杏仁状;眼睛既不显得虚弱,也不是瞪着。眼睛的颜色是深褐色,而且一般情况是越深越好。耳朵:叶片状,长,耳廓精美,有大量羽状饰毛,位置不应该高于眼睛较低部分的水平线。脑袋:圆,但不夸张,也不趋向平板状;眉毛整洁而清晰,止部非常明显。眼睛下方的骨骼轮廓分明,但面颊不突出。口吻宽而深,颌部四方,且平。在比例正确的情况下,从止部到鼻尖的距离等于从止部越过头顶到脑袋基部距离的一半。鼻镜:有足够的尺寸,与口吻及前脸相称,鼻孔发达,典型的运动犬特征。黑色、黑色和棕色、黑色和白色狗的鼻镜为黑色;其它颜色狗的鼻镜可能是褐色、肝色或黑色,颜色越深越好。鼻镜的颜色与眼圈的颜色一致。嘴唇:上唇丰满,且有足够的深度,覆盖下颌。牙齿:牙齿结实而健康,不能太小,剪状咬和。

美国可卡犬的颈部、背线、身躯
颈部:颈部有充分的长度,允许鼻子能轻松地伸到地面,肌肉发达,没有下垂的“赘肉”。从肩部有力地升起,略微圆拱,逐渐变细,与头部衔接。背线:略微向肌肉发达的后肢倾斜。身躯:胸部深,最低处不会高过肘部,前面十分宽阔,为心脏和肺部提供了足够的空间,但不能太宽,而干涉到前肢直接的动作。肋骨深且支撑良好。背部结实,且均匀地倾斜(略微向下),从肩胛向剪短的尾巴所在的位置倾斜。断尾,尾巴的位置(及姿势)在背线的延长线上,或略高,但决不能象梗类犬那样向上翘,也不能夹在腿中间,显得胆怯。当它行走时,尾巴的动作显得欢快。

美国可卡犬的前躯
肩胛向后倾斜,与上臂骨形成大约90度的角度,使它向前伸展前肢的时候,可以轻松地移动前臂。肩胛轮廓鲜明,倾斜但不突出,所以马肩隆上端的位置呈一定的角度,允许肋骨宽且撑起。从侧面观察时,前肢垂直,肘部直接位于肩胛骨最高点的正下方。前肢彼此平行、直、骨骼和肌肉强健,位置贴近身躯,且位于肩胛骨下方。胶骨短而结实。前肢的狼爪可以切除。足爪紧凑、大、圆而稳固,角质的脚垫;既不向内弯,也不向外翻。

美国可卡犬的后躯
臀部宽,后体圆且肌肉发达。从后面观察时,不论是运动中还是休息时,后腿彼此平行。后腿的骨骼和肌肉强健,膝关节角度适中,大腿有力、整洁清晰。站立时或运动中,膝关节结实,没有滑动。飞节结实,且位置低。后肢狼爪可以切除。

美国可卡犬的被毛
头部,短而纤细;身躯上,长度适中,有足够的底毛提供保护。耳朵、胸部、腹部、及腿部,有大量羽状饰毛,但不能太夸张,而隐藏了美国可卡犬真实的线条和动作,或影响它作为一个中等被毛的运动犬的外貌和功能。被毛质地非常重要。被毛是丝状、平坦或略微呈波浪状,其质地使被毛很容易打理。过多的被毛、卷曲的被毛或棉花质地的被毛都属于严重缺陷。用电剪刨除背部的被毛是不合要求的。修剪被毛,强调它的真实线条,操作必须妥当,尽可能使它显得自然。

美国可卡犬的颜色
黑色:纯黑色,包括黑色带有棕色点。黑颜色要呈墨黑。被毛上有褐色或肝色阴影则不理想。胸部和喉咙有少量白色是允许的,白色出现在其它位置则属于失格。
除了黑色以外的其它任何纯色(ASCOB):颜色从浅奶酪色到暗红色,包括褐色及黑色带有棕色点。颜色要求深浅一致,羽状饰毛颜色浅一些是允许的。胸部和喉咙有少量白色是允许的,白色出现在其它位置则属于失格。
杂色:两种或多种纯色,颜色边界清晰,其中一种必须是白色;黑色和白色,红色和白色(红色可以从浅奶酪色到暗红色),褐色和白色,或者花斑色,包括这些颜色带有棕色点。棕色斑纹的位置与样式与黑色及ASCOB相同比较可取。通常的花斑色,不论是哪种花斑色,分类都属于杂色。主要颜色占90%或更多属于失格。
棕色点:棕色的颜色范围从浅奶酪色到暗红色,范围限制在10%之内,或更少;棕色斑纹过多属于失格。在黑色或ASCOB中,棕色斑纹应该出现在下列位置:
1)两眼上方有整洁的棕色斑点;
2)在口吻两侧和面颊;
3)耳朵下面;
4)所有的足爪和/或腿部;
5)尾巴下方;
6)胸部,可选;多余或缺乏都属于缺陷。
棕色斑纹不是很容易被发现或只有一点痕迹,属于缺陷。口吻部的棕色斑纹过分向上延伸,超过口吻顶部并结合在一起也属于缺陷。黑色或ASCOB在指定位置缺乏棕色斑纹,而在其它地方有棕色点的狗属于失格。

美国可卡犬的步态
美国可卡犬虽然是最小的运动犬,但却拥有典型的运动犬的步态。良好的步态,首先需要前躯和后躯的协调。驱动力来自结实、有力的后躯,而肩胛和前肢的构造恰当,使它能向前伸展,而不用收缩步幅来平衡后躯产生的强大推动力。首先,它的步态是整齐的,平顺而轻松。它的动作必须有足够步幅;如果步态正确,过分活泼不算缺陷。

美国可卡犬的气质
平静的气质,没有任何胆怯的迹象。

美国可卡犬的失格
高度:雄性肩高超过15.5英寸;雌性肩高超过14.5英寸
颜色和斑纹:只有前面所描述的颜色和颜色组合可以接受。
其他任何颜色或颜色组合都属于失格。
黑色:除了胸部和喉咙以外,其他地方有白色。
除了黑色以外的其他任何纯色:除了胸部和喉咙以外,其他地方有白色。
杂色:主要颜色占90%或更多
棕色点:(1)棕色斑纹超过10%;(2)黑色或ASCOB在指定位置缺乏棕色斑纹,而在其他地方有棕色点。

Cocker Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Cocker Spaniel is the smallest member of the Sporting Group. He has a sturdy, compact body and a cleanly chiseled and refined head, with the overall dog in complete balance and of ideal size. He stands well up at the shoulder on straight forelegs with a topline sloping slightly toward strong, moderately bent, muscular quarters. He is a dog capable of considerable speed, combined with great endurance. Above all, he must be free and merry, sound, well balanced throughout and in action show a keen inclination to work. A dog well balanced in all parts is more desirable than a dog with strongly contrasting good points and faults.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size-- The ideal height at the withers for an adult dog is 15 inches and for an adult bitch, 14 inches. Height may vary one-half inch above or below this ideal. A dog whose height exceeds 15½ inches or a bitch whose height exceeds 14½ inches shall be disqualified. An adult dog whose height is less than 14½ inches and an adult bitch whose height is less than 13½ inches shall be penalized. Height is determined by a line perpendicular to the ground from the top of the shoulder blades, the dog standing naturally with its forelegs and lower hind legs parallel to the line of measurement. Proportion--The measurement from the breast bone to back of thigh is slightly longer than the measurement from the highest point of withers to the ground. The body must be of sufficient length to permit a straight and free stride; the dog never appears long and low.

Head
To attain a well proportioned head, which must be in balance with the rest of the dog, it embodies the following: Expression--The expression is intelligent, alert, soft and appealing. Eyes--Eyeballs are round and full and look directly forward. The shape of the eye rims gives a slightly almond shaped appearance; the eye is not weak or goggled. The color of the iris is dark brown and in general the darker the better. Ears--Lobular, long, of fine leather, well feathered, and placed no higher than a line to the lower part of the eye. Skull--Rounded but not exaggerated with no tendency toward flatness; the eyebrows are clearly defined with a pronounced stop. The bony structure beneath the eyes is well chiseled with no prominence in the cheeks. The muzzle is broad and deep, with square even jaws. To be in correct balance, the distance from the stop to the tip of the nose is one half the distance from the stop up over the crown to the base of the skull. Nose--of sufficient size to balance the muzzle and foreface, with well developed nostrils typical of a sporting dog. It is black in color in the blacks, black and tans, and black and whites; in other colors it may be brown, liver or black, the darker the better. The color of nose harmonizes with the color of the eye rim. Lips--The upper lip is full and of sufficient depth to cover the lower jaw. Teeth--Teeth strong and sound, not too small and meet in a scissors bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--The neck is sufficiently long to allow the nose to reach the ground easily, muscular and free from pendulous \"throatiness.\" It rises strongly from the shoulders and arches slightly as it tapers to join the head. Topline--sloping slightly toward muscular quarters. Body--The chest is deep, its lowest point no higher than the elbows, its front sufficiently wide for adequate heart and lung space, yet not so wide as to interfere with the straightforward movement of the forelegs. Ribs are deep and well sprung. Back is strong and sloping evenly and slightly downward from the shoulders to the set-on of the docked tail. The docked tail is set on and carried on a line with the topline of the back, or slightly higher; never straight up like a Terrier and never so low as to indicate timidity. When the dog is in motion the tail action is merry.

Forequarters
The shoulders are well laid back forming an angle with the upper arm of approximately 90 degrees which permits the dog to move his forelegs in an easy manner with forward reach. Shoulders are clean-cut and sloping without protrusion and so set that the upper points of the withers are at an angle which permits a wide spring of rib. When viewed from the side with the forelegs vertical, the elbow is directly below the highest point of the shoulder blade. Forelegs are parallel, straight, strongly boned and muscular and set close to the body well under the scapulae. The pasterns are short and strong. Dewclaws on forelegs may be removed. Feet compact, large, round and firm with horny pads; they turn neither in nor out.

Hindquarters
Hips are wide and quarters well rounded and muscular. When viewed from behind, the hind legs are parallel when in motion and at rest. The hind legs are strongly boned, and muscled with moderate angulation at the stifle and powerful, clearly defined thighs. The stifle is strong and there is no slippage of it in motion or when standing. The hocks are strong and well let down. Dewclaws on hind legs may be removed.

Coat
On the head, short and fine; on the body, medium length, with enough undercoating to give protection. The ears, chest, abdomen and legs are well feathered, but not so excessively as to hide the Cocker Spaniel\'s true lines and movement or affect his appearance and function as a moderately coated sporting dog. The texture is most important. The coat is silky, flat or slightly wavy and of a texture which permits easy care. Excessive coat or curly or cottony textured coat shall be severely penalized. Use of electric clippers on the back coat is not desirable. Trimming to enhance the dog\'s true lines should be done to appear as natural as possible.

Color and Markings
Black Variety--Solid color black to include black with tan points. The black should be jet; shadings of brown or liver in the coat are not desirable. A small amount of white on the chest and/or throat is allowed; white in any other location shall disqualify.

Any Solid Color Other than Black (ASCOB)--Any solid color other than black, ranging from lightest cream to darkest red, including brown and brown with tan points. The color shall be of a uniform shade, but lighter color of the feathering is permissible. A small amount of white on the chest and/or throat is allowed; white in any other location shall disqualify.

Parti-Color Variety--Two or more solid, well broken colors, one of which must be white; black and white, red and white (the red may range from lightest cream to darkest red), brown and white, and roans, to include any such color combination with tan points. It is preferable that the tan markings be located in the same pattern as for the tan points in the Black and ASCOB varieties. Roans are classified as parti-colors and may be of any of the usual roaning patterns. Primary color which is ninety percent (90%) or more shall disqualify.

Tan Points--The color of the tan may be from the lightest cream to the darkest red and is restricted to ten percent (10%) or less of the color of the specimen; tan markings in excess of that amount shall disqualify. In the case of tan points in the Black or ASCOB variety, the markings shall be located as follows:

1)  A clear tan spot over each eye;
2)  On the sides of the muzzle and on the cheeks;
3)  On the underside of the ears;
4)  On all feet and/or legs;
5)  Under the tail;
6)  On the chest, optional; presence or absence shall not be penalized.

Tan markings which are not readily visible or which amount only to traces, shall be penalized. Tan on the muzzle which extends upward, over and joins shall also be penalized. The absence of tan markings in the Black or ASCOB variety in any of the specified locations in any otherwise tan-pointed dog shall disqualify.

Gait
The Cocker Spaniel, though the smallest of the sporting dogs, possesses a typical sporting dog gait. Prerequisite to good movement is balance between the front and rear assemblies. He drives with strong, powerful rear quarters and is properly constructed in the shoulders and forelegs so that he can reach forward without constriction in a full stride to counterbalance the driving force from the rear. Above all, his gait is coordinated, smooth and effortless. The dog must cover ground with his action; excessive animation should not be mistaken for proper gait.

Temperament
Equable in temperament with no suggestion of timidity.

Disqualifications
Height--Males over 15½ inches; females over 14½ inches.
Color and Markings--The aforementioned colors are the only acceptable colors or combination of colors.
Any other colors or combination of colors to disqualify.
Black Variety--White markings except on chest and throat.
Any Solid Color Other Than Black Variety--White markings except on chest and throat.
Parti-color Variety--Primary color ninety percent (90%) or more.
Tan Points--(1) Tan markings in excess of ten percent (10%); (2) Absence of tan markings in Black or ASCOB Variety in any of the specified locations in an otherwise tan pointed dog.

Approved May 12, 1992
Effective June 30, 1992 ;

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:04:37 | 显示全部楼层


克伦伯猎鹬犬(Clumber Spaniel)AKC标准及简介

克伦伯猎鹬犬简介
   克伦伯猎鹬犬是一种长、矮、坚实的狗。他沉重的眉毛,深深的胸部、笔直的前腿、有力的后躯,充足的骨量、和漂亮的足爪,使他有力量和耐力在追击时穿过浓密的灌木丛。他的白色被毛使他在猎枪射击范围内工作时,很容易被猎手看见。他的态度威严,表情象是在沉思,但与此同时,他也表现出喜爱工作和玩耍。

克伦伯猎鹬犬的体型
   克伦伯猎鹬犬外形呈矩形,拥有沉重的骨骼结构,外貌显得非常有力。雄性理想的肩高约为18~20英寸;雌性的理想肩高约为17~19英寸。从马肩隆到尾根的距离与肩高的理想比例大约为11/9。雄性的体重大约79~85磅;而雌性的体重大约为55~70磅。

克伦伯猎鹬犬的头部
   头部厚重,止部明显,眉毛沉重。脑袋顶部平坦,后枕骨突出。眼睛中间有轻微的凹痕,并向上延伸到脑袋中间。口吻宽而深,可以很容易地叼回各种猎物。鼻镜 大,正方形,颜色为褐色,还包括了米色、玫瑰色和樱桃色。从侧面观察的时候,上唇和上颚非常发达,与下颚交叠,形成矩形外观。剪状咬和为首选。眼睛为深湖 泊色,大,目光柔和。眼睛深陷,眼眶可以是菱形的,也可以下端为“V”字形,上端为曲线形。可以有少量瞬膜外露,但大量瞬膜外露则不合需要。突出的或圆形 的眼睛属于缺陷。眼裂过大、眼睑内翻或眼睑外翻都属于缺陷。耳朵上端宽,耳廓厚实。耳朵呈三角形,底端圆,在脑袋的位置低,接近眼睛所在的水平线。

克伦伯猎鹬犬的颈部、背线、身躯
   克伦伯猎鹬犬拥有较长的颈部,喉咙处皮肤松弛或有赘肉不属于缺陷。颈部结实且肌肉发达,与向后倾斜的肩胛接合良好。背部直而稳固,长而平。胸部深且肋骨支 撑良好。胸部深而宽。腰部略微圆拱。尾巴上有许多羽状饰毛,位置是背线的下面。需要修剪尾巴上的毛发,保留的部分尽可能少,羽状饰毛需要收拾整齐,以保持 自然的外貌轮廓。尾巴通常平举到背线的位或略高一点,决不能夹在腿中间。尾巴可以是断尾或自然的尾巴,两种情况都可以接受。如果断尾,尾巴的长度需要与整 体比例协调。如果自然的尾巴,尾骨应该延伸到飞节,但不能拖到地面。

克伦伯猎鹬犬的前躯
   克伦伯猎鹬犬的肩胛向后倾斜。上臂有充足的长度,使肘部可以正好位于马肩隆下方。前肢短、直、且骨量充足,肘部保持贴近身躯。骹骨结实,且略微倾斜。前足爪大,紧凑,脚垫厚实,可以承受巨大的冲击力,并减震吸能。狼爪是否切除是可选的。

克伦伯猎鹬犬的后躯
   大腿肌肉沉重,且从后面观察时,后躯圆而宽。膝关节显示出良好的角度,飞节到后跟的距离短,且垂直于地面。缺乏角度是很糟糕的。后足爪不象前足爪那么大、那么圆,但非常紧凑,脚垫厚实,非常坚固。

克伦伯猎鹬犬的被毛
   身躯的被毛浓密、直、且平坦。能很好的抵御恶劣气候,触摸的感觉柔软,不粗糙。耳朵的毛发直,略有羽状饰毛。腿部和腹部的羽状饰毛适中。克伦伯猎鹬犬拥有 良好的颈部装饰,在任何条件下都不能刨除喉咙的毛发。明显的刨除痕迹属于缺陷。足爪的毛发需要修剪整洁,显露出自然的轮廓,并便于在野外工作。后腿飞节以 下部位需要修剪。尾巴上的羽状饰毛需要收拾整齐。是否修剪胡须是可选的。

克伦伯猎鹬犬的颜色和斑纹
   克伦伯猎鹬犬主要颜色是白色,带有柠檬色或橘色斑纹。斑纹通常出现在一侧或两侧耳朵和脸部。脸部斑纹包括了一个或两个眼睛周围,口吻上的斑点和头顶上的斑 块。带有柠檬色/橘色斑纹的头部和全白的头部是一样的,都可以接受。腿部的雀斑和/或靠近尾根部的斑块也很常见,也可以接受。身体上有很少量的斑纹是可以 接受的。

克伦伯猎鹬犬的步态
   克伦伯猎鹬犬的动作轻松而舒展,前躯伸展充分,后躯驱动强大,既没有交叉步,也没有肘部外翻的迹象。飞节的驱动方向笔直,既无摇摆,也不扭曲。由于身躯较 宽,且腿比较短,所以步态略呈滚动状。克伦伯猎鹬犬正确的滚动步态出现在比例正确,后腿向前伸展时,趋向于身体中心线,使臀部向下转动,而背部保持平直。 其步态轻松自在,在野外工作时,可以整天维持小跑状态,而不疲惫。

克伦伯猎鹬犬的气质
   克伦伯猎鹬犬是一种温和、忠诚、挚爱的狗。发自内心的希望取悦与主人。一个聪明而独立的思想家,在工作中显示出果断和独到的见解。他是一种高贵的狗,有时 好象会避开人类,有时又显示出顽皮、友爱的天性。克伦伯猎鹬犬不应该显得有敌意或好斗;既不合需要,也不能被宽恕。

Clumber Spaniel Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Clumber Spaniel is a long, low, substantial dog. His heavy brow, deep chest, straight forelegs, powerful hindquarters, massive bone and good feet all give him the power and endurance to move through dense underbrush in pursuit of game. His white coat enables him to be seen by the hunter as he works within gun range. His stature is dignified, his expression pensive, but at the same time he shows great enthusiasm for work and play.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The Clumber is rectangular in shape possessing massive bone structure and has the appearance of great power. The ideal height for dogs is 18 to 20 inches at the withers and for bitches is 17 to 19 inches at the withers. The ideal length to height is 11 to 9 measured from the withers to the base of the tail and from the floor to the withers. Dogs weigh between 70 and 85 pounds and bitches weigh between 55 and 70 pounds.

Head
The head is massive with a marked stop and heavy brow. The top skull is flat with a pronounced occiput. A slight furrow runs between the eyes and up through the center of the skull. The muzzle is broad and deep to facilitate retrieving many species of game. The nose is large, square and colored shades of brown, which include beige, rose and cherry. The flews of the upper jaw are strongly developed and overlap the lower jaw to give a square look when viewed from the side. A scissors bite is preferred. The eyes are dark amber in color, large, soft in expression, and deep set in either a diamond shaped rim or a rim with a \"V\" on the bottom and a curve on the top. Some haw may show but excessive haw is undesirable. Prominent or round shaped eyes are to be penalized. Excessive tearing or evidence of entropion or ectropion is to be penalized. Ears are broad on top with thick ear leather. The ears are triangular in shape with a rounded lower edge, set low and attached to the skull at approximately eye level.

Neck, Topline, Body
The Clumber should have a long neck with some slackness of throat or presence of dewlap not to be faulted. The neck is strong and muscular, fitting into a well laid back shoulder. The back is straight, firm, long and level. The brisket is deep and the ribs well sprung. The chest is deep and wide. The loin arches slightly. The tail is well feathered and set on just below the line of back; its trimming minimal, serving to tidy the feathering to allow for a natural appearance and outline. The tail is normally carried level with the topline or slightly elevated, never down between the rear legs. The tail may be docked or left natural, both being of equal value. If docked, the tail\'s length should be in keeping with the overall proportion of the adult dog. If natural, the tailbone should extend to the point of hock, but should not extend to the ground.

Forequarters
The Clumber shoulder is well laid back. The upper arm is of sufficient length to place the elbow under the highest point of the shoulder. The forelegs are short, straight and heavy in bone, with elbows held close to the body. Pasterns are strong and only slightly sloped. The front feet are large, compact and have thick pads that act as shock absorbers. Removal of dewclaws is optional.

Hindquarters
The thighs are heavily muscled and, when viewed from behind, the rear is round and broad. The stifle shows good functional angulation, and hock to heel is short and perpendicular to the ground. Lack of angulation is objectionable. The rear feet are not as large or as round as on the front feet but compact, with thick pads and are of substantial size.

Coat
The body coat is dense, straight and flat. It is of good weather resistant texture, which is soft to the touch, not harsh. Ears are slightly feathered with straight hair. Feathering on the legs and belly is moderate. The Clumber has a good neck frill and on no condition should his throat be shaved. Evidence of shaving is to be penalized. The hair on the feet should be trimmed neatly to show their natural outline and for utility in the field. The rear legs may be trimmed up to the point of the hock. Tail feathering may be tidied. Trimming of whiskers is optional.

Color and Markings
The Clumber is primarily a white dog with lemon color or orange color markings. Markings are frequently seen on one or both ears and the face. Facial markings include color around one or both eyes, freckling on the muzzle and a spot on top of the head. A head with lemon/orange markings and an all-white head are of equal value. Freckles on the legs and/or a spot near the root of the tail are also frequently seen and acceptable. The body should have as few markings as possible.

Gait
The Clumber moves easily and freely with good reach in front and strong drive from behind, neither crossing over nor elbowing out. The hocks drive in a straight line without rocking or twisting. Because of his wide body and short legs he tends to roll slightly. The proper Clumber roll occurs when the dog, with the correct proportion, reaches forward with the rear leg toward the centerline of travel and rotates the hip downward while the back remains level and straight. The gait is comfortable and can be maintained at a steady trot for a day of work in the field without exhaustion.

Temperament
The Clumber Spaniel is a gentle, loyal and affectionate dog. He possesses an intrinsic desire to please. An intelligent and independent thinker, he displays determination and a strong sense of purpose while at work. A dog of dignity, the Clumber Spaniel may sometimes seem aloof with people unknown to him, but in time he will display his playful and loving nature. The Clumber Spaniel should never be hostile or aggressive; neither is acceptable and should not be condoned.

Approved: January 8, 2001
Effective: March 28, 2001

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切萨皮克湾寻猎犬(Chesapeake Bay Retriever)AKC标准及简介
切萨皮克湾寻猎犬图片集 | 切萨皮克湾寻猎犬视频


探究切萨皮克湾寻猎犬起源于英格兰,但关于它的发展没有完全和可靠的记载。但这儿所描述的它的育种起源可能是正确的,并且到目前来说,这种描述也是被大多数人所接受的。

    1807年,一艘英国双桅横帆船在美国马里兰州海岸失事,船员和货物被美国船“conton”号救起,同时也救出两头纽芬兰幼犬  一头较脏的红色小公犬叫“水手”,\"一头黑色的小母犬叫“conton”,这是被营救后所起的名字,并将它们作为礼物送给了一位对失事船员非常友好的绅士。虽然我们不知道“水手”和“conton”这两头犬是否曾经在一起交配过,但当时用来狩猎的许多平常的犬与它们进行杂交繁殖。逐渐地,其他远亲犬种也被用来与它们进行杂交繁殖。所有这些犬中,英国的猎獭犬被声称是最有影响的犬种之一。但是,如此杂交完全可能产生不同的结果,因为,切萨皮克湾寻猎犬没有表现出追踪的猎犬能力。如果当时一些繁育方法被有目的地采用了,那么可能是平毛猎犬卷毛寻回犬进行了最重要的远亲杂交繁育。

    到AKC在1884年成立时,一个明确的切萨皮克湾寻猎犬种类已经形成并以其在狂暴冷冰的切萨皮克湾海水中的杰出表现而闻名。这些犬经常被要求在一天内从海湾水中猎取100~200只水鸭。一个名为Anthony Bliss的人在他的养犬历史中注意到,这种类型的犬和现在的切萨皮克湾寻猎犬之间有几点不同。其一,这种犬被发现只有一种颜色——暗褐色,渐变成一种淡红的莎草色(在美国中西部流行的一种晦暗的草色)。还有头部更倾向于楔形物状,而且被毛更长更厚。

    今天,在1918年成立的美国切萨皮克湾寻猎犬俱乐部的领导下,这一犬种活跃在AKC比赛的所有领域中。这个俱乐部在1932年举行了第一次获许可狩猎犬的删试,最近几年这一活动已逐渐在展示比赛、服从和追踪测试中变得重要。至今,切萨皮克湾寻猎犬仍然是一种不平常的水猎犬,而且是某些俱乐部争论的议题。工作犬俱乐部(wD)或优秀犬俱乐部(WDX)已为通过陆地和水中猎取检验的该犬种颁发了证书。

切萨皮克湾寻猎犬(Chesapeake Bay Retriever)AKC标准
整体外貌
切萨皮克湾寻猎犬在陆地和水中具有同样的狩猎技能,它的发展是因为经常沿着切萨皮克海湾在非常不利的气候和水下捕猎水禽。在复杂艰辛的捕猎期间,时常需打破坚冰进行作业。这期间它们必须面对风浪和长时间在冰冷的水中游水。这就要求切萨皮克湾寻猎犬能较容易、高效率发挥这种需要耐力的狩猎功能。该犬种的头骨宽而圆,颔部长而直,适合衔起较大的猎物:双层的被毛由短、粗糙、呈波浪形的外层被毛和质密、纤细,似羊毛的内层被毛组成。内层被毛含有丰富的自然油脂,极适合在冰冷、恶劣的气候条件下狩猎。该犬种体格强壮,具有平稳且充满力量的体形结构;合适的体积;中等长度的体长和腿长;深而宽的胸部;自由活动的双肩。犬的整体结构特征没有任何脆弱的趋势,尤其后部,这种体形结构会减少犬的体力浪费在其灵活性和耐力上。这种犬的大小和其他重要部分决不过分。因为这正是一头能力型猎犬应具有的积极品质。

这一犬种区别于其他犬种的特征有:双眼清澈透明,黄色或淡黄色;后躯等高或稍高于双肩,双层的被毛只分布在双肩、颈部、背部和腰部。切萨皮克湾寻猎犬的价值在于其色彩鲜明,性情愉快,聪明,非常优秀的感官和有保护愿望的特性。

作为一头猎犬或伙伴,过分害羞或富有攻击性,对这一犬种来说,都是不符合要求的。


大小,比例和结构
体高——公犬一般为58.4~66.0厘米;母犬一般为53.3~61.0厘米。体积过大或过小的犬在展示比赛中都处于不利地位。比例——体高(从肩胛骨上缘到地面)应稍短于它的体长(从胸骨到臀部后高点)。胸深至少应延伸到肘部。肩到肘部和肘部到地面的长度应是相等的。体重——公犬应为29.48~36.29千克,母犬应为24.95~31.75千克。

头部
切萨皮克湾寻猎犬具有聪颖的表情。眼睛——中等大小,非常清晰明澈,黄色或淡黄色,视角宽广。耳朵——较小,适合地位于头上,松弛下垂。头骨——宽而圆,中等大小,微平顶。鼻子——中等长短。口鼻部——近似等长于头骨,逐渐变细、变尖,但不尖锐。嘴唇——薄,但不下垂。咬合——上下齿呈完美的剪式咬合,但对一个平面式咬台也是可以接受的。咬合不整是不符合标准的。

颈部,背中线和躯干
颈部——中等长度,肌肉强健发达,到双肩逐渐变细。背中线——显示出后躯等高或双肩稍高;背部——短,接合紧凑,充满力量。胸部——强壮,深而宽,肋骨呈圆桶状。躯干——中等长度,既不下塌也不呈弧形,由于肋腹适当上缩,从下面看躯干接近于凹陷。尾巴——中等长度,在尾根部适当放粗,呈直形或稍曲,但不弯向背部或扭向一边。

前躯
不会给人一种脆弱的感觉。双肩——有适当倾斜,可以自由活动,有充足的力量,无任何活动限制。前肢——呈中等长度,而且笔直,显示出完好的骨骼和肌肉。系部稍弯曲,中等长度。前肢的狼爪可以去掉。脚部——大小适中,似野兔形,有蹼,脚趾紧凑似圆形。

后躯
后躯尤其需要强壮而有力,以便游水时驱动有力。后肢——中等长度,呈直形,并显示出完好的骨髂和肌肉。膝关节——呈合适的角度。从跗关节到地面的距离应是中等长度。当从犬体前或体后观察犬时,后肢看起来是直的。如果有狼爪必须去掉。后肢上附有狼爪是不符合标准的。

被毛
被毛厚而短,长度不应超过3.8厘米,有致密纤细的羊毛样下层被毛。面部和四肢毛发短而直,只有双肩、颈部、背部和腰部毛发呈卷曲状态。后躯背部和尾部有适度的毛发是容许的。切萨皮克湾寻猎犬被毛的质地是非常重要的,因为这种犬需要在各种不利的天气条件下,如冰雪里捕捉猎物。粗糙的外层被毛和下层被毛中的油脂,在阻止冷水到达皮肤及干燥体表水分方面具有极重要的意义。切萨皮克湾寻猎犬的被毛在抵抗水方面与鸭子羽毛的作用是一样的,当该种犬离开水并抖动时,它的被毛不会沾有水。

    全身被毛卷曲或有卷曲的趋势都是不符合标准的。尾部和四肢上的毛发超过4.5厘米长也是不符合标准的。

颜色
切萨皮克湾寻猎犬的被毛颜色尽可能与它生活的环境相似。褐色、莎草色或枯草色都是可以接受的,自我保护色是受人喜爱的。一种颜色并不是一定就受人喜爱,胸部、腹部、脚趾或脚背上白色斑点是允许的,而且斑点越小越好。纯颜色的犬是受人喜爱的。专家判定犬在静止中或在表演场被毛的颜色和质地将会被重点考虑。光荣的伤疤在展示比赛上不会受到不利影响。

不符合标准的颜色:黑颜色,除了胸部、脚部、脚趾或脚背外,身体任何部位上出现白颜色都不符合标准的。

步态
步态平稳、自由,给人一种精力充沛、充满力量的印象。当我们从旁边观察时,有一个合适的体形,前躯活动无限制,后部有足够的驱动力,具有灵活的膝关节和跗关节。从前面观察,不应有肘部向外的迹象。从后部观察不应有母牛似的跗关节迹象。当奔跑的速度不断增加时,四足应趋于一条中线上。

性情
切萨皮克湾寻猎犬性情聪明、快乐,并带有智慧的表情。勇敢,乐于工作,机警,喜欢水。性情在选种和育种上是主要考虑的方面。

失格条件


    1缺乏种犬的特征。

    2牙齿超过或低于标准值。

    3后肢上有狼爪。

    4全身毛发卷曲或有卷曲的趋势。

    5尾部或四肢上毛发超过4.5厘米。

    6黑颜色。

    7除了胸部,腹部、趾部或脚部外,身体其他部位有白颜色。

    对被毛和平衡性的要求,超过其他任何标准。切萨皮克湾寻猎犬应该有合适的比例,一个犬种应具有特征性的被毛和良好的协调性。与其他某些犬种相比,既有自己的优点,也有自己的不足。

切萨皮克湾寻猎犬的评分标准
得分点    满分

头部(包括嘴唇,耳朵和眼睛)    16

颈部                          4

双肩和躯干                    12

后躯和膝关节                  12

肘部、四肢和脚                12

颜色                          4

臀部和尾部                    10

被毛和质地                    18

一般形态                      12

总计                          100

近似尺度标准(厘米)

头长,鼻到枕骨部    24.1~25.4

耳周长              50.8~53.3

眼下口鼻部长        25.4~26.7

耳长                11.4—12.7

两眼之间宽          6.4—7.0

近肩部脖颈的周长    50.8~55.9

肋腹部周长          61.0~63.5

枕骨部到尾根部的长  86.4~88.9

肩下前臂的周长      25.4~26.7

大腿部周长          48.3—50.8

两耳根之间长        12.7—15.2

枕骨到肩胛骨上缘长  22.9~24.1

双肘间宽            63.5~66.0

1993年11月9日批准

1993午12月31日生效

Chesapeake Bay Retriever Breed Standard

General Appearance
Equally proficient on land and in the water, the Chesapeake Bay Retriever was developed along the Chesapeake Bay to hunt waterfowl under the most adverse weather and water conditions, often having to break ice during the course of many strenuous multiple retrieves. Frequently the Chesapeake must face wind, tide and long cold swims in its work. The breed\'s characteristics are specifically suited to enable the Chesapeake to function with ease, efficiency and endurance. In head, the Chesapeake\'s skull is broad and round with a medium stop. The jaws should be of sufficient length and strength to carry large game birds with an easy, tender hold. The double coat consists of a short, harsh, wavy outer coat and a dense, fine, wooly undercoat containing an abundance of natural oil and is ideally suited for the icy rugged conditions of weather the Chesapeake often works in. In body, the Chesapeake is a strong, well-balanced, powerfully built animal of moderate size and medium length in body and leg, deep and wide in chest, the shoulders built with full liberty of movement, and with no tendency to weakness in any feature, particularly the rear. The power though, should not be at the expense of agility or stamina. Size and substance should not be excessive as this is a working retriever of an active nature.

Distinctive features include eyes that are very clear, of yellowish or amber hue, hindquarters as high or a trifle higher than the shoulders, and a double coat which tends to wave on shoulders, neck, back and loins only.

The Chesapeake is valued for its bright and happy disposition, intelligence, quiet good sense, and affectionate protective nature. Extreme shyness or extreme aggressive tendencies are not desirable in the breed either as a gun dog or companion.

Disqualifications: Specimens that are lacking in breed characteristics should be disqualified.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height--Males should measure 23 to 26 inches; females should measure 21 to 24 inches. Oversized or undersized animals are to be severely penalized. Proportion--Height from the top of the shoulder blades to the ground should be slightly less than the body length from the breastbone to the point of buttocks. Depth of body should extend at least to the elbow. Shoulder to elbow and elbow to ground should be equal. Weight--Males should weigh 65 to 80 pounds; females should weigh 55 to 70 pounds.

Head
The Chesapeake Bay Retriever should have an intelligent expression. Eyes are to be medium large, very clear, of yellowish or amber color and wide apart. Ears are to be small, set well up on the head, hanging loosely, and of medium leather. Skull is broad and round with a medium stop. Nose is medium short. Muzzle is approximately the same length as the skull, tapered, pointed but not sharp. Lips are thin, not pendulous. Bite--Scissors is preferred, but a level bite is acceptable.

Disqualifications: Either undershot or overshot bites are to be disqualified.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck should be of medium length with a strong muscular appearance, tapering to the shoulders. Topline should show the hindquarters to be as high as or a trifle higher than the shoulders. Back should be short, well coupled and powerful. Chest should be strong, deep and wide. Rib cage barrel round and deep. Body is of medium length, neither cobby nor roached, but rather approaching hollowness from underneath as the flanks should be well tucked up. Tail of medium length; medium heavy at the base. The tail should be straight or slightly curved and should not curl over back or side kink.

Forequarters
There should be no tendency to weakness in the forequarters. Shoulders should be sloping with full liberty of action, plenty of power and without any restrictions of movement. Legs should be medium in length and straight, showing good bone and muscle. Pasterns slightly bent and of medium length. The front legs should appear straight when viewed from front or rear. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. Well webbed hare feet should be of good size with toes well-rounded and close.

Hindquarters
Good hindquarters are essential. They should show fully as much power as the forequarters. There should be no tendency to weakness in the hindquarters. Hindquarters should be especially powerful to supply the driving power for swimming. Legs should be medium length and straight, showing good bone and muscle. Stifles should be well angulated. The distance from hock to ground should be of medium length. The hind legs should look straight when viewed from the front or rear. Dewclaws, if any, must be removed from the hind legs.

Disqualifications: Dewclaws on the hind legs are a disqualification.

Coat
Coat should be thick and short, nowhere over 1½ inches long, with a dense fine wooly undercoat. Hair on the face and legs should be very short and straight with a tendency to wave on the shoulders, neck, back and loins only. Moderate feathering on rear of hindquarters and tail is permissible.
The texture of the Chesapeake\'s coat is very important, as the Chesapeake is used for hunting under all sorts of adverse weather conditions, often working in ice and snow. The oil in the harsh outer coat and wooly undercoat is of extreme value in preventing the cold water from reaching the Chesapeake\'s skin and aids in quick drying. A Chesapeake\'s coat should resist the water in the same way that a duck\'s feathers do. When the Chesapeake leaves the water and shakes, the coat should not hold water at all, being merely moist.

Disqualifications: A coat that is curly or has a tendency to curl all over the body must be disqualified. Feathering on the tail or legs over 1¾ inches long must be disqualified.

Color
The color of the Chesapeake Bay Retriever must be as nearly that of its working surroundings as possible. Any color of brown, sedge or deadgrass is acceptable, self-colored Chesapeakes being preferred. One color is not to be preferred over another. A white spot on the breast, belly, toes, or back of the feet (immediately above the large pad) is permissible, but the smaller the spot the better, solid colored preferred. The color of the coat and its texture must be given every consideration when judging on the bench or in the ring. Honorable scars are not to be penalized.

Disqualifications: Black colored; white on any part of the body except breast, belly, toes, or back of feet must be disqualified

Gait
The gait should be smooth, free and effortless, giving the impression of great power and strength. When viewed from the side, there should be good reach with no restrictions of movement in the front and plenty of drive in the rear, with good flexion of the stifle and hock joints. Coming at you, there should be no sign of elbows being out. When the Chesapeake is moving away from you, there should be no sign of cowhockness from the rear. As speed increases, the feet tend to converge toward a center line of gravity.

Temperament
The Chesapeake Bay Retriever should show a bright and happy disposition with an intelligent expression. Courage, willingness to work, alertness, nose, intelligence, love of water, general quality and, most of all, disposition should be given primary consideration in the selection and breeding of the Chesapeake Bay Retriever.

Disqualifications:
1. Specimens lacking in breed characteristics.
2. Teeth overshot or undershot.
3. Dewclaws on the hind legs.
4. Coat curly or with a tendency to curl all over the body.
5. Feathering on the tail or legs over 1¾ inches long.
6. Black colored.
7. White on any part of the body except breast, belly, toes, or back of feet.

The question of coat and general type of balance takes precedence over any scoring table which could be drawn up. The Chesapeake should be well proportioned, an animal with a good coat and well balanced in other points being preferable to one excelling in some but weak in others.

Positive Scale of Points
Head, including lips, ears and eyes 16
Neck 4
Shoulders and body 12
Hindquarters and stifles 12
Elbows, legs and feet 12
Color 4
Stern and tail 10
Coat and texture 18
General conformation 12
Total 100

Approximate Measurements Inches
Length head, nose to occiput 9½ to 10
Girth at ears 20 to 21
Muzzle below eyes 10 to 10½
Length of ears 4½ to 5
Width between eyes 2½ to 2¾
Girth neck close to shoulder 20 to 22
Girth at flank 24 to 25
Length from occiput to tail base 34 to 35
Girth forearms at shoulders 10 to 10½
Girth upper thigh 19 to 20
From root to root of ear, over skull 5 to 6
Occiput to top shoulder blades 9 to 9½
From elbow to elbow over the shoulders 25 to 26

Approved November 9, 1993
Effective December 31, 1993

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:06:33 | 显示全部楼层


布列塔尼犬(Brittany)介绍及AKC标准


[简介]
一种紧凑,结合紧密的中型犬,外观是一种长腿狗,显得很敏捷,步幅非常大,结实、精力旺盛、积极、动作迅速,坚固而不笨拙,这就是布列塔尼犬。他可以没有尾巴或断尾,保留4英寸长。

[体型]
高度:肩高约17.5英寸~20.5英寸,如果低于17.5英寸或高于20.5英寸则属于失格。
体重:体重约30~40磅。
比例:腿长而优美,所以体长等于肩高。
身躯长度:与肩高相等。体长是指从前胸到臀部的距离。
体质:骨骼不能太轻,但也不能太重,而显得笨重。

[头部]
表情:警惕而热烈,但带有猎鸟犬的柔和表情。
眼睛:在头部的恰当位置,在浓重而富于表情的眉毛保护之下。过分丰满或突出的眼睛属于缺陷。必须有正确的脸部,否则属于严重缺陷。眼睛下方轮廓清晰,所以下眼睑不能外翻、有眼袋或瞬膜外露、有污泥或杂草。深色的眼睛比较理想,但浅色(琥珀色)眼睛也可以接受。浅色眼睛或看起来不舒服的眼睛都属于严重缺陷。
耳朵:位置高,高于眼睛所在的水平线,短而呈三角形,有点下垂,延伸到口吻长度一半的位置。平而紧密地贴着头部,覆盖着短而相对短的毛发,略有刘海。
脑袋:中等长度,圆,略呈楔形,但很匀称。宽,但不过分,宽度与长度相当,不能太宽而显得粗笨,也不能太窄,而象赛跑犬。非常清晰,但略微倾斜的止部,中线模糊。后枕骨只能在触摸时能官爵到突出,侧向圆拱。布列塔尼犬不应该出现“苹果头”,也没有锯齿状的止部。
口吻:中等长度,长度约为脑袋的2/3(口吻的长度是从鼻尖到止部,脑袋的长度是从后枕骨到止部)。口吻呈锥形,横向或纵向都向鼻镜方向逐渐变细。既没有罗马鼻,也没有盘子脸。既不宽而重,也不细长。
鼻镜:鼻孔开阔,允许深呼吸,且嗅觉更灵敏。紧闭的鼻孔属于缺陷。决不发亮。颜色:棕色、驼色、褐色阴影、深粉色。黑色鼻镜属于失格。双色鼻镜属于缺陷。
嘴唇:紧闭,上唇遮盖下颚和下唇。嘴唇干燥;所以外观没有拈连。流口水属于严重缺陷。上唇下坠属于缺陷。
咬和:真正的剪状咬和,上颚突出或下颚突出式咬和都属于严重缺陷。

[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部:中等长度,没有赘肉,尽管赘肉不属于严重缺陷。结实,但肌肉不显得过分发达,与倾斜的肩胛接合良好,没有塌陷或羊脖子。
背线:从肩胛最高点到尾根处略微倾斜。
胸部:深,延伸到肘部。不能太宽或太圆拱,而影响到肩胛和肘部的位置。肋骨支撑良好,有良好的深度和宽度,为胸腔提供足够的空间。胸部太窄或平板胸属于缺陷。
背部:短而直,决不能凹陷、马鞍状、摇摆或拱起。从臀部到尾根处略微下垂。
腰窝:圆。相当丰满,没有过分上提,软弱或塌陷。腰部短而结实,从最后一条肋骨到大腿上端的距离短,大约是3指~4指宽。窄而软弱的腰部属于缺陷。运动时,腰部不能左右摇摆,使背部做“Z”字形运动,浪费能量。
尾巴:从无尾到大约4英寸长的尾巴,天生的或断尾。尾巴不能太长而影响狗的整体平衡。位置高,实际上是脊椎的延伸,与脊椎处于同一水平。尾巴长度超过4英寸属于严重缺陷。

[前躯]
肩胛:肩胛不十分突出,距离不能分的太开,中间的距离约2指宽。肩胛倾斜而肌肉发达。肩胛骨与上臂骨几乎接近90度角,肩部平。布列塔尼犬的肩部略高于臀部。
前腿:从前面观察,垂直,但距离不过分宽。肘部和足爪既不向内弯,也不向外翻。骹骨略微倾斜。向下的骹骨属于严重缺陷。腿骨整洁、优美,但不能太细腻。骨骼太沉重或细长腿都属于严重缺陷。必须显得既有实质(骨骼和肌肉),又柔韧。肘部的高度与从肘部到马肩隆的距离相等。
足爪:足爪结实,相对于猎鹬犬显得略小,紧凑,脚趾圆拱,脚垫厚实。布列塔尼犬没有“向上的脚趾”,脚趾没有很多的羽状饰毛。平坦的足爪、张开的足爪、象纸一样薄的足爪等都属于严重缺陷。理想的足爪应该界于兔足和猫足之间。狼爪可以切除。

[后躯]
宽阔、结实,且肌肉发达,大腿充满力量,膝关节弯曲,为强大的驱动力提供正确的角度。后腿:膝关节弯曲,膝关节角度不应该太大,而使飞节位于身体下后方太远的地方。在裁判没有在侧面观察他的动作之前,不应该将较直的膝关节认定为缺陷。膝关节不能向外翻而形成牛肢。大腿有羽状态饰毛,但不过分,延伸到大腿到飞节的中途。飞节(后骹骨)略短,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。从侧面观察时,垂直于地面。当裁判摇晃他的时候显得稳固。
足爪:与前肢相同。

[被毛]
浓密,平坦或呈波浪状,不能卷曲。既不是刚毛质地,也不是丝质。耳朵上略有少量刘海。前腿和后腿有羽状饰毛,但少量饰毛比大量饰毛更可取。长而浓厚的羽状饰毛属于严重缺陷,并坚决将他们排除出比赛。皮肤:细腻而相当松弛。过分松弛,象口袋一样的皮肤则不合需要。

[颜色]
橘色与白色或肝色与白色,图案清晰或混杂。坚实的条纹比较理想。橘色或肝色形成杂色或斑纹。褪色的颜色不合需要。三色是允许的,但不理想。三色是指肝色和白色的狗,在眉毛、口吻、面颊、耳朵内和尾巴下方有橘色斑纹,褪下部有斑点。除此以外的任何颜色都属于严重缺陷。黑色被毛属于失格。

[步态]
小跑时,布列塔尼犬的后足爪将落在前足爪的脚印上,过来或离开时,动作整洁,这一点很重要,但最重要的是从侧面观察步态,步态应该平顺、有效而且步幅很大。

[气质]
欢快而警惕的狗,既不卑鄙,也不羞怯。

[失格]
肩高低于17.5英寸或高于20.5英寸。
黑色鼻镜。
黑色被毛。

Brittany Breed Standard

General Appearance
A compact, closely knit dog of medium size, a leggy dog having the appearance, as well as the agility, of a great ground coverer. Strong, vigorous, energetic and quick of movement. Ruggedness, without clumsiness, is a characteristic of the breed. He can be tailless or has a tail docked to approximately four inches.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height--17½ to 20½ inches, measured from the ground to the highest point of the shoulders. Any Brittany measuring under 17½ inches or over 20½ inches shall be disqualified from dog show competition. Weight--Should weigh between 30 and 40 pounds.

Proportion--So leggy is he that his height at the shoulders is the same as the length of his body.

Body Length--Approximately the same as the height when measured at the shoulders. Body length is measured from the point of the forecast to the rear of the rump. A long body should be heavily penalized.
Substance--Not too light in bone, yet never heavy-boned and cumbersome.

Head
Expression--Alert and eager, but with the soft expression of a bird dog. Eyes--Well set in head. Well protected from briars by a heavy, expressive eyebrow. A prominent full or popeye should be penalized. It is a serious fault in a dog that must face briars. Skull well chiseled under the eyes, so that the lower lid is not pulled back to form a pocket or haw that would catch seeds, dirt and weed dust. Preference should be for the darker colored eyes, though lighter shades of amber should not be penalized. Light and mean-looking eyes should be heavily penalized. Ears--Set high, above the level of the eyes. Short and triangular, rather than pendulous, reaching about half the length of the muzzle. Should lie flat and close to the head, with dense, but relatively short hair, and with little fringe. Skull--Medium length, rounded, very slightly wedge-shaped, but evenly made. Width, not quite as wide as the length and never so broad as to appear coarse, or so narrow as to appear racy. Well defined, but gently sloping stop. Median line rather indistinct. The occiput only apparent to the touch. Lateral walls well rounded. The Brittany should never be \"apple-headed\" and he should never have an indented stop. Muzzle--Medium length, about two thirds the length of the skull, measuring the muzzle from the tip to the stop, and the skull from the occiput to the stop. Muzzle should taper gradually in both horizontal and vertical dimensions as it approaches the nostrils. Neither a Roman nose nor a dish-face is desirable. Never broad, heavy or snippy. Nose--Nostrils well open to permit deep breathing of air and adequate scenting. Tight nostrils should be penalized. Never shiny. Color: fawn, tan, shades of brown or deep pink. A black nose is a disqualification. A two-tone or butterfly nose should be penalized. Lips--Tight, the upper lip overlapping the lower jaw just to cover the lower lip. Lips dry, so that feathers will not stick. Drooling to be heavily penalized. Flews to be penalized. Bite--A true scissors bite. Overshot or undershot jaw to be heavily penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--Medium length. Free from throatiness, though not a serious fault unless accompanied by dewlaps, strong without giving the impression of being over muscled. Well set into sloping shoulders. Never concave or ewe-necked. Topline--Slight slope from the highest point of the shoulders to the root of the tail. Chest--Deep, reaching the level of the elbow. Neither so wide nor so rounded as to disturb the placement of the shoulders and elbows. Ribs well sprung. Adequate heart room provided by depth as well as width. Narrow or slab-sided chests are a fault. Back--Short and straight. Never hollow, saddle, sway or roach backed. Slight drop from the hips to the root of the tail. Flanks--Rounded. Fairly full. Not extremely tucked up, or flabby and falling. Loins short and strong. Distance from last rib to upper thigh short, about three to four finger widths. Narrow and weak loins are a fault. In motion, the loin should not sway sideways, giving a zig-zag motion to the back, wasting energy. Tail--Tailless to approximately four inches, natural or docked. The tail not to be so long as to affect the overall balance of the dog. Set on high, actually an extension of the spine at about the same level. Any tail substantially more than four inches shall be severely penalized.

Forequarters
Shoulders--Shoulder blades should not protrude too much, not too wide apart, with perhaps two thumbs\' width between. Sloping and muscular. Blade and upper arm should form nearly a ninety degree angle. Straight shoulders are a fault. At the shoulders, the Brittany is slightly higher than at the rump. Front Legs--Viewed from the front, perpendicular, but not set too wide. Elbows and feet turning neither in nor out. Pasterns slightly sloped. Down in pasterns is a serious fault. Leg bones clean, graceful, but not too fine. Extremely heavy bone is as much a fault as spindly legs. One must look for substance and suppleness. Height at elbows should approximately equal distance from elbow to withers. Feet--Should be strong, proportionately smaller than the spaniels\', with close fitting, well arched toes and thick pads. The Brittany is \"not up on his toes.\" Toes not heavily feathered. Flat feet, splayed feet, paper feet, etc., are to be heavily penalized. An ideal foot is halfway between the hare and the cat foot. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarter
Broad strong and muscular, with powerful thighs and well bent stifles, giving the angulation necessary for powerful drive. Hind Legs--Stifles well bent. The stifle should not be so angulated as to place the hock joint far out behind the dog. A Brittany should not be condemned for straight stifle until the judge has checked the dog in motion from the side. The stifle joint should not turn out making a cowhock. Thighs well feathered but not profusely, halfway to the hock. Hocks, that is, the back pasterns, should be moderately short, pointing neither in nor out, perpendicular when viewed from the side. They should be firm when shaken by the judge. Feet Same as front feet.

Coat
Dense, flat or wavy, never curly. Texture neither wiry nor silky. Ears should carry little fringe. The front and hind legs should have some feathering, but too little is definitely preferable to too much. Dogs with long or profuse feathering or furnishings shall be so severely penalized as to effectively eliminate them from competition. Skin--Fine and fairly loose. A loose skin rolls with briars and sticks, thus diminishing punctures or tearing. A skin so loose as to form pouches is undesirable.

Color
Orange and white or liver and white in either clear or roan patterns. Some ticking is desirable. The orange or liver is found in the standard parti-color or piebald patterns. Washed out colors are not desirable. Tri-colors are allowed but not preferred. A tri-color is a liver and white dog with classic orange markings on eyebrows, muzzle and cheeks, inside the ears and under the tail, freckles on the lower legs are orange. Anything exceeding the limits of these markings shall be severely penalized. Black is a disqualification.

Gait
When at a trot the Brittany\'s hind foot should step into or beyond the print left by the front foot. Clean movement, coming and going, is very important, but most important is side gait, which is smooth, efficient and ground covering.

Temperament
A happy, alert dog, neither mean nor shy.

Disqualifications
Any Brittany measuring under 17½ inches or over 20½ inches
A black nose
Black in the coat

Approved April 10, 1990
Effective May 31, 1990

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:07:17 | 显示全部楼层


美国水猎犬(American Water Spaniel)介绍及AKC标准
美国水猎犬图片集

美国水猎犬在何时、何地及怎样起源,在一定程度上仍然是个谜。然而,美国许多地方的猎人早就赏识本品种的优点了。由于这一品种在中西部首先被认可并大量繁殖,所以现在认为这种犬主要是在中西部发展进化而来。尽管这一说法并非是绝对的,但结合毛色、被毛和符合品种标准的体形外构成,普遍认为爱尔兰水猎犬、卷毛寻猎犬以及近来的老式英国水猎犬是其祖先。

早在1940年被美国养犬俱乐部承认以前,美国水猎犬已是纯粹的枪猎犬了,它从来没有被介绍去参加犬展,因为它的爱好者非常担心展示会有损于它作为猎犬的杰出才能,但是他们很快就认识到如果挑选这一品种的犬去参加竞争展示的话,不管它们天生是什么样子实际上都可以提高它的价值。

作为寻猎犬美国水猎犬不会放下任何想要的东西,它会注视猎人击落的四五只鸟,然后迅速愉快地将它们一一捡回。对于野兔、松鸡、鹑、环颈难、野鸭,该犬都能小心无误地找回来,它游泳技术就像海豹一样敏捷,所以受伤的水禽很少能逃脱,它的尾巴能起到舵的作用,尤其是在汹涌的水域中。

它可以在各种环境中狩猎,而且具有卓越的嗅觉;它依靠灵敏的嗅觉在灌木丛、粗糙的地面或隐蔽处来定位猎物。它的热情和精确性对猎人来说是一个极大的鼓舞,它快乐的性格让它易于训练,它很快就能学会捡起被射中或飞着的猎物,尽管偶尔它的渴望会让它过于急躁,在打猎中,它不会站着把头直接指向猎物,相反,它会突然跃起抓住猎物。此外在庭院中它也是优秀的看家犬。

美国水猎犬品种标准

【整体外貌】
美国水猎犬是在美国育成的能适应各种环境的猎犬,能从小船上下水、捡拾猎物,也能在陆地上自在地工作。美国水猎犬性格活泼,肌肉发达,中等大小,具有波浪形至卷曲的被毛。品种优劣的关键在于适当的大小和各部的匀称比例、被毛质量和毛色。

【大小,比例和结构】
公犬和母犬肩高均为38.1 ~ 45.7厘米。公犬重13.61 ~ 20.41千克,母犬重11.34 ~ 18.14千克。母犬略小于公犬。只要比例正确,骨骼肌肉良好而且保持匀称,则两性个体在上述范围内对大小并无偏爱。体长略大于身高,不过分成方形或紧凑。然而精确的比例与整体健全匀称及品种的功能相比仅处于次要地位。这个品种结实,肌肉发达,但并不显得笨拙。

【头部】
头部必须与全身成比例。长度适中。表情机警,自信,聪明而有吸引力。眼中等大小,眼距颇宽,眼稍圆,不应突出或凸出。唇紧,不下垂。眼色可以由浅黄褐色到褐色,淡褐色或深褐色色调到与毛色相协调。黄色眼取消资格。黄色眼是鲜艳的柠檬色,勿与浅黄褐色相混淆。耳位略高于眼线,但在头上不过高,耳片状,耳长,伸至鼻子。颅部宽而丰满,额鼻阶适度,但不太突出。吻长度适中,方形,有一定深度。无细弱的倾向。唇紧而干净,皮肤不过多,无垂唇。鼻深包,黑色或深褐色。鼻宽,鼻孔发达以保证良好的嗅觉。剪状咬合或钳状咬合。

【颈部,背线和躯干】
颈圆而中等长,强健而肌肉发达,喉部无过多松弛皮肤,头昂起,但拱形不明显。背线平或从肩峰起略有倾斜。躯干发达,结构结实但不太紧凑。发达的胸廓伸至肘部,既不太宽也不太窄。肋骨扩张,但未能扩张到干扰前腿的运动。腰部强壮,但不呈收腹状。尾长适度,弯成摇杆形,能举至略低于或高于背部水平。尾逐渐缩小,有被毛和中度饰毛。

【前躯】
肩胛斜,干净,肌肉发达。腿长适中,笔直,骨骼发达,但并不笨重,妨碍野外作业。掌部强健而无虚弱感。趾并拢,有蹼,脚垫发达。脚的大小与犬的大小相协调。前腿允许有狼爪。

【后躯】
发达的臀部和大腿以及整个后躯体现出力量和推进力。飞节略圆,不应小而轮廓尖利,角度适中。由飞节至脚垫长度适中,直而强健,骨骼结构很好。飞节平行。

【被毛】
包括由波浪形(一致的波浪形)到紧密的卷曲形。波浪或卷曲量在犬的不同部位有所不同。重要的是具有绒毛层提供充分的密度以保护身体抵御恶劣气候,以及防水或防止植被的伤害。但被毛不过分粗糙也不过分柔软。喉部、颈部和后部被毛良好。耳内外均有被毛,检查时耳道明显。额被毛平滑、短毛,无冠毛。尾至尾尖均有被毛,饰毛中等。腿有与全身被毛相协调的波浪或卷曲的适度饰毛。被毛可修剪使外貌整洁,耳部可剃毛,但这两者都不是必须的。

【毛色】
纯肝色、褐色或深巧克力色,趾和胸部允许有小白斑。

【步态】
美国水猎犬运动时前伸和推进良好平衡。行动时,肘部无外向的迹象。后腿肌肉发达而不是牛样飞节,行动尽可能平行,飞节灵活而且完全参与活动,表现强健有力。

【性格】
行为表现出聪慧,讨人喜欢和友好。对狩猎有巨大的精力和渴求,但在野外能接受控制。

失格条件:黄色眼睛。

1990年3月13日批准
1990年5月l日生效
[以下为美国水猎犬(American Water Spaniel)AKC标准英文原版]

American Water Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The American Water Spaniel was developed in the United States as an all-around hunting dog, bred to retrieve from skiff or canoes and work ground with relative ease. The American Water Spaniel is an active muscular dog, medium in size with a marcel to curly coat. Emphasis is placed on proper size and a symmetrical relationship of parts, texture of coat and color.

Size, Proportion, Substance
15 to 18 inches for either sex. Males weighing 30-45 lbs. Females weighing 25-40 lbs. Females tend to be slightly smaller than the males. There is no preference for size within the given range of either sex providing correct proportion, good substance and balance is maintained. Proportion--is slightly longer than tall, not too square or compact. However, exact proportion is not as important as the dog being well-balanced and sound, capable of performing the breed\'s intended function. Substance --a solidly built and well-muscled dog full of strength and quality. The breed has as much substance and bone as necessary to carry the muscular structure but not so much as to appear clumsy.

Head
The head must be in proportion to the overall dog. Moderate in length. Expression is alert, self-confident, attractive and intelligent. Medium size eyes set well apart, while slightly rounded, should not appear protruding or bulging. Lids tight, not drooping. Eye color can range from a light yellowish brown to brown, hazel or of dark tone to harmonize with coat. Disqualify yellow eyes. Yellow eyes are a bright color like that of lemon, not to be confused with the light yellowish brown. Ears set slightly above the eye line but not too high on the head, lobular, long and wide with leather extending to nose.
Skull rather broad and full, stop moderately defined, but not too pronounced. Muzzle moderate in length, square with good depth. No inclination to snipiness, The lips are clean and tight without excess skin or flews. Nose dark in color, black or dark brown. The nose sufficiently wide and with well-developed nostrils to insure good scenting power. Bite either scissor or level.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck round and of medium length, strong and muscular, free of throatiness, set to carry head with dignity, but arch not accentuated. Topline level or slight, straight slope from withers. Body well-developed, sturdily constructed but not too compactly coupled. Well-developed brisket extending to elbow neither too broad nor too narrow. The ribs well-sprung, but not so well-sprung that they interfere with the movement of the front assembly. The loins strong, but not having a tucked-up look. Tail is moderate in length, curved in a rocker fashion, can be carried either slightly below or above the level of the back. The tail is tapered, lively and covered with hair with moderate feathering.

Forequarters
Shoulders sloping, clean and muscular. Legs medium in length, straight and well-boned but not so short as to handicap for field work or so heavy as to appear clumsy. Pasterns strong with no suggestion of weakness. Toes closely grouped, webbed and well-padded. Size of feet to harmonize with size of dog. Front dewclaws are permissible.

Hindquarters
Well-developed hips and thighs with the whole rear assembly showing strength and drive. The hock joint slightly rounded, should not be small and sharp in contour, moderately angulated. Legs from hock joint to foot pad moderate in length, strong and straight with good bone structure. Hocks parallel.

Coat
Coat can range from marcel (uniform waves) to closely curled. The amount of waves or curls can vary from one area to another on the dog. It is important to have undercoat to provide sufficient density to be of protection against weather, water or punishing cover, yet not too coarse or too soft. The throat, neck and rear of the dog well-covered with hair. The ear well-covered with hair on both sides with ear canal evident upon inspection. Forehead covered with short smooth hair and without topknot. Tail covered with hair to tip with moderate feathering. Legs have moderate feathering with waves or curls to harmonize with coat of dog. Coat may be trimmed to present a wellgroomed appearance; the ears may be shaved; but neither is required.

Color
Color either solid liver, brown or dark chocolate. A little white on toes and chest permissible.

Gait
The American Water Spaniel moves with well-balanced reach and drive. Watching a dog move toward one, there should be no signs of elbows being out. Upon viewing the dog from the rear, one should get the impression that the hind legs, which should be well-muscled and not cowhocked, move as nearly parallel as possible, with hocks doing their full share of work and flexing well, thus giving the appearance of power and strength.

Temperament
Demeanor indicates intelligence, eagerness to please and friendly. Great energy and eagerness for the hunt yet controllable in the field.

Disqualification
Yellow eyes.

Approved March 13, 1990
Effective May 1, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:09:26 | 显示全部楼层
狩猎犬组(Hound Group)



惠比特犬(Whippet)AKC标准及介绍

一、[简介]
一种中型视觉猎犬,外观高雅而匀称,显示出速度、力量和平衡,但不粗糙。真正的运动型猎犬,能以最少的动作,跑完最大的距离。给人的印象是漂亮而和谐,肌肉发达,强壮而有力,外形是极度高雅,优美,呈流线型的体形是速度的要求。轮廓匀称,发达的肌肉和有力的步伐是重点考虑的;他所有的构造都是为速度及工作服务的,任何夸张的地方都必须去除。
二、[体型]
雄性的理想高度为19~22英寸(48.26—55.88cm);雌性是18~21英寸(45.72—53.34cm)(从马肩隆到地面的距离)。上下误差超过1.5英寸属于失格。从前胸到臀部的距离等于或略大于肩高。中等骨量。
三、[头部]
敏锐、聪明而警惕的表情。眼睛大,颜色深。两个眼睛颜色必须一致。黄色或浅色眼睛属于严重缺陷。兰色眼睛或眼睛内有色环属于失格。眼圈色素充足。
玫瑰耳:小,质地细腻;休息时,耳朵向后,沿着颈部折叠。关注时,折痕依旧存在。立耳属于严重缺陷。
脑袋:长而倾斜,两耳间相当宽,止部几乎无法被察觉到。
口吻:长而有力,显示出巨大的咬和力,但不粗糙。缺乏下颌属于严重缺陷。鼻镜为纯黑色。
牙齿:下颚牙齿紧密贴合上颚牙齿内侧,形成剪状咬和。
牙齿白而结实。下颚突出式咬和属于失格。上颚突出式咬和,如果上颚突出1/4英寸或更多也属于失格。
四、[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部长,整洁、肌肉发达,圆拱,喉咙无赘肉,逐渐变宽,融入肩胛上端。短而粗的脖子或羊脖子属于缺陷。背部宽,稳固,肌肉发达,长度超过腰部。背线从马肩隆开始,呈平顺、优美而自然的拱形,越过腰部达到臀部;圆拱是延续的,无断裂。肩胛后塌陷,凹陷的后背,平坦的后背,陡峭或平坦的臀部都属于缺陷。
胸部非常深,几乎延伸到肘部,肋骨支撑良好,但没有桶状胸的迹象。两前肢之间的空间完全被填满,所以不显得空虚。下腹曲线明显上提。
尾巴长,且尖端细,当尾巴垂落在后腿之间时,延伸到飞节处。当他运动时,尾巴低低地举着,略微向上弯曲;尾巴不应该举高过后背。
五、[前躯]
肩胛长,向后倾斜,肌肉平坦,在马肩隆的位置,肩胛骨之间允许有一点空隙。上臂的长度与肩胛相同,肘部正好在马肩隆下方。
肘关节既不向内弯也不向外翻,而是笔直向后。陡峭的肩胛、太短的上臂、肩胛肌肉过重或抗肩膀,或肩膀太窄,所有对舒展的动作有影响的地方,都属于严重缺陷。前腿直,显得有足够的力量,骨量充足。胶骨结实,略微倾斜,且柔韧。弓形腿,纠结的肘部,腿部缺乏肌肉和骨量,腿在身体下方距离很远,而形成一个非常夸张的胸部,虚弱或垂直的胶骨,都属于严重缺陷。
前后足爪都非常完美,脚垫坚硬、厚实。足爪更接近兔足而不是猫足,但两者都可以接受。平、张开或柔软的足爪,缺乏坚硬厚实的脚垫属于严重缺陷。脚趾长,紧密且圆拱。趾甲结实,且天生很短或中等长度。狼爪可以切除。
六、[后躯]
长而有力。大腿宽而肌肉发达,膝关节倾斜;肌肉长而平坦,向下延伸到飞节;飞节位置低,靠近地面。镰刀腿或牛肢属于严重缺陷。
七、[被毛]
短,紧密,平顺,且质地坚硬。其他任何被毛都属于失格。在工作留下的或意外中造成的旧伤痕,在比赛中不应该受到歧视。
八、[颜色]
颜色不重要。
九、[步态]
低而舒展的、平顺的移动,前躯伸展充分而后躯驱动力强大。从侧面观察,他的动作非常舒展;前肢向前伸展时贴近地面,产生长、而低的步伐;后躯产生强大的推动力。当他离去或从后面观察,腿既不向内弯,也不向外翻,足爪既不相互交错,也不彼此干涉。
缺乏前躯延展或后躯驱动,或短而马步式步态(抬腿太高),属于严重缺陷。足爪交叉或太靠近也属于缺陷。
十、[气质]
亲切,友善,温和,但能在瞬间产生巨大的爆发力,去追击猎物。
十一、[失格]
与身高标准的误差超过1.5英寸。
兰色眼睛或眼睛内有色环。
下颚突出式咬和或上颚突出式咬和上颚突出1/4英寸或更多。
所有不是短,紧密,平顺,且质地坚硬的被毛。

[以下为惠比特犬(Whippet)AKC标准英文原版]

Whippet Breed Standard
General Appearance
A medium size sighthound giving the appearance of elegance and fitness, denoting great speed, power and balance without coarseness. A true sporting hound that covers a maximum of distance with a minimum of lost motion. Should convey an impression of beautifully balanced muscular power and strength, combined with great elegance and grace of outline. Symmetry of outline, muscular development and powerful gait are the main considerations; the dog being built for speed and work, all forms of exaggeration should be avoided.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Ideal height for dogs, 19 to 22 inches; for bitches, 18 to 21 inches, measured at the highest point of the withers. More than one-half inch above or below the stated limits will disqualify. Length from forechest to buttocks equal to or slightly greater than height at the withers. Moderate bone throughout.

Head
Keen intelligent alert expression. Eyes large and dark. Both eyes must be of the same color. Yellow or light eyes should be strictly penalized. Blue or wall eyes shall disqualify. Fully pigmented eyelids are desirable.

Rose ears, small, fine in texture; in repose, thrown back and folded along neck. Fold should be maintained when at attention. Erect ears should be severely penalized.

Skull long and lean, fairly wide between the ears, scarcely perceptible stop.

Muzzle should be long and powerful, denoting great strength of bite, without coarseness. Lack of underjaw should be strictly penalized. Nose entirely black.

Teeth of upper jaw should fit closely over teeth of lower jaw creating a scissors bite. Teeth should be white and strong. Undershot shall disqualify. Overshot one-quarter inch or more shall disqualify.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck long, clean and muscular, well arched with no suggestion of throatiness, widening gracefully into the top of the shoulder. A short thick neck, or a ewe neck, should be penalized. The back is broad, firm and well muscled, having length over the loin. The backline runs smoothly from the withers with a graceful natural arch, not too accentuated, beginning over the loin and carrying through over the croup; the arch is continuous without flatness. A dip behind shoulder blades, wheelback, flat back, or a steep or flat croup should be penalized. Brisket very deep, reaching as nearly as possible to the point of the elbow. Ribs well sprung but with no suggestion of barrel shape. The space between the forelegs is filled in so that there is no appearance of a hollow between them. There is a definite tuckup of the underline. The tail long and tapering, reaching to the hipbone when drawn through between the hind legs. When the dog is in motion, the tail is carried low with only a gentle upward curve; tail should not be carried higher than top of back.

Forequarters
Shoulder blade long, well laid back, with flat muscles, allowing for moderate space between shoulder blades at peak of withers. Upper arm of equal length, placed so that the elbow falls directly under the withers.

The points of the elbows should point neither in nor out, but straight back. A steep shoulder, short upper arm, a heavily muscled or loaded shoulder, or a very narrow shoulder, all of which restrict low free movement, should be strictly penalized. Forelegs straight, giving appearance of strength and substance of bone. Pasterns strong, slightly bent and flexible. Bowed legs, tied-in elbows, legs lacking substance, legs set far under the body so as to create an exaggerated forechest, weak or upright pasterns should be strictly penalized.

Both front and rear feet must be well formed with hard, thick pads. Feet more hare than cat, but both are acceptable. Flat, splayed or soft feet without thick hard pads should be strictly penalized. Toes should be long, close and well arched. Nails strong and naturally short or of moderate length. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters
Long and powerful. The thighs are broad and muscular, stifles well bent; muscles are long and flat and carry well down toward the hock. The hocks are well let down and close to the ground. Sickle or cow hocks should be strictly penalized.

Coat
Short, close, smooth and firm in texture. Any other coat shall be a disqualification. Old scars and injuries, the result of work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice the dog\'s chance in the show ring.

Color
Color immaterial.

Gait
Low, free moving and smooth, with reach in the forequarters and strong drive in the hindquarters. The dog has great freedom of action when viewed from the side; the forelegs move forward close to the ground to give a long, low reach; the hind legs have strong propelling power. When moving and viewed from front or rear, legs should turn neither in nor out, nor should feet cross or interfere with each other.
Lack of front reach or rear drive, or a short, hackney gait with high wrist action, should be strictly penalized. Crossing in front or moving too close should be strictly penalized.

Temperament
Amiable, friendly, gentle, but capable of great intensity during sporting pursuits.

Disqualifications
More than one-half inch above or below stated height limits.
Blue or wall eyes.
Undershot, overshot one-quarter inch or more.
Any coat other than short, close, smooth and firm in texture.

Approved August 10, 1993
Effective September 29, 1993

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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苏格兰猎鹿犬(Scottish Deerhound)AKC标准及介绍
历史:苏格兰猎鹿犬 (Scottish Deerhound) 。与爱尔兰猎狼犬很相像,但是体格梗轻巧,毛皮也更光滑一些,头部吻部呈锥形,反映出在血统上受灵提的影响,甚至被称作粗毛灵提。最初在苏格兰专门为猎鹿而培育,中世纪时苏格兰酋长就用来猎鹿,它身高力大,粗糙的毛皮可以抵挡恶劣的气候。曾一度是苏格兰贵族炙手可热的爱犬,并成为苏格兰皇家御用犬,伯爵阶衔以下不能拥有此犬。当猎枪出现并被广泛使用于猎鹿后,其数量大幅减少。现在除了狩猎之外还是很好的伴侣犬。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的头部]

耳朵处宽,向眼睛方向逐渐变窄,口吻向鼻尖方向明显变窄。口吻尖,但牙齿和嘴唇较平。头部长,脑袋平坦而不圆,眼睛上方非常轻微地升起,但不靠近止部。头部的毛发长度中等,比其他毛发软一些。鼻镜为黑色(有些兰驼色的狗的鼻镜是兰色),且略微弯曲。浅色的狗应该有黑色的口吻。应该有丝质的髭须和漂亮的胡须。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的耳朵]

位置高;休息时,象灵缇犬那样向后折,虽然,兴奋时会凸起,但不会没有折痕,有时会是半立耳。立耳属于缺陷。大而厚的耳朵平平地挂在头部边上或被毛沉重、毛发太长都属于严重缺陷。耳朵应该是柔软、平滑、触摸的感觉象老鼠毛,小一些更好。没有过长的被毛或刘海,但有时会有丝质的、银色的毛发出现在身躯和耳朵尖。所有的猎鹿犬,不管是什么颜色,耳朵都应该是黑色或暗黑色。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的颈部和肩胛]

颈部长,其长度与灵缇犬相当。但过分长则既没必要,也不合适。苏格兰猎鹿犬的工作与灵缇犬不同。优秀的猎鹿犬应该拥有鬃毛,有时鬃毛会改变颈部的外观长度。无论如何,颈部都需要非常强壮,能控制住鹿这样的动物。颈背非常突出,头部向前伸,喉咙线条清晰,角度明显。肩胛倾斜,肩胛骨向后,彼此间没有很宽的距离。抗肩膀或太直的肩胛都属于严重缺陷。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的尾巴]

比较长,尖端略细,延伸到离地面 1.5英寸的地方,或低于飞节1.5英寸。当他静止时,笔直下垂或略微弯曲,运动时或兴奋时,尾巴卷曲,但不能举过背部。覆盖有大量毛发,毛发浓厚而呈刚毛质地,下半部分毛发略长,而末端略有刘海不属于缺陷。卷曲或环状尾巴属于缺陷

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的眼睛]

颜色深,一般是深褐色、褐色或榛色。非常浅的眼睛颜色不合适,眼睛适度丰满,休息时眼神柔和,但兴奋时,目光锐利,且视线很远。眼圈为黑色。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的身躯]

结构与灵缇差不多,但要大一些,骨量足一些。胸部深而不宽,但也不能太窄或平板胸。足够的周长显示出良好的肺活量。腰部圆拱,向尾巴方向下垂。太直的背部不合需要,这样的结构不适合爬坡,而且非常难看。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的腿和足爪]

腿宽而平,前腿和肘部有足够的宽度是理想的。当然,前腿必须尽可能直。足爪紧凑,脚趾位置合适。后躯下垂,尽可能宽、有力。臀部的距离分比较开。狭窄的后躯显示出缺乏力量,膝关节适度倾斜,从臀部到飞节距离很大,后躯宽而平坦。牛肢、虚弱的骹骨、过直的膝关节,张开的足爪都属于严重缺陷。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的被毛]

身躯、颈部、四肢的毛发为粗糙的刚毛, 3~4英寸长;头部、胸部和腹部的毛发柔软。在前腿、后腿内侧有刘海,但不能形成象柯利犬那样的\"羽毛\"。羊毛状的毛发属于缺陷。张力良好的丝状毛发混杂在硬质毛发中,比羊毛状毛发更可取。美国的气候容易导致混合型被毛。理想的被毛是浓厚,紧密的粗糙被毛,触摸的感觉粗硬、干涩。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的颜色]

关系到个人喜好,但深兰灰色肯定是首选,其他的就是深浅不同的灰色、斑点色,深颜色通常是首选。黄色、沙红色、红褐色,尤其是带有黑色口吻和耳朵的,对这些颜色都一视同仁。白色是一致反对的,但除了深色狗在胸前和脚趾出现白色,是允许的。但不理想,因为猎鹿犬属于统一颜色的狗。头部有白筋或有白色围脖都属于失格。虽然最好没有白色,但有些最好的品种在尾尖也会出现轻微的白尖。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的高度]

雄性的高度:约 30~32英寸,如果整体匀称而不粗糙的话,可以更高,但很难得。

雌性的高度: 28英寸以上,只要不显得粗糙,不拒绝更大的雌性,她适合的最大高度不应该接近雄性的高度,就象不可能有太大的雄性一样。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的体重]

雄性从 85磅到110磅;雌性从75磅到95磅。

[根据重要程度排列的主要特征]

1、典型特征:苏格兰猎鹿犬应该象是一个毛发粗糙的灵缇犬,体型更大,骨量更足。

2、 动作:轻松,活泼而准确。

3、 品质相同的条件下,尽可能高。

4、 头部:长,水平,和谐,高高昂起。

5、 身躯:长,胸非常深,肋骨支撑良好,臀部很宽。

6、 前肢:结实且非常直,肘部既不向内弯,也不向外翻。

7、 大腿:长而肌肉发达,第二节大腿肌肉发达,膝关节倾斜。

8、 腰部:圆拱,腹部上提。

9、 被毛:粗糙而坚硬,有柔软的胡须和眉毛。

10、 足爪:紧凑、脚趾关节良好。

11、 耳朵:小(深色),象灵缇犬那样的姿势。

12、 眼睛:颜色深,适度丰满。

13、 颈部:长,圆拱,非常结实,颈背突出。

14、 肩胛:整洁,倾斜。

15、 胸部:非常深,但不能过分窄。

16、 尾巴:长,略微弯曲,下垂。

17、 牙齿:结实而平。

18、 趾甲:结实而弯曲。

[苏格兰猎鹿犬的失格]

头部有白筋或有白色围脖

标准通过日期:1935年3月

Scottish Deerhound Breed Standard

Head
Should be broadest at the ears, narrowing slightly to the eyes, with the muzzle tapering more decidedly to the nose. The muzzle should be pointed, but the teeth and lips level. The head should be long, the skull flat rather than round with a very slight rise over the eyes but nothing approaching a stop. The hair on the skull should be moderately long and softer than the rest of the coat. The nose should be black (in some blue fawns--blue) and slightly aquiline. In lighter colored dogs the black muzzle is preferable. There should be a good mustache of rather silky hair and a fair beard.

Ears
Should be set on high; in repose, folded back like a Greyhound\'s, though raised above the head in excitement without losing the fold, and even in some cases semierect. A prick ear is bad. Big thick ears hanging flat to the head or heavily coated with long hair are bad faults. The ears should be soft, glossy, like a mouse\'s coat to the touch and the smaller the better. There should be no long coat or long fringe, but there is sometimes a silky, silvery coat on the body of the ear and the tip. On all Deerhounds, irrespective of color of coat, the ears should be black or dark colored.

Neck and Shoulders
The neck should be long-of a length befitting the Greyhound character of the dog. Extreme length is neither necessary nor desirable. Deerhounds do not stoop to their work like the Greyhounds. The mane, which every good specimen should have, sometimes detracts from the apparent length of the neck. The neck, however, must be strong as is necessary to hold a stag. The nape of the neck should be very prominent where the head is set on, and the throat clean cut at the angle and prominent. Shoulders should be well sloped; blades well back and not too much width between them. Loaded and straight shoulders are very bad faults.

Tail
Should be tolerably long, tapering and reaching to within 1½ inches of the ground and about 1½ inches below the hocks. Dropped perfectly down or curved when the Deerhound is still, when in motion or excited, curved, but in no instance lifted out of line of the back. It should be well covered with hair, on the inside, thick and wiry, underside longer and towards the end a slight fringe is not objectionable. A curl or ring tail is undesirable.

Eyes
Should be dark--generally dark brown, brown or hazel. A very light eye is not liked. The eye should be moderately full, with a soft look in repose, but a keen, far away look when the Deerhound is roused. Rims of eyelids should be black.

Body
General formation is that of a Greyhound of larger size and bone. Chest deep rather than broad but not too narrow or slab-sided. Good girth of chest is indicative of great lung power. The loin well arched and drooping to the tail. A straight back is not desirable, this formation being unsuited for uphill work, and very unsightly.

Legs and Feet
Legs should be broad and flat, and good broad forearms and elbows are desirable. Forelegs must, of course, be as straight as possible. Feet close and compact, with well-arranged toes. The hindquarters drooping, and as broad and powerful as possible, the hips being set wide apart. A narrow rear denotes lack of power. The stifles should be well bent. with great length from hip to hock, which should be broad and flat. Cowhocks, weak pasterns, straight stifles and splay feet are very bad faults.

Coat
The hair on the body, neck and quarters should be harsh and wiry about 3 or 4 inches long; that on the head, breast and belly much softer. There should be a slight fringe on the inside of the forelegs and hind legs but nothing approaching the \"feather\" of a Collie. A woolly coat is bad. Some good strains have a mixture of silky coat with the hard which is preferable to a woolly coat. The climate of the United States tends to produce the mixed coat. The ideal coat is a thick, close-lying ragged coat, harsh or crisp to the touch.

Color
is a matter of fancy, but the dark blue-gray is most preferred. Next come the darker and lighter grays or brindles, the darkest being generally preferred. Yellow and sandy red or red fawn, especially with black ears and muzzles, are equally high in estimation. This was the color of the oldest known strains--the McNeil and Chesthill Menzies. White is condemned by all authorities, but a white chest and white toes, occurring as they do in many of the darkest-colored dogs, are not objected to, although the less the better, for the Deerhound is a self-colored dog. A white blaze on the head, or a white collar, should entirely disqualify. The less white the better but a slight white tip to the stern occurs in some of the best strains.

Height
Height of Dogs--From 30 to 32 inches, or even more if there be symmetry without coarseness, which is rare. Height of Bitches--From 28 inches upwards. There is no objection to a bitch being large, unless too coarse, as even at her greatest height she does not approach that of the dog, and therefore could not be too big for work as overbig dogs are.

Weight
From 85 to 110 pounds in dogs, and from 75 to 95 pounds in bitches.

Points of the Deerhound, Arranged in Order of Importance
1. Typical--A Deerhound should resemble a rough-coated Greyhound of larger size and bone.
2. Movements--Easy, active and true.
3. As tall as possible consistent with quality.
4. Head--Long, level, well balanced, carried high.
5. Body--Long, very deep in brisket, well-sprung ribs and great breadth across hips.
6. Forelegs--Strong and quite straight, with elbows neither in nor out.
7. Thighs--Long and muscular, second thighs well muscled, stifles well bent.
8. Loins--Well arched, and belly well drawn up.
9. Coat--Rough and hard, with softer beard and brows.
10. Feet--Close, compact, with well-knuckled toes.
11. Ears--Small (dark) with Greyhoundlike carriage.
12. Eyes--Dark, moderately full.
13. Neck--Long, well arched, very strong with prominent nape.
14. Shoulders--Clean, set sloping.
15. Chest--Very deep but not too narrow.
16. Tail--Long and curved slightly, carried low.
17. Teeth--Strong and level.
18. Nails--Strong and curved.

Disqualification
White blaze on the head, or a white collar.

Approved March, 1935

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:12:09 | 显示全部楼层


中文名称:萨路基   英文名称:Saluki  又名:东非猎犬
        原产地:伊朗  体重:20—30kg   身高:56—71cm
      它是那种让人过目不忘的狗,在电影《猫狗大战》中仅仅出场片刻,已经魅力四射,令人惊艳。你可以不知道它的名字,但你一定不会忘记它从容而优雅的身影。
      天生的疾速猎手
      在回教教义中,某些生命和物品会具有神秘的力量,它流动于自然世界中,在不同的事物身上以不同的形式显现出来,而在“尊者” 萨路基犬身上所体现的,便是那有如望远镜般的视力以及飞驰的速度,人们相信是安拉真主所赋予的“神力”。毕竟,当世界上奔跑速度最快的动物之一——阿拉伯瞪羚被萨路基犬扑倒在脚下时,谁又能不相信那是神的力量的显现呢?
      萨路基犬的奔跑速度可以达到每小时48公里以上,其脚掌上长有厚厚的肉趾,可任意在热沙和粗糙的路面奔跑而不会受伤,它还能够随着猎物一起急转弯而不会影响速度。难怪阿拉伯人会得意地说:当萨路基犬瞄到羚羊在草地正要咬下一口草的时候,它可以在羊还来不及咽下那一口草之前就把羊带回来。就算羚羊跑上了天,躲在月亮后面,我的萨路基犬照样能三下两下就把羊捉回来。所以它又有个名字叫作:瞪羚猎犬。
      在古老的沙漠狩猎中,人们通常是以老鹰作前锋去拦截猎物,萨路基犬则紧跟在后捕捉猎物,并了结猎物的生命。当人们已经疲惫时,萨路基犬仍会奋勇向前,冲往猎人所不能够达到的极限。那时,萨路基犬往往会先被放在马鞍上,让它们能够得到足够的休息,等到需要的时候再去飞奔急驰。如今,它们会坐在设备精良的四驱吉普车上被带往猎场,而流淌在它们血液中那狩猎的欲望和必胜的信心是永远不会改变的。
      它,是你的骄傲
      还会有什么狗种比萨路基犬更高贵吗?答案是否定的。不相信?告诉你几件事。
      早在公元前7000年,萨路基犬已经出现在壁画和石雕中。
      公元前4200年的波斯壶上,有近似萨路基犬的描绘。
      它在《圣经》中的形象,正是历史上第一次给“狗”这个字下了定义。
      它的名字来源于一个已经消失在沙漠中的古老的阿拉伯城镇。
      古埃及的法老们已经用萨路基犬来狩猎,从埃及古墓里发现了萨路基犬的木乃伊。
      中世纪的回教教徒视它为真主所赐的礼物,只要是萨路基犬捕获的猎物,即使是四教禁食之物也被允许吃,其它狗猎来的动物则被认为是不洁净的。
      它可以睡在酋长祈祷时专用的圣毯上,可以和主人享用同样的食物,甚至幼犬可以和小孩子一起吃人类妇女的奶水。
      如果你说这些都是久远的传说,那么听一听这个发生在近代的故事。一位海关官员看到一张萨路基犬的进关单上所申报的是“狗”,便拒绝盖通关章,直到单子上的品名被改成“萨路基犬”时,他才盖章放行。
    在古欧洲,很多绘画中出现的犬只都很像萨路基,它们有着流线型的体格和长长的垂耳。 1840年,英国的汉密尔顿先生把这一古老的犬种介绍给了文明世界,正是他带回的三头犬让欧洲及更多地区的人们开始了解并喜欢这一幽雅的犬种。 在欧洲,萨路基更多的是做为玩赏伴侣犬,偶尔会做为猎犬追逐兔子。
      其实,即便抛开这些陈年往事不说,一只萨路基犬本身就足以证明它的高贵。
      在萨路基犬俊美的脸上有着一双敏锐的眼睛,长长的双耳、尾巴和腿部覆有丝般的长毛,体态如图画一般和谐,即使在高速追捕猎物的时候都可以不吁不喘,保持着自己的风度。这只古老的沙漠王子,永远都是聚光灯下闪闪发亮的巨星。

Saluki Breed Standard


Head
Long and narrow, skull moderately wide between the ears, not domed, stop not pronounced, the whole showing great quality. Nose black or liver. Ears Long and covered with long silky hair hanging close to the skull and mobile. Eyes Dark to hazel and bright; large and oval, but not prominent. Teeth Strong and level.

Neck
Long, supple and well muscled.

Chest
Deep and moderately narrow.

Forequarters
Shoulders sloping and set well back, well muscled without being coarse. Forelegs Straight and long from the elbow to the knee.

Hindquarters
Strong, hipbones set well apart and stifle moderately bent, hocks low to the ground, showing galloping and jumping power.

Loin and Back
Back fairly broad, muscles slightly arched over loin.

Feet
Of moderate length, toes long and well arched, not splayed out, but at the same time not cat-footed; the whole being strong and supple and well feathered between the toes.

Tail
Long, set on low and carried naturally in a curve, well feathered on the underside with long silky hair, not bushy.

Coat
Smooth and of a soft silky texture, slight feather on the legs, feather at the back of the thighs and sometimes with slight woolly feather on the thigh and shoulder.

Colors
White, cream, fawn, golden, red, grizzle and tan, tricolor (white, black and tan) and black and tan.

General Appearance
The whole appearance of this breed should give an impression of grace and symmetry and of great speed and endurance coupled with strength and activity to enable it to kill gazelle or other quarry over deep sand or rocky mountains. The expression should be dignified and gentle with deep, faithful, far-seeing eyes. Dogs should average in height from 23 to 28 inches and bitches may be considerably smaller, this being very typical of the breed.

The Smooth Variety
In this variety the points should be the same with the exception of the coat, which has no feathering.

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:18:33 | 显示全部楼层


罗德西亚背脊犬(Rhodesian Ridgeback)

原产地:南非起源时期:19世纪

起初用途:狩猎

现在用途:安全、伴侣

寿命:12年

别名:非洲狮子犬

体重范围:30-39千克

身高范围:61-69厘米

一些资料显示,南非的霍屯督人将脊背犬作为猎犬和伴侣犬。19世纪,当欧洲人在此定居时,饲养荷兰和德国獒、嗅觉猎犬,这些犬和本地犬杂交后,形成今天的犬。1922年,津巴布韦召开的育种会议上,制定了这种健壮的犬的标准。南非狩猎大型动物的猎人将这种犬带到了“狮子之国”的津巴布韦。与绰号相反,从来不用这种犬攻击大型动物狮子,而是嗅猎大型猎物。这种犬通过吠叫引起猎人的注意,他们高大的体形和力量使其免受攻击。由于他们的忠诚和富有感情,因此今天不用这种犬来狩猎,而作为警卫犬和伴侣犬。

Rhodesian Ridgeback Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Ridgeback represents a strong, muscular and active dog, symmetrical and balanced in outline. A mature Ridgeback is a handsome, upstanding and athletic dog, capable of great endurance with a fair (good) amount of speed. Of even, dignified temperament, the Ridgeback is devoted and affectionate to his master, reserved with strangers. The peculiarity of this breed is the ridge on the back. The ridge must be regarded as the characteristic feature of the breed.

Size, Proportion, Substance
A mature Ridgeback should be symmetrical in outline, slightly longer than tall but well balanced. Dogs--25 to 27 inches in height; Bitches--24 to 26 inches in height. Desirable weight: Dogs--85 pounds; Bitches--70 pounds.

Head
Should be of fair length, the skull flat and rather broad between the ears and should be free from wrinkles when in repose. The stop should be reasonably well defined. Eyes--should be moderately well apart and should be round, bright and sparkling with intelligent expression, their color harmonizing with the color of the dog. Ears--should be set rather high, of medium size, rather wide at the base and tapering to a rounded point. They should be carried close to the head. Muzzle--should be long, deep and powerful. The lips clean, closely fitting the jaws. Nose--should be black, brown or liver, in keeping with the color of the dog. No other colored nose is permissible. A black nose should be accompanied by dark eyes, a brown or liver nose with amber eyes. Bite--jaws level and strong with well-developed teeth, especially the canines or holders. Scissors bite preferred.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck should be fairly strong and free from throatiness. The chest should not be too wide, but very deep and capacious, ribs moderately well sprung, never rounded like barrel hoops (which would indicate want of speed). The back is powerful and firm with strong loins which are muscular and slightly arched. The tail should be strong at the insertion and generally tapering towards the end, free from coarseness. It should not be inserted too high or too low and should be carried with a slight curve upwards, never curled or gay.

Forequarters
The shoulders should be sloping, clean and muscular, denoting speed. Elbows close to the body. The forelegs should be perfectly straight, strong and heavy in bone. The feet should be compact with well-arched toes, round, tough, elastic pads, protected by hair between the toes and pads. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters
In the hindlegs the muscles should be clean, well defined and hocks well down. Feet as in front.

Coat
Should be short and dense, sleek and glossy in appearance but neither woolly nor silky.

Color
Light wheaten to red wheaten. A little white on the chest and toes permissible but excessive white there, on the belly or above the toes is undesirable.

Ridge
The hallmark of this breed is the ridge on the back which is formed by the hair growing in the opposite direction to the rest of the coat. The ridge must be regarded as the characteristic feature of the breed. The ridge should be clearly defined, tapering and symmetrical. It should start immediately behind the shoulders and continue to a point between the prominence of the hips and should contain two identical crowns (whorls) directly opposite each other. The lower edge of the crowns (whorls) should not extend further down the ridge than one third of the ridge.

Disqualification: Ridgelessness. Serious Fault: One crown (whorl) or more than two crowns (whorls).

Gait
At the trot, the back is held level and the stride is efficient, long, free and unrestricted. Reach and drive expressing a perfect balance between power and elegance. At the chase, the Ridgeback demonstrates great coursing ability and endurance.

Temperament
Dignified and even tempered. Reserved with strangers.

Scale of Points
General appearance, size, symmetry and balance 20
Ridge 20
Head 15
Legs and Feet 15
Neck and Shoulders 10
Body, Back, Chest and Loin 10
Coat and Color 5
Tail 5
Total 100

Disqualification
Ridgelessness

Approved August 11, 1992
Effective September 30, 1992

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:23:40 | 显示全部楼层

布劳特猎犬(PLOTT HOUND)
英文名:  PLOTT HOUND
   
品种:  嗅觉猎犬
   
性格特征:  一般适合小孩,不适合城市生活,适合炎热的天气,不需要经常梳理被毛,需要大量的身体训练.
   
用途变化:  起源时期:18世纪;起初用途:猎熊;现在用途:枪猎犬、伴侣;
   
产地血统:  强壮的浣熊猎犬能吃苦耐劳,所以布劳特猎犬家庭成员对这种体大和喜群居的猎犬进行了250年的选育,以便能更有效地在美国东部的阿巴拉契亚山脉、蓝山山脉和大烟山地区猎熊和浣熊。布劳特猎犬有非常尖而高的声音,而不像其他浣熊猎犬有洪亮的叫声。这种犬肌肉发达,体形很瘦,有从白天直到深夜连续狩猎的耐力和精力。它们具有典型的美国浣熊猎犬式的深深的胸腔。它们能很快地吃大量的食物,这使其易于发生胃扭转,这是威胁生命的一种胃病。在南部州以外的地区很少见到这种犬,它们也很少单独作为伴侣犬。
   
体型体重:  身高:51厘米~61厘米  体重:20公斤~24公斤
   
寿命:  12-13年
   
毛色特征:  黑色斑纹短毛,蓝色短毛
   
体态特征:  耳朵悬垂,但稍微有些折皱,短的被毛粗壮、浓密有光泽,当犬警觉时,长尾巴高竖,强壮的脚上有网状脚趾,瘦削且暴发力强的大腿肌肉提供能量
   
优缺点点评:  一般适合小孩,不适合城市生活,适合炎热的天气,不需要经常梳理被毛.
   
市场参考价:  通常人民币10,000元以上

 速度快,耐力惊人,健壮顽强,喜欢群居,声音高亢,需要从小进行严格而温和的训练。运动量非常大,不太适合城市生活,被毛应该经常梳理,还要经常检查耳朵。最好不要一次喂给大量食物,饭后不要剧烈运动,防止胃扭转。
Plott Breed Standard


The Plott may have an identification mark on the rump used to identify the dog when out hunting. Such a mark is not to be penalized when evaluating the dog.

General Appearance
A hunting hound of striking color that traditionally brings big game to bay or tree, the Plott is intelligent, alert and confident. Noted for stamina, endurance, agility, determination and aggressiveness when hunting, the powerful, well muscled, yet streamlined Plott combines courage with athletic ability.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--Height--Males--20 to 25 inches at the withers. Females 20 to 23 inches at the withers. Proportion--General conformation and height in proportion. Faults: Extremely leggy or close to the ground. Weight--(in hunting condition) Males-- 50 to 60 pounds. Females 40 to 55 pounds. Substance--Moderately boned. Strong, yet quick and agile. Faults: Overdone. Carrying too much weight and or to much bone to display speed and dexterity.

Head
Head--Carried well up with skin fitting moderately tight. Faults: Folds, dewlap, skin stretched too tightly. Expression--Confident, inquisitive, determined. Fault: Sad expression. Eyes--Brown or hazel, prominent rather than deeply set. Faults: Drooping eyelids, red haw. Ears--Medium length, soft textured, fairly broad, set moderately high to high. Hanging gracefully with the inside part rolling forward toward the muzzle. Ear spread in males--18 to 20 inches. Ear spread in females--17 to 19 inches. When attentive or inquisitive, some Plotts display a semi-erectile power in their ears and lift them enough so a noticeable crease occurs on line with the crown. Disqualification: Length of ear extending beyond the tip of the nose or hanging bloodhound-like, in long, pendulous fashion. Skull--Moderately flat. Rounded at the crown with sufficient width between and above the eyes. Faults: Narrow-headed, square, oval or excessively domed. Muzzle--Moderate length, flews give it a squarish appearance. Faults: Bluntly squared. Pointed. Pigmentation--Eye rims, lips and nose are black. Flews--Black. Fault: Pendulous flews. Bite--Teeth-Scissors. Fault: Overshot or undershot.

Neck, Topline and Body
Neck--Medium length and muscular. Clean and free of ponderous dewlap. Fault: Loose, wrinkled or folded skin. Topline--Gently sloping, slightly higher at the withers than at the hips. Fault: Roached. Body-Chest--Deep. Ribs--Deep, moderately wide, well sprung. Back--Well muscled, strong, level. Loin--Slightly arched. Tail--Root is slightly below level of topline. Rather long, carried free, well up, saber like. Moderately heavy in appearance and strongly tapered. Sometimes typified by a slight brush.

Forequarters
Shoulders--Clean, muscular and sloping, indicating speed and strength. Elbow--Squarely set. Forelegs--Straight, smooth, well muscled. Pasterns--Strong and erect. Feet--Firm, tight, wellpadded and knuckled, with strong toes. Set directly under the leg. Disqualification--Splayed feet. Nails--Usually black, although shades of reddish brown matching the brindle body color are permissible and buckskin colored dogs have light red nails. May be white when portions of the feet are white.

Hindquarters
Angulation--Well bent at stifles and at the hocks. Hips--Smooth, round, and proportionally wide, indicating efficient propulsion. Legs--Long and muscular from hip to hock. From hock to pad short, strong and at right angles to the ground. Upper and second thigh--Powerful and well-muscled. Feet--Set back from under the body. Firm and tight. Toes--Strong.

Coat
Smooth, fine, glossy, but thick enough to provide protection from wind and water. rare specimens are double coated, with a short, soft, thick inner coat concealed by a longer, smoother and stiffer outer coat.

Color
Any shade of brindle (a streaked or striped pattern of dark hair imposed on a lighter background) is preferred. This includes the following brindle factors: yellow, buckskin, tan, brown, chocolate, liver, orange, red, light or dark gray, blue or Maltese, dilute black, and black. Other acceptable Plott colors are solid black, any shade of brindle, with black saddle, and black with brindle trim. A rare buckskin, devoid of any brindle, sometimes appears among litters; ranging from red fawn, sandy red, light cream, and yellow ochre, to dark fawn and golden tan. Some white on chest and feet is permissible as is a graying effect around the jaws and muzzle.

Gait
Dexterous and graceful, rhythmic footfall. With ample reach in front and drive behind, the Plott easily traverses various terrains with agility and speed. Legs converge to single track at speed.

Temperament
Eager to please, loyal, intelligent, alert. Aggressive, bold, and fearless hunter. Disposition generally even, but varies among strains, with a distinction sometimes appearing between those bred for big game and those bred as coonhounds.

Disqualifications
Length of ear extending beyond the tip of the nose or hanging bloodhound-like, in long, pendulous fashion. Splayed feet.

Approved: June 1998
Effective: October 1, 1998

[ 本帖最后由 薄荷清香 于 2007-6-10 11:27 编辑 ]

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:25:56 | 显示全部楼层


法老王猎犬Pharaoh Hound

[简介]

整体外观是优雅,有力,速度快。法老王猎犬是一种中型犬,血统高贵,轮廓鲜明,线条优美。动作非常平稳、迅速、舒展、轻松,表情警惕。下面所描述的是一个理想的法老王猎犬。任何背离下面所描述的特征的地方都属于缺陷,并需要根据别离的程度扣分。

[历史]

法老猎犬原产于马耳他。公元前3000年时候古代埃及羚羊狩猎狗活跃,有了腓尼基商人把它从埃及带到马耳他岛屿的说法。它在马耳他岛屿是猎捕兔子使用,打猎性能最出色的犬。1979年被指定为马耳他共和国国家犬。虽然在1930年左右被带到英国,可惜没有记录下来,被知道的初次登台是1963年世界的狗界展览。

[体型]

肩高:雄性约为58.4~63.5厘米;雌性约为53.3~61.1厘米。必须保证整体的平衡。身体的长度(从前胸骨到臀骨的距离)略大于肩高。身体柔韧。

[头部]

表情警惕。眼睛:琥珀色,与被毛颜色相称,卵形,位置略深,眼神锐利而聪明。耳朵:位置为中等高度,警惕时,耳朵直立,但非常灵活,耳根部宽,耳朵大而细腻。脑袋:长,倾斜,且轮廓分明。止部轻微。前脸的长度略大于脑袋,脑袋的轮廓与口吻平行,头部呈钝楔形。鼻镜:肉色,与被毛颜色相称,没有其他颜色。咬和:有力的颌部,结实的牙齿。呈剪状咬和。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:长,倾斜,肌肉发达,轻微地圆拱,使头部高高昂起。喉咙线条整洁。背线:差不多是笔直的。从臀部处到尾根处略微倾斜。身躯:柔韧,胸深差不多达到肘部。肋骨支撑良好。适度上提。尾巴:位置适中,根部相当粗,尖端细,象鞭子一样,休息时下垂,延伸到飞节处。运动时,尾巴举起,且弯曲。尾巴不能夹在两腿中间。螺丝状的尾巴属于缺陷。

[前躯]

肩胛:长而向后倾斜。结实但没有抗肩膀。肘部:角度恰当。前腿:直而彼此平行。?f骨结实。狼爪可以被切除。足爪:既不是猫足、也不是兔足,但很结实;关节发达且稳固,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。脚垫厚实。

[后躯]

结实而肌肉发达。后肢彼此平行。膝关节适度后掠,第二节大腿清晰。狼爪可以切除,足爪与前肢相同。

[被毛]

短而有光泽,从细腻而紧贴身体到略显粗糙都可以,没有饰毛。由于事故而形成的疤痕不属于缺陷。

[颜色]

从鲜艳的褐色到栗色都允许,允许出现的白色斑纹如下:白色的尾巴尖是十分理想的。胸前出现白色斑纹(称为\"星斑\")。白色足爪或在脸部中间出现白筋是允许的。斑点或其他白色斑纹则不合需要,在颈部背面、肩部、背部或身体两侧的部分区域有纯白色斑块,则属于失格。

[步态]

舒展、流畅;头部保持高高昂起的姿势,步幅相当大,而没有任何吃力的迹象。腿和足爪在与身体行进方相同方向的直线上运动。足爪向侧面甩动或抬腿太高(马步姿势)都属于明确的缺陷。

[性格]

聪明、友善、感情丰富,且顽皮。警惕而活跃,非常忠实而敏锐的猎犬,视觉和嗅觉都很好。

[失格]

在颈部背面、肩部、背部或身体两侧的部分区域有纯白色斑块,则属于失格。



标准通过日期:1983年5月10日

标准执行日期:1989年4月 3日





Pharaoh Hound Breed Standard


General Appearance
General Appearance is one of grace, power and speed. The Pharaoh Hound is medium sized, of noble bearing with hard clean-cut lines-graceful, well balanced, very fast with free easy movement and alert expression.

The following description is that of the ideal Pharaoh Hound. Any deviation from the below described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height--Dogs 23 inches--25 inches. Bitches 21 inches--24 inches. Allover balance must be maintained. Length of body from breast to haunch bone slightly longer than height of withers to ground. Lithe.

Head
Alert expression. Eyes amber colored, blending with coat; oval, moderately deep set with keen intelligent expression. Ears medium high set, carried erect when alert, but very mobile, broad at the base, fine and large. Skull long, lean and chiseled. Only slight stop. Foreface slightly longer than the skull. Top of the skull parallel with the foreface representing a blunt wedge. Nose flesh colored, blending with the coat. No other color. Powerful jaws with strong teeth. Scissors bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck long, lean and muscular with a slight arch to carry the head on high. Clean throat line. Almost straight topline. Slight slope from croup to root of tail. Body lithe. Deep brisket almost down to point of elbow. Ribs well sprung. Moderate tuck-up. Tail medium set -- fairly thick at the base and tapering whip-like, reaching below the point of hock in repose. Well carried and curved when in action. The tail should not be tucked between the legs. A screw tail is a fault.

Forequarters
Shoulders long and sloping and well laid back. Strong without being loaded. Elbows well tucked in. Forelegs straight and parallel. Pasterns strong. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet neither cat nor hare but strong, well knuckled and firm, turning neither in nor out. Paws well padded.

Hindquarters
Strong and muscular. Limbs parallel. Moderate sweep of stifle. Well developed second thigh. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet as in front.

Coat
Short and glossy, ranging from fine and close to slightly harsh with no feathering. Accident blemishes should not be considered as faults.

Color
Ranging from tan/rich, tan/chestnut with white markings allowed as follows: White tip on tail strongly desired. White on chest (called \"the Star\"). White on toes and slim white snip on center line of face permissible. Flecking or other white undesirable, except for any solid white spot on the back of neck, shoulder, or any part of the back or sides of the dog, which is a disqualification.

Gait
Free and flowing; the head should be held fairly high and the dog should cover the ground well without any apparent effort. The legs and feet should move in line with the body; any tendency to throw the feet sideways, or a high stepping \"hackney\" action is a definite fault.

Temperament
Intelligent, friendly, affectionate and playful. Alert and active. Very fast with a marked keenness for hunting, both by sight and scent.

Disqualification
Any solid white spot on the back of neck, shoulder, or any part of the back or sides of the dog.

Approved May 10, 1983
Effective April 3, 1989

[ 本帖最后由 薄荷清香 于 2007-6-10 11:35 编辑 ]

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:31:13 | 显示全部楼层


小型格里芬巴塞特犬(Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen)



小型格里芬巴塞特犬(Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

小型格里芬巴塞特犬是一种嗅觉猎犬,培养目的是用来在崎岖艰难的芬凡丁地区捕捉小型猎物。为了有效的功能,它需要具有一些特别的特征。它大胆而活泼,结构紧凑、坚固,精力充沛。它的外观警惕,活泼,大嗓门。最独特的特征在于,这种大胆的猎犬具有粗糙、未加修饰的轮廓;骄傲地昂着头,显示出威严的眉毛、髭须和胡须;警惕时或准备就绪时,它那结实、锥形的尾巴象马刀那样举着。这一品种的重要特点在于简洁、不经意,而且乱七八糟的外貌,没有过分夸张的地方,各部分都很协调。

所有背离下面所描述的理想标准的地方都属于缺陷,并根据背离的程度进行扣分。结构方面的缺陷(有些标准与其他品种一样),也不受欢迎,不论是否在标准中明确描述出来。

[历史]

小型格里芬巴塞特犬,一种有许多小斑点的法国猎犬,有着古老的血统,它的历史可以追寻到16世纪。它在法文中的名字展现了它的特征。petit――小,Basset―贴近地面,Griffon――毛糙,Vendéen――这种猎犬在法国的起源地。在美国大家喜欢称它为“帕蒂”,在英国称上为“巴塞特”,在丹麦则称之为“格里芬”或“帕蒂”。

    这种小猎犬有着聪明的头脑,显露出独特的个性魅力。这是对这种小犬最直接和最主要的印象,但是一头猎犬的发展是在于它的嗅觉。它的生理条件直接与法国西海岸――vendéen的地理环境,如草丛、岩石、棘荆等相关。恶劣的地面条件要求犬要坚强、警觉、勇敢,有耐心和聪明,不仅要求身体而且精神坚强。

    小型格里芬巴塞特犬是法国现有28种猎犬之中骄傲的一员,到今天为止它们一直在尽忠职守。它们被用在些小的狩猎场所,由于是捕捉兔子,它们一样在欧洲其他国家中被使用,还有美国和加拿大。

    法国猎犬的大小是决定了它们所参加的狩猎活动。大型格里芬巴塞特犬被用于大的狩猎,如狩牝.鹿、狼,而小型格里芬巴塞特犬用于追踪和驱赶小型的猎物,如兔子、野兔,有些时候适用于猎禽类。

    直到19世纪中叶对于这种犬类的特征还没有一个严格的标准,到1898年当第一个格里芬巴塞特犬标准建立时,它们才有了明显的分类。代扎米俱乐部――由皮奈尔代扎米来创建的组织(皮奈尔代扎米――第一位经理,他的俱乐部名为新格里芬巴塞特犬基地,1907),是第一个被记载分开并设立标准的人,在那时他们为小格里芬巴塞特犬和大格里芬巴塞特犬制定出个标准。在1909年格里芬巴塞特犬被认为有两种大小――一种肩高为33.0~38.1厘米,另一种肩高为38.1~43.2厘米。格里芬巴塞特犬特定为稍矮的一种33.0~38.1厘米,并且有时腿会有一点弯曲。高一些的叫做大格里芬巴塞特犬,它们通常有比较直的腿。

    直到1950年出版了一本新书让格里芬巴塞特犬的养主们考虑把自己的犬进行分类是“大格里芬巴塞特犬”,还是“巴塞特”。在法国的展览会当时是根据它们的血统进行分类,并且被登记下来。保罗代扎米自己虽然没有养小格里芬巴塞特犬,但他成名在另一头大格里芬巴塞特犬。

    最后到了1975年,第三任俱乐部主席哈拜特扎米的时期,混养小格里芬巴塞特犬和大格里芬巴塞特犬的历史结束了。但是长期的混养和训练的结果却使小格里芬巴塞特犬和大格里芬巴塞特犬至今为止的个性还是非常地相似,正因为如此,才有了严格的体形要求。希望饲养它们的人可以更好地了解它们的个性和分类。

    小格里芬巴塞特犬俱乐部于1984年在美国AKC中心展览馆开业,为的是在美国大陆保护和提高饲养训练水准。正式的AKC俱乐部的注册在1990年12月1日开始。他们于1991年2月1日正式成立公司。

[体型]

大小:不论什么性别,肩高都应该在33.0~38.1厘米之间,误差在1.27厘米之内是可以接受的。肩高大于39.4厘米属于失格。比例:体长大于身高,正确的比例是从胸骨到臀部的距离比肩高要长约50%。体质:骨骼结实,与整体比例协调。

[头部]

头部骄傲地昂起,从大小来看,头部与整体尺寸比例协调。长度大于宽度,比例约为2/1。粗糙或过大的头部属于缺陷。表情:警惕、友善、且聪明。眼睛:大,且颜色深,没有白色,红色的下眼睑(瞬膜)不应该显示出来。被长长的、向前伸出的眉毛所衬托,但决不能遮住眼睛。耳朵:柔软,窄而细腻,被长长的毛发所遮盖,向内折叠,末端呈卵形。耳廓能延伸到鼻尖。耳朵位置低,不应该高过眼睛。过分长或位置太高的耳朵属于缺陷。

脑袋:圆拱,从前面观察,呈卵形。眼睛下方象被切去一块,后枕骨发达(突出)。止部清晰。口吻:口吻的长度比从止部到后枕骨的距离略短。下颚结实,且发达。鼻镜:黑色,大,宽阔的鼻孔。浅色犬在鼻镜上有浅色阴影是允许的。嘴唇:嘴唇上覆盖着长长的毛发,形成髭须和胡须。咬合:剪状咬合最为理想,但钳状咬合也可以接受。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:颈部长而结实,无赘肉,平稳地融如肩部。背线:后背水平,腰部略微圆拱且结实。从轮廓上观察,马肩隆到地面的距离与臀部到地面的距离相等。身躯:肌肉发达,长度略大于身高。胸部深,胸骨突出。肋骨略圆,充分向后延伸。腰部结实;肌肉发达,且身体横轴显得很圆。尾巴:中等长度,位置高,根部粗壮,呈均匀的锥形。长有丰富的毛发,但略微弯曲,骄傲地举着,象马刀的刀刃。,与垂直线成大约20度角。如果尾巴向下弯,其尾骨的末端大约可以延伸到飞节的位置。

[前躯]

肩胛:整洁,向后倾斜。上臂骨的长度与肩胛骨大致相等。肘部紧贴身躯。腿:从肘部到地面的长度略小于从马肩隆到地面距离的1/2。从前面观察,前腿直是比较理想的,但略微弯曲也可以接受。腿部结实且骨量充足。?f骨结实且略微倾斜。任何关节突出的迹象都属于严重缺陷。狼爪:也许有,也许没有,可以切除。足爪:不长,脚垫坚硬、厚实。足爪轻微外翻是允许的。趾甲结实而短。

[后躯]

结实,肌肉发达,膝关节角度恰当。第二节大腿清晰。飞节短,角度良好,自飞节到地面完全垂直。足爪与前躯相同,但笔直指向前方。

[被毛]

被毛粗糙,长,不夸张,触摸的感觉粗涩。带有浓厚而短的底毛。被毛不能呈丝状或羊毛状。眼睛被长长的、伸展出来的眉毛所衬托,但不能遮住眼睛。耳朵上长有毛发。嘴唇上的长毛构成了髭须和胡须。尾巴上的毛发丰富。整个外貌显得不经意,且乱糟糟的。

它应该显示出未修饰的外观。修剪被毛或雕琢外形都属于非常严重的缺陷。

[颜色]

白色带有柠檬色,橘色、黑色、三色或灰色等不同颜色(组合)的斑纹。

[步态]

动作显得舒展而迅速。前躯动作是笔直向前伸展。离开时(从后面观察),后肢彼此平行,且显示出强大的驱动力。随着速度增加,由于地心引力的作用,前后足爪向内(身体中心线)收拢。可以看到,它是一个活泼的猎犬,可以长时间捕猎。

[性格]

快乐,外向,独立,但容易满足。

[失格]

肩高大于39.4厘米。



标准通过日期:1990年8月14日

标准执行日期:1991年2月 1日



Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen

Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen Breed Standard


General Appearance - The Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen is a French scent hound developed first and foremost to hunt small game over the rough and difficult terrain of the Vendéen region. To function efficiently, he must be equipped with certain characteristics. He is bold and vivacious in character; compact, tough and robust in construction. He has an alert outlook, lively bearing and a good voice freely and purposefully used.

The most distinguishing characteristics of this bold hunter are: his rough, unrefined outlines; his proudly carried head displaying definitive long eyebrows, beard, and moustache; his strong, tapered tail carried like a saber, alert and in readiness. Important to breed type is the compact, casual, rather tousled appearance, with no feature exaggerated and his parts in balance.

Any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural faults common to all breeds are as undesirable in the PBGV as in any other breed, regardless of whether they are specifically mentioned.

Size, Proportion, Substance - Size -- Both sexes should measure between 13 and 15 inches at the withers. Height of adult dogs over 15 inches or under 13 inches at the withers is a disqualification. Proportion -- When viewed in profile, the body is somewhat longer than tall when measured from point of shoulder to buttocks, as compared to the height from withers to ground. Substance - Strong bone with substance in proportion to overall dog.

Head - The head is carried proudly and, in size, must be in balance with the overall dog. It is longer than its width in a ratio of approximately two to one. A coarse or overly large head is to be penalized. Expression alert, friendly and intelligent. Eyes large and dark with good pigmentation, somewhat oval in shape, showing no white. The red of the lower eyelid should not show. The eyes are surmounted by long eyebrows, standing forward, but not obscuring the eyes. Ears supple, narrow and fine, covered with long hair, folding inward and ending in an oval shape. The leathers reach almost to the end of the nose. They are set on low, below the line of the eyes. An overly long or high-set ear should be penalized.

Skull domed, oval in shape when viewed from the front. It is well cut away under the eyes and has a well developed occipital protuberance. Stop clearly defined. Muzzle - The length of the muzzle from nose to stop is slightly shorter than the length from the stop to occiput. The underjaw is strong and well developed. Nose black and large, with wide nostrils. A somewhat lighter shading is acceptable in lighter colored dogs. A butterfly nose is a fault. Lips - The lips are covered by long hair forming a beard and moustache. Bite - It is preferable that the teeth meet in a scissors bite, but a level bite is acceptable.

Neck, Topline, Body - Neck - The neck is long and strong, without throatiness, and flows smoothly into the shoulders. Topline - The back is visibly level from withers to croup. There is a barely perceptible rise over a strong loin. Viewed in profile, the withers and the croup should be equidistant from the ground. Body muscular, somewhat longer than tall. Compact, casual in appearance, with no feature exaggerated and his parts in balance. Chest rather deep, with prominent sternum. Ribs moderately rounded, extending well back. Loin short, strong, and muscular. There is but little tuck-up. Tail of medium length, set on high, it is strong at the base and tapers regularly. It is well furnished with hair, has but a slight curve and is carried proudly like the blade of a saber; normally pointing at about two o\'clock. In a curved downward position the tip of the tail bone should reach no further than the hock joint.

Forequarters - Shoulders clean and well laid back. Upper arm approximately equal in length to the shoulder blade. Elbows close to the body. Legs - The length of leg from elbow to ground should be slightly more than ? the height from withers to ground. Viewed from the front, it is desirable that the forelegs be straight, but a slight crook is acceptable. In either case, the leg appears straight, is strong and well boned, but never coarse nor weedy. Improperly constructed front assemblies, including poor shoulder placement, short upper arms, out at elbows, lack of angulation and fiddle fronts, are all serious faults. Pasterns strong and slightly sloping. Any tendency to knuckle over is a serious fault. Dewclaws may, or may not, be removed. Feet not too long, between hare and cat foot, with hard, tight pads. The nails are strong and short.

Hindquarters - Strong and muscular with good bend of stifle. A well-defined second thigh. Hips wide, thighs well muscled. Hocks are short and well angulated, perpendicular from hock to ground. Feet are as in front. Except that they must point straight ahead.

Coat - The coat is rough, long without exaggeration and harsh to the touch, with a thick shorter undercoat. It is never silky or woolly. The eyes are surmounted by long eyebrows, standing forward but not obscuring the eyes. The ears are covered by long hair. The lips are covered by long hair forming a beard and moustache. The tail is well furnished with hair. The overall appearance is casual and tousled.

The natural, casual and tousled appearance of the breed is vitally important. While some neatening is occasionally necessary, he should be shown naturally. Dogs whose coat has been altered by excessive grooming, sculpting, clipping, or by artificial means shall be so severely penalized as to be effectively eliminated from competition.

Color - White with any combination of lemon, orange, black, sable, tricolor or grizzle markings, providing easy visibility in the field.

Gait - The movement should be free at all speeds. Front action is straight and reaching well forward. Going away, the hind legs are parallel and have great drive. Convergence of the front and rear legs towards his center of gravity is proportional to the speed of his movement. Gives the appearance of an active hound, capable of a full day\'s hunting.

Temperament - Confident, happy, extroverted, independent yet willing to please, never timid nor aggressive.

Disqualification
Height, of both sexes at one year of age or older, over 15 inches or under 13 inches at the withers is a disqualification.

Approved July 12, 2005
Effective August 31, 2005

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:33:10 | 显示全部楼层

猎獭犬(Otterhound)

[简介]

    猎獭犬是大型硬毛猎犬,强壮而有威严。它强壮的身体,长距离的奔跑很适合整日工作。猎獭犬有着异常灵敏的嗅觉,可以轻易地追踪各种气味。它们凭着浓密坚硬的被毛,像蹼一样的脚掌,驰骋于陆地与河流湖泊之间。

[历史]

    首份关于猎獭犬的记载出现在约翰国王统治英格兰的1199~1216年间,在爱德华二世(1307~1327年)的统治之间,这种犬一直受到人们的重视,之后却逐渐受到冷落。但幸运的是,在威廉、特茨的努力下,发现了关于猎獭犬的记录,他开始注意这种近似于猎犬与梗之间的大型犬。

    用猎獭犬进行狩猎活动一直不是英格兰的主流运动,但它却在很早以前就出现了。开始使用猎獭犬狩猎仅仅是因为它们喜欢对江河溪流中的鱼类发生兴趣。后来,用猎獭犬狩猎风靡一时,因为这是惟一一种可以从4―9月直进行狩猎的犬种。

    猎獭犬风靡的全盛时期为19世纪的中晚期。那时大约有18~20群猎獭犬。其中比较著名的种群有霍克斯通种与詹费端?希尔种。后者从1870~1890年间共繁殖了704头猎獭犬。

    所有犬业人士都同意英格兰的克里泽奥的劳麦克斯地方的猎獭犬是最训练有素的种群。

    猎獭犬的起源至今神秘而末知,但对其进行最早记载的作者对此有自己的看法。根据史前巨石阵的记载,它们的祖先是南方猎犬与威尔士猎兔犬。这点根据来自德文郡的犬量猎獭犬,以及南方猎犬与威尔士猎兔犬可以看出。

    E?巴克利接受这一观点,它们的被毛类似长耳水犬,耐久力如同斗牛犬。另有一些人从体形,结构、长度与耳上认为它们与寻血猎犬有许多相似之处。1575年,特博威利的著作中并没有将寻血猎犬与猎獭犬做出区分。猎獭犬的起源来于法国的根据似乎也颇有道理,因为有人认为猎獭犬简直就是法国温迪猎犬的复制品一样。这两种犬从身形与被毛上相比太相像了。

    猎獭犬是大型犬,高61.0~8.6厘米,重达34.02~2.16千克。被毛浓密坚硬而且有大量油性物质分泌,这样使其可以抵御雨水的浸泡。有意思的是,它们的毛色为蓝白相间并有黑色与棕褐色的过渡。它们擅长游泳。在通过水流时,主要依靠它那蹼一样的爪。猎獭犬首先出现在美国大约是1900年。于1907年在俄克拉荷马州被展出,并于当年注册记录。

[体型]

    公犬肩高约68.6厘米,重52.16千克;母犬约高61.0厘米,重36.29千克。但并非绝对,只是大概指标。猎獭犬身体略成长方形;身体略大于身高。猎獭犬骨骼强健,肌肉发达,有着强壮的四肢。

[头部]

    头大,想但狭窄,覆有严密的被毛,从吻部到枕骨约长27.9~30.5厘米,至肩部约66.0厘米。肌肉结实而有力,表情热情而友好,眼深陷,深色但略有其他颜色的色素带,鼻与眼周为肝脏色或紫褐色,耳部形态为这一犬种的基本特征,耳朵下垂而摇摆,低过眼部贴紧面部,有时可达吻部。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

    颈部微曲有力,被毛长而密。肌肉发达、厚实。背轮廓线较平直。成犬胸深可达肘关节。前胸明显,这为其强大的耐力提供了身体条件。胸廓大而有弹性,胸宽,肌肉发达,呼吸深长而有力。腰短宽而强健。尾高耸长度可达跗关节。尾巴基部较细而末断较蓬松(覆有松软被毛),当犬奔跑时,尾巴成一直线拖于身后,休息时可下垂。

[前躯]

    肩部轮廓清晰,倾斜,肩关节与肘关节成中等角度。腿长而顺畅并且强健。前肢狼爪可移动。脚朝前,大而宽,紧凑,在水中可以撑开划水。像禽类的脚蹼一样。

[后躯]

    大腿与小腿长而宽,肌肉发达,腿略弯曲。跗关节下垂,但并不向里翻或向外展,从前看,站立时双腿互相平行。

[被毛]

    长有硬毛与细毛,浓密坚硬,并分泌油性物质,在水中可以抵抗水的浸泡,而软毛可以保暖。这使得猎獭犬的手感应为表面坚硬而下面柔软而有弹性。被毛可长达15.2厘米。

[颜色]

    所有花色均可以被接纳。但鼻与眼圈的颜色应为深色,例如肝脏色。

[步态]

    跑动轻盈稳健,平顺而能坚持奔跑数千米。但平时走动闲散而放松,略有颠跛。猎獭犬在慢跑时呈单一轨轨迹步态,而且脚离地不高。

[性格]

    猎獭犬和蔼可亲,脾气平和,但较活泼喧闹。

[失格]



标准通过日期:1995年10月10日

标准执行日期:1995年11月30日




Otterhound Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Otterhound is a large, rough-coated hound with an imposing head showing great strength and dignity, and the strong body and long striding action fit for a long day\'s work. It has an extremely sensitive nose, and is inquisitive and perseverant in investigating scents. The Otterhound hunts its quarry on land and water and requires a combination of characteristics unique among hounds--most notably a rough, double coat; and substantial webbed feet. Otterhounds should not be penalized for being shown in working condition (lean, well muscled, with a naturally stripped coat). Any departure from the following points should be considered a fault; its seriousness should be regarded in exact proportion to its degree.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Males are approximately 27 inches at the withers, and weigh approximately 115 lbs. Bitches are approximately 24 inches at the withers, and weigh approximately 80 lbs. This is not an absolute, but rather a guideline. The Otterhound is slightly rectangular in body; the length from point of shoulder to buttocks is slightly greater than the height at the withers. The Otterhound has good substance with strongly boned legs and broad muscles, without being coarse. Balance, soundness and type are of greater importance than size.

Head
The head is large, fairly narrow, and well covered with hair. The head should measure 11 to 12 inches from tip of nose to occiput in a hound 26\" at the withers, with the muzzle and skull approximately equal in length. This proportion should be maintained in larger and smaller hounds. The expression is open and amiable. The eyes are deeply set. The haw shows only slightly. The eyes are dark, but eye color and eye rim pigment will complement the color of the hound. Dogs with black pigmented noses and eye rims should have darker eyes, while those with liver or slate pigment may have hazel eyes. The ears, an essential feature of this breed, are long, pendulous, and folded (the leading edge folds or rolls to give a draped appearance). They are set low, at or below eye level, and hang close to the head, with the leather reaching at least to the tip of the nose. They are well covered with hair. The skull (cranium) is long, fairly narrow under the hair, and only slightly domed. The stop is not pronounced. The muzzle is square, with no hint of snipiness; the jaws are powerful with deep flews. From the side, the planes of the muzzle and skull should be parallel. The nose is large, dark, and completely pigmented, with wide nostrils. The jaws are powerful and capable of a crushing grip. A scissors bite is preferred.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is powerful and blends smoothly into well laid back, clean shoulders, and should be of sufficient length to allow the dog to follow a trail. It has an abundance of hair; a slight dewlap is permissible. The topline is level from the withers to the base of tail. The chest is deep reaching at least to the elbows on a mature hound. Forechest is evident, there is sufficient width to impart strength and endurance. There should be no indication of narrowness or weakness. The well sprung, oval rib cage extends well towards the rear of the body. The loin is short, broad and strong. The tail is set high, and is long reaching at least to the hock. The tail is thicker at the base, tapers to a point, and is feathered (covered and fringed with hair). It is carried saber fashion (not forward over the back) when the dog is moving or alert, but may droop when the dog is at rest.

Forequarters
Shoulders are clean, powerful, and well sloped with moderate angulation at shoulders and elbows. Legs are strongly boned and straight, with strong, slightly sprung pasterns. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. Feet--Both front and rear feet are large, broad, compact when standing, but capable of spreading. They have thick, deep pads, with arched toes; they are web-footed (membranes connecting the toes allow the foot to spread).

Hindquarters
Thighs and second thighs are large, broad, and well muscled. Legs have moderately bent stifles with well-defined hocks. Hocks are well let down, turning neither in nor out. Legs on a standing hound are parallel when viewed from the rear. Angulation front and rear must be balanced and adequate to give forward reach and rear drive. Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs are generally removed. Feet are as previously described.

Coat
The coat is an essential feature of the Otterhound. Coat texture and quality are more important than the length. The outer coat is dense, rough, coarse and crisp, of broken appearance. Softer hair on the head and lower legs is natural. The outer coat is two to four inches long on the back and shorter on the extremities. A water-resistant undercoat of short wooly, slightly oily hair is essential, but in the summer months may be hard to find except on the thighs and shoulders. The ears are well covered with hair, and the tail is feathered (covered and fringed with hair). A naturally stripped coat lacking length and fringes is correct for an Otterhound that is being worked. A proper hunting coat will show a hard outer coat and wooly undercoat. The Otterhound is shown in a natural coat, with no sculpturing or shaping of the coat. Faults--A soft outer coat is a very serious fault as is a wooly textured outer coat. Lack of undercoat is a serious fault. An outer coat much longer than six inches becomes heavy when wet and is a fault. Any evidence of stripping or scissoring of coat to shape or stylize should be strongly penalized as a fault.

Color
Any color or combination of colors is acceptable. There should be no discrimination on the basis of color. The nose should be dark and fully pigmented, black, liver, or slate, depending on the color of the hound. Eye rim pigment should match the nose.

Gait
The Otterhound moves freely with forward reach and rear drive. The gait is smooth, effortless, and capable of being maintained for many miles. Characteristic of the Otterhound gait is a very loose, shambling walk, which springs immediately into a loose and very long striding, sound, active trot with natural extension of the head. The gallop is smooth and exceptionally long striding. Otterhounds single track at slow speeds. Otterhounds do not lift their feet high off the ground and may shuffle when they walk or move at a slow trot. The Otterhound should be shown on a loose lead.

Temperament
The Otterhound is amiable, boisterous and even-tempered.

Approved October 10, 1995
Effective November 30, 1995

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:36:42 | 显示全部楼层


挪威猎麋犬(Norwegian Elkhound)

[简介]

挪威猎麇犬为灰色强壮猎犬。外表上,为典型的北方犬的中等身材,四方轮廓,紧凑而符合比例。头宽立耳,尾卷曲于后背。灰色鲜明的被毛浓密平顺。挪威猎麇犬有足够的勇气,精力与体力使得它们在各种恶劣的天气下追踪如麇鹿与其他大型猎物长达数小时。

[历史]

挪威猎麋犬是北欧海盗的伙伴、孤独庄园牧场的守卫者,保护畜禽免受熊、狼袭击,陪伴北欧猎人巡回狩猎。挪威猎麇犬在多于6000年的漫长岁月中陪伴北欧日尔曼人,它们是友善而勇敢的忠实猎犬。我们在读北欧英雄传奇故事的时候,可以发现它们是北欧海盗的得力武器――这可以在杰尔恩的维斯特洞中找到证据,从这个位于西部挪威的洞中可以发现维斯特的骨骸掩盖在石棺中。这大约在公元前5000~前4000年。

    挪威猎麇犬品种的进化与能力的保留完全是自然进行的。在它优良性状的保留中,丝毫没掺杂人的影响。它那像纯血马一样的美丽身材完全是从不断的进化中锻炼出来。每一项生理特征都是它的生活需要。它结构紧凑,肌肉强健,身体棱角分明,宽而且深的胸部都是它做为终日狩猎的猎犬的自然进化。它整日奔波于乡野密林,因此精力充沛,耐力超乎寻常。

    也许是因为挪威猎麇犬从一开始就被作为重要的狩猎伙伴,它具有了忠诚、敏锐、友善以及信任感和超强的环境适应性。也正是因为它这一系列优点,使它受到了世界各国人们的喜爱。

    许多年以前,熊在挪威十分普遍,但是今天差不多已经灭绝,猎犬主要被用于猎捕麋鹿。一个世纪以前,一个英国的运动员Lloyd,同时也是一个好的猎人并热衷于写作,痴迷于把挪威猎熊记载在他的文章之中,也正是从那时起人们从他的著作中得知挪威猎麇犬,并从此对它大加赞扬。

    猎麇犬具于极敏锐的感觉与直觉。它们可以依靠嗅觉追踪猎物1.5―2.5千米或通过听觉察觉到很远以外的麇鹿鸣叫,并在追赶的同时,向主人发出警告。

    猎麇犬适于猎捕许多四足兽,并很快成为猎捕山猫、山狮、浣熊的高手。享利?保丁格先生声称,它也是十分优秀的猎狐能手,同时有人也认为,这种猎犬可以作为捕猎山鸟以及其他丛林鸟类的助手。

    在与人们长期配合进行追捕的活动中,猎麇犬成为极其优秀的多面手, 1877年的犬展,第一次向世人展示了挪威猎麇犬,并通过挪威猎麇犬协会将其记载于《种犬手册》并出版发行。这种犬的各项指标也因此制定下来。在这项标准推出之前,在许多国家会有不同标准,这就使得指标相互混淆,但是假如我们从《种犬手册》中研究这种犬的照片就可以了解它作为现代观赏犬的全部基本原因。

由于许多犬繁殖专家的贡献,虽然目前此种犬未发展成大规模的种群,然而在一定程度上,它们也在本世纪之初达到了空前的发展。当挪威犬协制订了每年进行犬展的政策后,挪威猎麇犬便跻身于挪威观赏犬界。自此之后,此种犬的数量与日俱增。它友好的气质、聪明而忠实、绝对的可靠、热情而安静、敏感而拥有无所畏惧的自信使它在世界范围内赢得了广泛的赞誉,并以它卓越的猎犬天赋成为人们的伴侣。

[体型]

公犬肩高52.1厘米,母犬为49.5厘米。公犬重24.95千克,母犬为21.77千克。外形轮廓四方,结构紧凑,从胸部到地面间距大约为1.3厘米肩高。从前胸到臀部长度等于肩高。骨骼强壮光滑。

[头部]

头宽,楔形,强壮,利落(无松散毛发)。表情热情,机警,表现出犬的极大热情。眼睛深棕色,卵圆形中等尺寸,不突出。耳直立,而且有韧性,十分灵活。相对较小,高略大于宽。当犬处于机警状态时,耳廓朝前,耳直立。当放松与玩耍时,耳后转。侧面看,头骨前部轻微突出,但转折角不大却很清晰,口鼻底部宽厚,从上或从侧面看,尖端并不尖细。鼻粱直,与头骨平行等长。唇紧闭,呈剪状咬合闭合。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部中等长度,肌肉发达,略微呈拱形,颈下无松散的下垂皮肤。背部轮廓线:从肩到尾直而强壮。身短而紧凑,胸腔大。胸深,中等宽度,胸最低点平于肘;肋骨有弹性,腰短而宽。尾高耸,卷曲于背部正中线。非梳理的自然状态下,毛密而厚,平整。

[前躯]

肩部倾斜,肘部尖深。腿中等长度;强壮而顺畅。从前面看双腿直而互相平行。有时出现单个狼爪。足爪:爪较小,椭圆形脚趾紧凑,脚垫厚。球节与脚之间强壮而微曲。脚尖朝前方。

[后躯]

后膝关节与跗关节成中等角度。大腿宽而肌肉发达,从后面看,腿直而强壮,无悬趾,足朝前。

[被毛]

浓密而硬,可以抵抗恶劣天气;硬毛下长有柔软细毛。头、耳与前肢毛短;颈部背部与尾下侧毛最长。被毛不用人为修剪,在犬展中,以自然状态的被毛为参考标准。

[颜色]

灰色,深浅由毛的长短决定。腿部、腹部、臀部、尾部有浅银灰色毛,肩部颜色最深,胸部最浅,有明显的肩胛纹。口鼻、耳、尾尖为黑色,头部前端逐渐变为浅灰(小臂部为烟黑色,眼周围为浅色,以及任何其他颜色的犬视为不合标准)。

[步态]

正常活动中充满精力并具有耐力。既使在跑动中背部仍可保持水平。在快速奔跑中,前后腿同时沿身体正中线摆动形成同轨迹。四肢处于良好的平衡状态,肌肉十分协调。

[性格]

挪威猎麇犬大胆而精力充谛,警戒而不失友好,具有威严而独立的气质。

[总结]

挪威猎麇犬为北方家庭所喜爱的户外运动型犬。颜色单一,被毛抗寒能力强而性情极佳是大众所喜爱的犬种。

[失格]

非灰色均可视为不合格标准。



标准通过日期:1988年11月13日

标准执行日期:1989年2月1日

Norwegian Elkhound Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Norwegian Elkhound is a hardy gray hunting dog. In appearance, a typical northern dog of medium size and substance, square in profile, close coupled and balanced in proportions. The head is broad with prick ears, and the tail is tightly curled and carried over the back. The distinctive gray coat is dense and smooth lying. As a hunter, the Norwegian Elkhound has the courage, agility and stamina to hold moose and other big game at bay by barking and dodging attack, and the endurance to track for long hours in all weather over rough and varied terrain.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Height at the withers for dogs is 20½ inches, for bitches 19½ inches. Weight for dogs about 55 pounds, for bitches about 48 pounds.

Square in profile and close coupled. Distance from brisket to ground appears to be half the height at the withers. Distance from forechest to rump equals the height at the withers.
Bone is substantial, without being coarse.

Head
Head broad at the ears, wedge shaped, strong and dry (without loose skin). Expression keen, alert, indicating a dog with great courage. Eyes very dark brown, medium in size, oval, not protruding. Ears set high, firm and erect, yet very mobile. Comparatively small; slightly taller than their width at the base with pointed (not rounded) tips. When the dog is alert, the orifices turn forward and the outer edges are vertical. When relaxed or showing affection, the ears go back, and the dog should not be penalized for doing this during the judge\'s examination.

Viewed from the side, the forehead and back of the skull are only slightly arched; the stop not large, yet clearly defined. The muzzle is thickest at the base and, seen from above or from the side, tapers evenly without being pointed. The bridge of the nose is straight, parallel to and about the same length as the skull. Lips are tightly closed and teeth meet in a scissors bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck of medium length, muscular, well set up with a slight arch and with no loose skin on the throat. Topline--The back is straight and strong from its high point at the withers to the root of the tail. The body is short and close-coupled with the rib cage accounting for most of its length. Chest deep and moderately broad; brisket level with points of elbows; and ribs well sprung. Loin short and wide with very little tuck-up. Tail set high, tightly curled, and carried over the centerline of the back. It is thickly and closely haired, without brush. natural and untrimmed.

Forequarters
Shoulders sloping with elbows closely set on. Legs well under body and medium in length; substantial, but not coarse, in bone. Seen from the front, the legs appear straight and parallel. Single dewclaws are normally present. Feet--Paws comparatively small, slightly oval with tightly closed toes and thick pads. Pasterns are strong and only slightly bent. Feet turn neither in nor out.

Hindquarters
Moderate angulation at stifle and hock. Thighs are broad and well muscled. Seen from behind, legs are straight, strong and without dewclaws. Feet as in front.

Coat
Thick, hard, weather resisting and smooth lying; made up of soft, dense, woolly undercoat and coarse, straight covering hairs. Short and even on head, ears, and front of legs; longest on back of neck, buttocks and underside of tail. The coat is not altered by trimming, clipping or artificial treatment. Trimming of whiskers is optional. In the show ring, presentation in a natural, unaltered condition is essential.

Color
Gray, medium preferred, variations in shade determined by the length of black tips and quantity of guard hairs. Undercoat is clear light silver as are legs, stomach, buttocks, and underside of tail. The gray body color is darkest on the saddle, lighter on the chest, mane and distinctive harness mark (a band of longer guard hairs from shoulder to elbow). The muzzle, ears and tail tip are black. The black of the muzzle shades to lighter gray over the forehead and skull.

Yellow or brown shading, white patches, indistinct or irregular markings, \"sooty\" coloring on the lower legs and light circles around the eyes are undesirable. Any overall color other than gray as described above, such as red, brown, solid black, white or other solid color, disqualifies.

Gait
Normal for an active dog constructed for agility and endurance. At a trot the stride is even and effortless; the back remains level. As the speed of the trot increases, front and rear legs converge equally in straight lines toward a center line beneath the body, so that the pads appear to follow in the same tracks (single track). Front and rear quarters are well balanced in angulation and muscular development.

Temperament
In temperament, the Norwegian Elkhound is bold and energetic, an effective guardian yet normally friendly, with great dignity and independence of character.

Summary
The Norwegian Elkhound is a square and athletic member of the northern dog family. His unique coloring, weather resistant coat and stable disposition make him an ideal multipurpose dog at work or at play.

Disqualifications
An overall color other than gray.

Approved December 13, 1988
Effective February 1, 1989





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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:39:24 | 显示全部楼层



爱尔兰猎狼犬(Irish Wolfhound)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



[简介]

体型巨大,具有统帅般威严的爱尔兰猎狼犬的特点显著,他结合了力量和速度,而且视力敏锐。高大的奔跑型猎犬,他的一般外观是很象灵缇犬,被毛杂乱的一个品种;肌肉非常发达,结实而结构优雅; 动作轻松而活跃 ;头部和颈部高高昂起,尾巴向上翘,末端形成轻微的曲线。

[历史]

    爱尔兰猎狼犬属于体型高大,粗毛的祖先品种,通常用来捕猎狼,麋鹿,野猪等动物。在贵族人士当中,普遍被人们所喜爱,并且当作礼品相互赠送。以致奥丽夫克仑维尔王无耐发出禁止输出令。18世纪初,杀死了苏格兰的最后一只狼,以及1766年消灭了爱尔兰的野狼。因此,因捕猎野狼而得名的爱尔兰猎狼犬也渐渐减少。到19世纪,英国陆军军官乔治格拉罕非常努力的进行繁殖此品种,同时此犬又掀起了被关注的热潮。

[体型]

雄性的最低肩高和最小体重分别是81.28厘米和54.43千克;雌性的最低肩高和最小体重分别是76.2厘米和47.63千克;这些数据只针对18个月以上的爱尔兰猎狼犬。低于最低标准的犬将被隔离在比赛之外。体型巨大,包括肩高和身体长度所希望达到的目标尺寸,应该在32~34英寸的范围内,结构坚固、稳定,显示出力量,活跃、勇气和匀称性。

[头部]

长,前额的前端骨骼非常轻微的突起,两眼间有很小的凹陷,不很宽。口吻长而略尖。耳朵小,姿势象灵缇犬。

[颈部]

长一些更好,非常结实,且肌肉发达,圆拱,喉咙处无赘肉或松弛的皮肤。

[胸部]

非常深,胸部宽阔。

[背部]

长一些更好,腰部圆拱。

[尾巴]

长而略微卷曲,中等粗细,毛发浓密。

[腹部]

适度上提。

[前躯]

肩胛肌肉发达,宽度与胸部相当,位置倾斜。肘部靠下,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。

[腿]

前臂肌肉发达,整个前腿非常结实,且相当直。

[后躯]

大腿肌肉发达,且第二节大腿长而结实,象灵缇犬的腿。飞节位置低,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。

[足爪]

略大,且圆,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。脚趾圆拱而紧凑。趾甲非常结实,且弯曲。

[被毛]

身体的毛发,腿和头部的毛发杂乱而坚硬;尤其是眼睛上和下颚的刚毛较长。

[颜色和斑纹]

承认的颜色有灰色、斑纹色、红色、黑色、纯白色或驼色,及其他接近猎鹿犬的颜色。

[步态]

[性格]

爱尔兰猎狼犬具有聪明而善良性格,非常值得信赖的品种,对小孩很友善。身体结构健壮,且肌肉发达,喜欢到处跑,则需要非常空旷的空间。此犬的活动量和小型犬一样,由于饲养者渴望,此品种能够改良成较大型的猎狼犬种,因此未来的品种有可能在81-86厘米。

[缺陷]

头部太轻或太沉重,前沿骨骼过度圆拱;耳朵太大,平躺在脸部两侧;颈部短;喉咙处有赘肉;胸部太窄或太宽;背部凹陷或塌陷,太直的后背;前肢倾斜;胶骨过分倾斜;足爪扭曲;脚趾张开;过分卷曲的尾巴;软弱的后躯,一般化的肌肉;身躯太短。嘴唇和鼻镜为肝色或色素缺乏。

[失格]

[优点列表]

1、典型特点。爱尔兰猎狼犬的被毛杂乱。象灵缇类的品种,是最高大的奔跑型猎犬,特征显著,由力量和速度的结合。

2、体型巨大,具有统帅般的威严。

3、动作轻松而活跃。

4、头部长而平,高高昂起。

5、前腿骨骼沉重,相当直,肘部位置低。

6、大腿长而肌肉发达,第二节大腿肌肉发达,膝关节(倾斜)角度精确。

7、被毛粗糙而坚硬,尤其是在眼睛上方和下颚的长长的刚毛。

8、身躯,长,棱角分明,肋骨支撑良好,臀部的宽度非常大。

9、腰部圆拱,腹部上提。

10、耳朵小,姿势象灵缇犬的耳朵。

11、足爪,略大,且圆;脚趾紧凑,圆拱。

12、颈部,长,圆拱,非常强壮。

13、胸部,非常深,宽度适中。

14、肩胛,肌肉发达,位置倾斜。

15、尾巴,长而略微弯曲。

16、眼睛,颜色深。



注意:上面的列表决对没有改变\"品种标准\",这些标准在所有比赛中都必须被严格执行;上面只是将标准中的一些要点简单的排列一下。如果在某些案例中,它们与标准不完全一致,则按照标准所规定的执行。



标准通过日期:1950年9月12日



Irish Wolfhound Breed Standard


General Appearance
Of great size and commanding appearance, the Irish Wolfhound is remarkable in combining power and swiftness with keen sight. The largest and tallest of the galloping hounds, in general type he is a rough-coated, Greyhound-like breed; very muscular, strong though gracefully built; movements easy and active; head and neck carried high, the tail carried with an upward sweep with a slight curve towards the extremity. The minimum height and weight of dogs should be 32 inches and 120 pounds; of bitches, 30 inches and 105 pounds; these to apply only to hounds over 18 months of age. Anything below this should be debarred from competition. Great size, including height at shoulder and proportionate length of body, is the desideratum to be aimed at, and it is desired to firmly establish a race that shall average from 32 to 34 inches in dogs, showing the requisite power, activity, courage and symmetry.

Head
Long, the frontal bones of the forehead very slightly raised and very little indentation between the eyes. Skull, not too broad. Muzzle, long and moderately pointed. Ears, small and Greyhound-like in carriage.

Neck
Rather long, very strong and muscular, well arched, without dewlap or loose skin about the throat.

Chest
Very deep. Breast, wide.

Back
Rather long than short. Loins arched.

Tail
Long and slightly curved, of moderate thickness, and well covered with hair.

Belly
Well drawn up.

Forequarters
Shoulders, muscular, giving breadth of chest, set sloping. Elbows well under, neither turned inwards nor outwards.

Leg
Forearm muscular, and the whole leg strong and quite straight.

Hindquarters
Muscular thighs and second thigh long and strong as in the Greyhound, and hocks well let down and turning neither in nor out.

Feet
Moderately large and round, neither turned inwards nor outwards. Toes, well arched and closed. Nails, very strong and curved.

Hair
Rough and hard on body, legs and head; especially wiry and long over eyes and underjaw.

Color and Markings
The recognized colors are gray, brindle, red, black, pure white, fawn or any other color that appears in the Deerhound.

Faults
Too light or heavy a head, too highly arched frontal bone; large ears and hanging flat to the face; short neck; full dewlap; too narrow or too broad a chest; sunken or hollow or quite straight back; bent forelegs; overbent fetlocks; twisted feet; spreading toes; too curly a tail; weak hindquarters and a general want of muscle; too short in body. Lips or nose liver-colored or lacking pigmentation.

List of Points in Order of Merit
Typical. The Irish Wolfhound is a rough-coated Greyhound-like breed, the tallest of the coursing hounds and remarkable in combining power and swiftness.

Great size and commanding appearance.

Movements easy and active.

Head, long and level, carried high.

Forelegs, heavily boned, quite straight; elbows well set under.

Thighs long and muscular; second thighs, well muscled, stifles nicely bent.

Coat, rough and hard, especially wiry and long over eyes and under jaw.

Body, long, well-ribbed up, with ribs well sprung, and great breadth across hips.

Loins arched, belly well drawn up.

Ears, small, with Greyhound like carriage.

Feet, moderately large and round; toes, close, well arched.

Neck, long, well arched and very strong.

Chest, very deep, moderately broad.

Shoulders, muscular, set sloping.

Tail, long and slightly curved.

Eyes, dark.
Note--The above in no way alters the \"Standard of Excellence,\" which must in all cases be rigidly adhered to; they simply give the various points in order of merit. If in any case they appear at variance with Standard of Excellence, it is the latter which is correct.

Approved September 12, 1950

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:40:39 | 显示全部楼层


伊比莎猎犬(Ibizan Hound)
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[简介]

伊比莎猎犬的整体轮廓很清晰,大大的耳朵直立着,身躯明亮的颜色是此犬独有的外貌特征。早期,这种犬曾经是捕捉兔子的追踪犬,永久而古老的猎犬经历了数千年,此犬所具备的能力是非常重要的。此犬的身体柔软而非常适合奔跑,当作一个猎人,具有像鹿一样优雅的气质,且很有力。除了耳朵之外,身上没有任何部位过分与夸张。在空旷的原野上,伊比莎猎犬有着同样高速奔跑的特点,但不活泼,能够高高的跃起或者跳过很宽的距离。伊比莎猎犬能够从静止的状态直接跳起很高的一段距离。

[历史]

伊比莎猎犬的历史可以追溯到公元前3400年。在光辉的古埃及,这种帝王猎犬只能供法老所有,并参与他的狩措活动。

    法老墓中发掘的许多古遗迹更加证实了这种犬的漫长历史。和买可是埃及第一王朝(公元前3100~前2700年)的统治者,死后葬于莎加拉附近的墓中。在墓穴的考古挖掘过程中,发现了一个雕刻有伊比莎猎犬的陶盘。这种犬与法老猎犬基本相同,但它有着鲜明的特征,因此不易被混淆。第四王朝的统治者耐沃迈特(生活于约公元前2600年),第十八王朝的图坦特哈曼,三十王朝的普贤特罗米思,都在他们的陵墓中发现了古伊比莎猎犬存在的证据。克丽欧佩特拉,古埃及的末代统治法老也十分热衷于此猎犬。

    1992年图坦特哈曼的墓中发现了一批埋藏的财宝。希腊神话中导引亡灵之神“死亡的守望犬”的雕塑也被发掘,它就是按照伊比莎猎犬塑造的。这件神奇的塑像表面涂有树脂与漆料。眼睛由黑曜石制作(一种有玻璃光泽,深黑色的火山岩)并镶有金边。在耳部同样用这种方法制作。导引亡灵之主有着美丽的金质项圈,时间并没打毁灭这美丽的雕塑,通过其灰猎犬体形、立耳、镰刀尾的特征,可以确定这是伊比莎猎犬。各种事实确定,伊比莎猎犬起源于胡狼。

    从它的名字,我们可以推测出从埃及到伊比莎岛这一起源过程中犬的品种改变。腓尼基商船在那一时期选择航行到许多岛屿,在其中发现了伊比莎岛,腓尼基人对这种犬的品种传播起到了很大的作用。腓尼基人于公元前89世纪发现的伊比莎岛,现在属于西班牙,它曾被埃及、迦大基、罗马、汪达尔和阿拉伯人统治,罗马人统治期间,曾经出现过伊比莎猎犬的头像的硬币。伊比莎猎犬以其可以长途跋涉山地牧场的本领而著称。

    在伊比莎岛上,恶劣的生存条件,使得各物种的生存变得很艰难,这就出现适者生存的竞争关系。在食物缺乏的条件下,伊比莎猎犬不得不为了得到足够食物去学习。于是,它们学会了捕猎的跋涉与必要的耐心。猎犬的主人也在不断的保留强者,淘汰弱者。我们应该感谢我们的祖先与猎犬的祖先,正是由于他们的努力,使我们可以看到这一物种的存任。它们从法老时代经过漫长的岁月经受着各种严酷的考验,顽强地战胜其他物种保留至今,足以

证明它们的适应性与本领的高强。

    第一批伊比莎猎犬于1956年被罗德岛陆军上校塞恩进口至美国。汉尼巴尔(公犬)与瑟蒂拉(母犬)曾名噪一时。后产下8只小犬,4只公犬,4只母犬(“亚松林”、“麦尔吐斯v”、“蒂娜”、“休拉利尔”、“哥兰那达”、“马果”、“济斯科”和“塞物瑞斯”),与其他的进口犬种一起构成了美国伊比莎猎犬的种源。

    目前,这一品种犬在美国兴旺起来,与人关系极密切,并成为可爱的伴侣动物、宠物、看门犬、猎犬,是人类亲密的朋友。它们很自然地融入了美国社会。它们的脾气温顺,抗病能力强。身体结构强健而有韧性。美国伊比莎猎犬俱乐部的组成,对于保证犬种的遗传优良性与引入优秀伊比莎犬种有着极其重要的作用。

伊比莎猎犬于1978年10月1日被收入AKC良种犬登记注册,并于1979年1月1日成为公认的观赏犬。

[体型]

伊比莎猎犬的雄性肩高约为59.7~69.9厘米;雌性肩高约为57.15~66.0厘米。在这个范围之内,没有十分注重的尺寸。若此犬的其它品质都非常好,则允许肩高稍微有一些偏差。雄性的平均体重为50磅;雌性的平均体重为45磅。身高略小于体长。伊比莎猎犬平坦的骨骼整洁而精致,且肌肉结实,没有任何过于沉重的痕迹。

[头部]

伊比莎猎犬的头部长而窄,且呈锥形。整个头部的轮廓清晰而显得如此精致,且显得非常干燥,没有松弛的皮肤。

表情:伊比莎猎犬的外观近似于鹿的模样,显得非常文雅。眼睛小而倾斜,从明显的琥珀色到焦糖色为眼睛的颜色。有足够色素沉积或少量着色的眼圈与鼻镜。显示出聪明、警惕、好奇的眼神。大大的耳朵直立着,显得十分自然。当警惕时,耳朵呈直立的,而不是下垂、弯曲、或折叠的。非常灵活的耳朵可以根据自身的心情,而向前、向侧面转,甚至还会折向后面。警惕时,耳根的最低点与眼睛位于同一水平线上,从前面看,耳朵高度大于耳根宽度,则为耳根宽度的2.5倍。

伊比莎猎犬的头部长而平坦,后枕骨显得突出,止部轻微;眉毛窄。长长的口吻精致而纤细,略呈罗马鼻。眼睛与鼻镜之间的距离等于眼睛与后枕骨之间的距离。口吻的轮廓平行于脑袋的轮廓。鼻镜显得突出,伸展到越过下颚的位置。鼻镜呈玫瑰红,并不为黑色或肝色,鼻镜与被毛的颜色相匹配。色素沉积完整,或成蝴蝶的形状。鼻孔扩张。紧闭的嘴唇很薄,眼睛与鼻镜相同。上唇紧且显得十分干燥。结实的牙齿呈剪状咬合属于最理想的,且位置非常好。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

伊比莎猎犬结实的颈部长而纤细,且略微圆拱,肌肉平坦。耳朵与尾巴之间的背线平滑而流畅。后背直而平坦。胸部长且有足够的深度,胸骨形成锐利的角度,且显得突出。肋骨稍微有一些弹性。胸骨深度大致位于肘部上方距离6.4厘米的位置。胸部最深处位于肋骨的后方,其胸部靠近或到达肋骨的深度。腹部向上提,且不夸张。中等宽度的腰部略微圆拱,且肌肉非常发达。臀部略微倾斜。非常灵活的尾巴位于尾根较低位置,几乎延伸到飞节。尾巴呈镰刀状、环状或马刀状举着,随着心情的变化与个体差异而不同。

[前躯]

伊比莎猎犬的前躯角度适中。肩胛富有弹性,但并不松懈,中等宽度的马肩隆。肩胛骨向后倾斜。肩胛骨的末端与几乎垂直的上臂骨相结合。肘部位于胸部最深处超前的位置。具有良好的控制性,没有过多的限制其动作。很长的前腿直而结实,且贴近胸部,并与地面垂直,一直向下延伸。整洁的骨骼显得十分精致。结实的胶骨具有良好的柔韧度,且稍微倾斜,肌腱明显。允许选择狼爪是否切除。足爪似兔足。结实的脚趾长而紧凑。脚趾之间的缝隙覆盖着毛发,起保护的作用。脚垫结实。趾甲呈白色。

[后躯]

伊比莎猎犬的后躯形成适当的角度,后躯位置,在身体的下方。十分结实的大腿,肌肉平坦。从后面看,飞节直。整洁的骨骼显得非常精致。后躯没有狼爪。足爪与前肢一致。

[被毛]

伊比莎猎犬具有两种类型的被毛;两种都不允许加以修剪。短毛型:非常短的毛发覆盖在头部和耳朵,特别长的毛发则覆盖在尾巴下面和大腿后面。刚毛型:长度为2.5厘米的毛发,可能有大量的触须。背部、大腿后面和尾巴上覆盖着较多的毛发。两种类型的被毛,其毛发的质地都特别硬,且一视同仁。

[颜色]

伊比莎猎犬的被毛??色为白色和红色,(由浅色带黄色的红,则称为“狮子色”到深红色),单色或任何??色的组合。没有最完美的样式,且同等待遇。排除以上所说的??色以外,所有??色都属于失格。

[步态]

伊比莎猎犬的步态轻松而优美,属于单一轨迹的动作。小跑时如同漂浮一样,从侧面看,关节适当弯曲。伊比莎猎犬的前躯伸展充分,显得十分顺畅,后躯驱动十分平稳。在人的印象当中,就像漂浮在地面一样。

[性格]

比莎猎犬的性格冷静,对人很和善,忠于主人。具有丰富的才艺,且具有很强的可塑造性,这类犬是家庭宠物的最好选择。同时在犬展上也是优秀选手,驯服、追捕猎物。在辽阔的原野上,展现其天生的捕猎本能,具有很强的毅力,且十分勇敢。

[失格]

除了红色或白色以外,另外??色的被毛都属于失格。



标准通过日期:1989年9月11日

标准修正日期:1989年11月1日

Ibizan Hound Breed Standard


General Appearance
The Ibizan\'s clean-cut lines, large prick ears and light pigment give it a unique appearance. A hunting dog whose quarry is primarily rabbits, this ancient hound was bred for thousands of years with function being of prime importance. Lithe and racy, the Ibizan possesses a deerlike elegance combined with the power of a hunter. Strong, without appearing heavily muscled, the Ibizan is a hound of moderation. With the exception of the ears, he should not appear extreme or exaggerated.

In the field the Ibizan is as fast as top coursing breeds and without equal in agility, high jumping and broad jumping ability. He is able to spring to great heights from a standstill.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--The height of dogs is 23½ inches to 27½ inches at the withers. Bitches are 22½ to 26 inches at the withers. There is no preference for size within this range. Sizes slightly over or under the norms are not to be regarded as demerits when other qualities are good. Weight--Average weight of dogs is 50 pounds; bitches, 45 pounds. Proportion--Slightly longer than tall. Substance--The Ibizan possesses clean, fine bone. The muscling is strong, yet flat, with no sign of heaviness.

Head
Long and narrow in the form of a sharp cone truncated at its base. Finely chiseled and extremely dry fleshed.

Expression
The Ibizan has an elegant, deer-like look. The eyes are oblique and small, ranging in color from clear amber to caramel. The rims are the color of the nose and are fully or partially pigmented. The appearance of the eye is intelligent, alert and inquisitive. The ears are large, pointed, and natural. On alert the ear should never droop, bend, or crease. Highly mobile, the ear can point forward, sideways, or be folded backward, according to mood. On alert, the lowest point of the base is at level of the eye. On frontal examination, the height of the ear is approximately 2½ times that of the widest point of the base.

Skull
Long and flat, prominent occipital bone, little defined stop; narrow brow. The muzzle is elongated, fine, and slender with a very slight Roman convex. The length from the eyes to point of nose is equal to the distance from eyes to occiput. The muzzle and skull are on parallel planes. The nose is prominent, extending beyond the lower jaw. It is of a rosy flesh color, never black or liver, and tends to harmonize with that of the coat. Pigment is solid or butterfly. Nostrils are open. Lips are thin and tight and the color of the nose. Flews are tight and dry fleshed. Bite--The teeth are perfectly opposed in a scissors bite; strong and well set.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is long, slender, slightly arched and strong, yet flat muscled. The topline, from ears to tail, is smooth and flowing. The back is level and straight. Body --The chest is deep and long with the breastbone sharply angled and prominent. The ribs are slightly sprung. The brisket is approximately 2-1/2 inches above the elbow. The deepest part of the chest, behind the elbow, is nearly to or to the elbow. The abdomen is well tucked up, but not exaggerated. The loin is very slightly arched, of medium breadth and well muscled. The croup is very slightly sloping. The tail is set low, highly mobile, and reaches at least to the hock. It is carried in a sickle, ring, or saber position, according to the mood and individual specimen.

Forequarters
Angulation is moderate. The shoulders are elastic but never loose with moderate breadth at the withers. The shoulder blades are well laid back. At the point of the shoulder they join to a rather upright upper arm. The elbow is positioned in front of the deepest part of the chest. It is well held in but not so much as to restrict movement. Legs --The forearms are very long, strong, straight, and close, lying flat on the chest and continuing in a straight line to the ground. Bone is clean and fine. The pasterns are strong and flexible, slightly sloping, with well developed tendons. Dewclaw removal is optional. Feet: hare-foot. The toes are long, closed and very strong. Interdigital spaces are well protected by hair. Pads are durable. Nails are white.

Hindquarters
Angulation is moderate with the hindquarters being set under the body. Legs--The thighs are very strong with flat muscling. The hocks are straight when viewed from the rear. Bone is clean and fine. There are no rear dewclaws. The feet are as in front.

Coat
There are two types of coat; both untrimmed. Short--shortest on head and ears and longest at back of the thighs and under the tail. Wire-haired can be from one to three inches in length with a possible generous moustache. There is more hair on the back, back of thighs, and tail. Both types of coat are hard in texture and neither coat is preferable to the other.

Color
White or red, (from light, yellowish-red called \"lion\" to deep red), solid or in any combination. No color or pattern is preferable to the other. Disqualify any color other than white or red.

Gait
An efficient, light and graceful single tracking movement. A suspended trot with joint flexion when viewed from the side. The Ibizan exhibits smooth reach in front with balanced rear drive, giving the appearance of skimming over the ground.

Temperament
The Ibizan Hound is even-tempered, affectionate and loyal. Extremely versatile and trainable, he makes an excellent family pet, and is well suited to the breed ring, obedience, tracking and lure-coursing. He exhibits a keen, natural hunting instinct with much determination and stamina in the field.

Disqualification
Any color other than white or red.

Approved September 11, 1989
Effective November 1, 1989

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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猎兔犬(Harrier)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

    在英格兰发展起来的群猎犬,用于捕猎野兔,哈利犬必须具有嗅觉群猎犬所有的特征。与它们的大小相比,骨骼显得十分粗大,结构非常坚固。它们必须很活跃,非常和谐,充满力量,品质很好,不论如何,都显示出有完成工作的能力,不管在什么地形条件下,都能长时间工作。运动机构和嗅觉器官是最为重要的部分。哈利犬是事实上,应该是一种小型版本的英国猎狐犬。

[历史]

    关于猎野兔最古老的作品是一篇大约在公元前400年由古希腊历史学家色诺芬撰写的著名散文,并且以此为基础,在过去的2300年里追猎野兔成为犬的最权威机构举办的活动中一个受人喜爱的项目。不考虑这些,人们对于这种古老的嗅迹猎犬的品种的直系祖先的猜想竞达到了惊人的一致。

    猎兔犬色诺芬时期并不著名,虽然色诺芬描述了两种类型的猎犬,而这两种猎犬被用于早期的追猎野兔的活动中都取得了同等的成功。他称其中一个为“卡斯特因”,被认为是卡斯特神的宠物。另一个称为“狐犬”,被解释为是狐狸和犬的产物。另一方面,色诺芬列举了这种猎犬符合用途的品质,并且,它们与现代时期所渴望的品质之间具有惊人的相似点。

    关于打猎的早期论述虽然是断断续续的片段而不具有学者精神,但有人曾写过一篇关于这个活动最明确详细的描写。可能在公元前400年希腊狩猎野兔的方式与英国和其他一些国家符猎方式的真正不同在于野兔是否被赶到捕网中。这个习惯遭到现代猎人的责难。在古老年代,运动家精神依然被考虑,如色诺芬所说“跟踪野兔时,不应有任何的耽搁,因为应具有运动员精神,同时是发挥特长的最好验证,要使用各种方法快速捕获猎物。”

    甚至英国各种品种的权威机构对猎兔犬的起源也有一点迷惑。他相当慎重的提出了一个理论是,它来源于古老的南部猎犬,并注有一点灵提的血统。

    毫无疑问,南部猎犬对不列颠群岛所有嗅迹猎犬的发展起到了重要作用,然而,对这个基本品种的起源仅有一点或丝毫没有提及。出现的最合乎逻辑的推测是,由于在欧洲大陆打猎是最古老的活动,所以它被罗马人带到了英格兰。

    英格兰的第一群猎犬是潘尼斯顿猎犬群,1260年“伊莱亚斯?米顿霍夫先生创建。这些猎免犬被聚在一起至少5个世纪,并且据记载,在14世纪、17世纪和18世纪,犬的主人曾得到布鲁海德王室威尔逊的供给。狩猎野兔的活动常常在整个不列颠群岛广泛流行,在某些方面,会比猎狐活动得到更多的乐趣。它流行的一个最大原因是一大群的猎兔犬能够跟随人走路。这一点赢得了许多人的兴趣,半世纪以前在英国经常进行打猎的完全不成对的猎犬群中,许多是临时凑成的群体。这个临时群体由分别属于不同主人的猎犬组成。

    在诺曼第血统和其他猎犬品种的支援下,温恩提供了一点关于“猎兔犬”这个名字的信息。他表示,这个名字可能来源于诺曼第语“hanier”,意为撒克逊语“raches”,或者猎犬。而且,“harier”被用于所有猎犬直到1750年,而并不仅仅是猎兔犬。在1570年以后,圣加伊乌斯博士提出猎鹿和猎狐的猎兔犬。

    抛开所有关于猎兔犬古老起源的故事,一般认为,现在这种犬仅仅是猎狐犬的小型版本,并且它是从大型猎犬中通过选择育种而繁殖下来的。只是体形缩小,猎兔犬在外表上是猎狐犬的复制品。一些猎免犬的品种具有一种独特的蓝色斑点的毛色,这是在英国猎狐犬身上所不能见到的,但是大多数情况下它们的毛色相同。据说,一些猎兔犬的头部在相称度上比猎狐犬笨重。

    猎兔犬在美国所有的嗅迹猎犬中十分出名,并且从殖民地时期,它们就被用于打猎。后来,猎免犬在用人工嗅迹打猎中得到了宠信,而在此过程中,它速度较慢的特点也不会影响成绩。

[体型]

    尺寸:不论雄性还是雌性,肩高约为48.3厘米,上下误差在2.5厘米内是可以接受的。比例:非正方形。哈利犬的体长(从肩关节到臀部的距离)略大于肩高(从马肩隆到地面的距离)。体质:结构稳固,充满力量,品质良好。这个品种应该拥有尽可能多的骨量和肌肉,但不显得沉重或粗糙。

[头部]

    头部与整体的比例协调。头部没有任何一部分会显得比其他部分突出。在放松时,表情显得温和、明智,在被\"唤醒\"时,表情显得警惕。眼睛:中等大小,位置分的比较开,深色犬的眼睛颜色为褐色或榛色,浅色犬的眼睛颜色为浅榛色或黄色,但是深色眼睛永远都是首选。耳朵:位置低,贴着面颊,尖端圆。脑袋:与整体比例恰当,有足够的长度和宽度,前额醒目。止部:适度清晰。口吻:从止部到鼻尖的距离与从止部到后枕骨处的距离一致,口吻坚固,且有足够的深度。嘴唇:整个唇线呈正方形,在口吻上显得整洁,没有多余的皮肤或下垂的上唇。鼻镜:好的鼻镜是很重要的特点,鼻镜要宽,鼻孔张开。牙齿:剪状咬合或钳状咬合。上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合都属于缺陷,严重的牙齿不整齐也属于缺陷。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

    颈部:长而结实,没有多余的皮肤或赘肉,平滑的逐渐变粗,融入肌肉发达的前躯。背线:水平。背部肌肉发达,在马肩隆后没有塌陷,在腰部也没有拱起。身躯:胸深,延伸到肘部,肋骨支撑良好,向后扩张,给心脏和肺足够的空间,但肋骨支撑不能过分,而影响到前躯正常、舒展、有效的动作,。腰部短,宽阔而肌肉发达。尾巴:长,位置高,向上举着,在12点到13点的位置(时针)。向尖端逐渐变细,毛发浓密(象刷子)。尾巴不应该卷曲在背后。

[前躯]

    中等角度,肩胛长而倾斜,向后靠着肌肉发达的背部,马肩隆整洁。肩胛骨上覆盖着发达的肌肉,但不过分沉重或抗肩膀,给人的印象是动作舒展、有力。肘部离肋骨距离恰当,与身躯平行,不向外翻。腿很直,骨量充足,向下直至脚趾。但不过分,关节非常轻微的突出,但轻微的程度不很夸张。足爪:圆形的猫足,脚趾紧凑,略向内转。脚垫厚实,发达而结实。

[后躯]

    角度于前躯相协调,所以后躯驱动力与前躯伸展相协调。肌肉非常发达,有长时间工作的力量,是非常重要的。耐力比单纯的速度更重要,因此,后膝关节的角度必须适中。足爪:笔直向前,圆形的猫足,脚趾紧凑,脚垫厚实,发达而结实。

[被毛]

    短、浓密、硬而有光泽。耳朵上,毛发的质地比身体上的毛发细腻。尾巴下面的毛发象刷子一样。

[颜色]

    任何颜色,不很重要。

[步态]

    前后腿非常协调。前躯伸展和后躯驱动一致,都是希望得到的中等角度。过来或离去,都以直线行进,没有明显的侧行迹象。前足爪略微有点脚尖向内是允许的。清楚的过来或离去动作十分重要,但不如从侧面观察步态重要,从侧面观察,步态必须平顺、有效且步幅大。

[性格]

    外向而友善,象所有的群猎犬一样,哈利犬工作时,必须能与其他猎犬密切配合。所以,对其他犬有攻击倾向是无法容忍的缺陷。

[失格]



标准通过日期:1988年12月13日

标准修正日期:1989年 2 月 1 日


Harrier Breed Standard


General Appearance
Developed in England to hunt hare in packs, Harriers must have all the attributes of a scenting pack hound. They are very sturdily built with large bone for their size. They must be active, well balanced, full of strength and quality, in all ways appearing able to work tirelessly, no matter the terrain, for long periods. Running gear and scenting ability are particularly important features. The Harrier should, in fact, be a smaller version of the English Foxhound.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--19 to 21 inches for dogs and bitches, variation of one inch in either direction is acceptable. Proportion is off-square. The Harrier is slightly longer from point of shoulder to rump than from withers to ground. Substance--Solidly built, full of strength and quality. The breed has as much substance and bone as possible without being heavy or coarse.

Head
The head is in proportion to the overall dog. No part of the head should stand out relative to the other parts. The expression is gentle when relaxed, sensible yet alert when aroused. Eyes are medium size, set well apart, brown or hazel color in darker dogs, lighter hazel to yellow in lighter dogs, though darker colors are always desired. Ears are set on low and lie close to the cheeks, rounded at the tips.

The skull is in proportion to the entire animal, with good length and breadth and a bold forehead. The stop is moderately defined. The muzzle from stop to tip of nose is approximately the same length as the skull from stop to occiput. The muzzle is substantial with good depth, and the lips complete the square, clean look of the muzzle, without excess skin or flews. A good nose is essential. It must be wide, with well opened nostrils. Teeth meet in a scissors bite or they may be level. Overshot or undershot bites faulted to the degree of severity of the misalignment.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is long and strong with no excess skin or throatiness, sweeping smoothly into the muscling of the forequarters. The topline is level. Back muscular with no dip behind the withers or roach over the loin. Body--Chest deep, extending to the elbows, with well sprung ribs that extend well back, providing plenty of heart and lung room. The ribs should not be so well sprung that they interfere with the free, efficient movement of the front assembly. The loin is short, wide and well muscled.
The tail is long, set on high and carried up from 12 o\'clock to 3 o\'clock, depending on attitude. It tapers to a point with a brush of hair. The tail should not be curled over the back.

Forequarters
Moderate angulation, with long shoulders sloping into the muscles of the back, clean at the withers. The shoulders are well clothed with muscle without being excessively heavy or loaded, giving the impression of free, strong action. Elbows are set well away from the ribs, running parallel with the body and not turning outwards. Good straight legs with plenty of bone running well down to the toes, but not overburdened, inclined to knuckle over very slightly but not exaggerated in the slightest degree. Feet are round and catlike, with toes set close together turning slightly inwards. The pads are thick, well developed and strong.

Hindquarters
Angulation in balance with the front assembly, so that rear drive is in harmony with front reach. Well developed muscles, providing strength for long hours of work, are important. Endurance is more important than pure speed, and as such, the stifles are only moderately angulated. Feet point straight ahead, are round and catlike with toes set close together, and thick, well developed pads.

Coat
Short, dense, hard and glossy. Coat texture on the ears is finer than on the body. There is a brush of hair on the underside of the tail.

Color
Any color, not regarded as very important.

Gait
Perfect coordination between the front and hind legs. Reach and drive are consistent with the desired moderate angulation. Coming and going, the dog moves in a straight line, evidencing no sign of crabbing. A slight toeing-in of the front feet is acceptable. Clean movement coming and going is important, but not nearly as important as side gait, which is smooth, efficient and ground-covering.

Temperament
Outgoing and friendly, as a working pack breed, Harriers must be able to work in close contact with other hounds. Therefore, aggressiveness towards other dogs cannot be tolerated.

Approved December 13, 1988
Effective February 1, 1989

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:42:37 | 显示全部楼层


灵缇(Greyhound)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

[历史]

    如光线般迅速,如燕子般优美,如所罗门一样聪明,这是预言灵提是一种将不会消亡的品种的某些根据。它的名望最初被写入埃及炙热的沙漠里,能够在地球上每一个洲的几乎每个国家的各种地带找到它的踪迹。它是古代人所知晓的一种类型,并从远古时代起,它就是贵族的象征。然而,灵提是一种不需大张旗鼓宣告它的到来,不需身着盛装来吸引众人的目光的猎犬。它天生的品质使它获准进入任何高等或低等的圈子。

    对灵提的最初了解来自埃姆顿的坟墓,位于尼罗河流域,埃及古生物学家认为属于第四王朝,按现代年表是在公元前2900年到公元前2751年之间。在这个古老的坟墓的雕刻中,分别有三个场景都清晰的显示着灵提这种类型。其中的两幅,描绘它们正在进攻一头鹿,而另一幅描绘它们正在进攻一头有些像美国山地山羊的长角的动物。雕刻中的犬都长有环形的尾巴。

    对“灵提”这个名字的起源,存在着一定的争论,许多的猜想被提出。一种猜想是它源自“Graius”,意思是希腊的,因为这种犬受到古希腊人的高度尊重。另一个推测认为,它来自古不列颠语“grech”或“greg”,意思是一头犬,还有一些认为用这个名字是因为灰色曾经是这个品种的主要颜色。

    而古埃及在非常早时期就承认灵提为公认的类型,在罗马的原始资料中,出现了这种猎犬最初的完整描述。作者是生活在公元前43年到公元17年的奥维德,读到这些资料时,我们会对古代的这种犬与现代犬是否相似产生了一点怀疑。

    灵提通常会有文化和贵族背景。它是埃及皇室的宠物,并且它繁殖和饲养在奢华的环境中,使得受压迫的种族和那个时期的老百姓有各种理由去憎恨它。然而这种猎犬的性情像如今一样惹人喜爱和驯良。如果老百姓被允许拥有这种猎犬,那么故事将会完全不同,而当时它的所有权仅限于统治阶级。

    与灵提有关的古老传统世代流传。在非常早的时期它就被发现于英国。事实上,公元9世纪的一个原稿就被麦西亚国王埃里弗瑞克的一幅画来举例说明;除此以外,古撒克逊首领和他的猎人和一群灵提站在一起。虽然不知在埃里弗瑞克时期以前多少个世纪,灵提就在英国被知晓,但有理由相信这种猎犬存那里存在了很长一段时期。

    写于丹麦――因为当时丹麦人征服了许多现在属于英格兰的地区――并于1016年在温彻斯特举行的议会上颁布的著名的克努特法,提供了关于灵提地位的更加深入的根据。克努特法第31条规定:

    地位低下的人不得接近灵提.但自由人可以接近灵提,因此如果在御猎场皇家森林前停留,他们的膝盖将会被割掉,如果他们在御猎场边界10米以外.将不会被割掉膝盖。但是如果他们接近御猎场,将会每米付12便士,但如果在御猪场里发现灵提.犬的主人或者所有者应被没收犬并付给国王10先令。

    灵提时常被用于几乎所有的小型野兽,包括鹿、公火鸡、狐狸等等,但野兔是它天生的猎物,并且对其进行狩猎持续了几个世纪。事实上,狩猎已经在英国有组织地开展了近两个世纪。

    早在1776年,灵提就来到了美国。这个品种的史学家劳雷尔鲁德据研究所得,灵提在16世纪早期被西班牙探险队带到这个洲(与獒一起)“用于守卫、猎获、恫吓和惩罚他的敌人――假如这样的话,是印第安的”。这个报告讲述了灵提的威力,即如何“走进附近的森林和抓回野兔和家免”。

    1770年,灵提显著地出现在曾到过托布拉多的英国探险家乔治卡特赖特的期刊单。曾在美国革命中辅助华盛顿将军的德国职业军官弗雷德里希冯施托伊本男爵,常常由一头名叫亚速的灵提所陪伴。

    历史上众多灵提的主人中最值得赞扬的人之是乔治?A?卡斯特将军。卡斯特特别喜欢追猎犬――灵提和猎鹿犬――带着大约40只的猎犬群旅游。一本书中描述到,1876年卡斯特在他到小比格霍恩河进行至关重要的探险之前为猎犬举办了一次竞赛。

    灵提也出现在最早的美国犬展中。1877年,早期维斯敏斯特养犬俱乐部犬展的目录包括18只灵提的加入和美国养犬爱好者俱乐部优良品种登记簿第二版(1885年)的品种及3只公犬和5只母犬的名单。

    1912年,O?P?史密斯发明的机械制诱饵导致了在20世纪20年代灵提追踪比赛的传入,使人们对这个品种更加感兴趣。

[体型]

    体重:雄性29.48~31.75千克;雌性27.22~29.48千克。

[头部]

    长而窄,耳朵之间还算宽阔,止部几乎无法被察觉到,鼻窦非常小或没有,口吻有足够的长度,有力而不粗糙。牙齿非常结实,且前面平。 耳朵:小且质地细腻,除了兴奋时,耳朵向后而且有褶皱,兴奋时,耳朵为半立耳。眼睛:深色,欢快、聪明的眼神,显示出热情。

[颈部]

    长,肌肉发达,无赘肉,略微圆拱,逐渐加宽,融入肩部。

[肩胛]

    位置尽可能倾斜,肌肉发达而没有抗肩膀。

[前躯]

    笔直、完美,与肩胛结合良好,既不向内弯,也不向外翻,胶骨结实。

[胸部]

    深,且宽度能与他的速度相称,肋骨扩张相当良好。

[背部]

    肌肉发达而宽阔。

[腰部]

    肌肉发达,有足够的深度,漂亮的圆拱,腰窝线条清晰。

[后躯]

    长,肌肉非常发达,且有力、宽阔,膝关节低且适度倾斜。飞节角度恰当,靠近地面,宽阔,但从头到尾保持笔直。

[足爪]

    坚固而紧凑,更接近兔足而不是猫足,指关节健康,爪子强健。

[尾巴]

    长,细腻,尖端略细,略呈向上的曲线。

[被毛]

    短、平滑,质地坚固。

[颜色]

    无关紧要。

[步态]

[性格]

[失格]

[评分标准]

    外形得分比例



    整体匀称性和品质            10

    头部和颈部                  20

    胸部和肩胛                  20

    后背                        10

    四肢                        20

    腿和足爪                    20

    总计 100


Greyhound Breed Standard


Head
Long and narrow, fairly wide between the ears, scarcely perceptible stop, little or no development of nasal sinuses, good length of muzzle, which should be powerful without coarseness. Teeth very strong and even in front.

Ears
Small and fine in texture, thrown back and folded, except when excited, when they are semi-pricked.

Eyes
Dark, bright, intelligent, indicating spirit.

Neck
Long, muscular, without throatiness, slightly arched, and widening gradually into the shoulder.

Shoulders
Placed as obliquely as possible, muscular without being loaded.

Forelegs
Perfectly straight, set well into the shoulders, neither turned in nor out, pasterns strong.

Chest
Deep, and as wide as consistent with speed, fairly well-sprung ribs.

Back
Muscular and broad.

Loins
Good depth of muscle, well arched, well cut up in the flanks.

Hindquarters
Long, very muscular and powerful, wide and well let down, well-bent stifles. Hocks well bent and rather close to ground, wide but straight fore and aft.

Feet
Hard and close, rather more hare than catfeet, well knuckled up with good strong claws.

Tail
Long, fine and tapering with a slight upward curve.

Coat
Short, smooth and firm in texture.

Color
Immaterial.

Weight
Dogs, 65 to 70 pounds; bitches 60 to 65 pounds.

Scale of Points
General symmetry and quality 10
Head and neck 20
Chest and shoulders 20
Back 10
Quarters 20
Legs and feet 20
Total 100

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:43:53 | 显示全部楼层


英国猎狐犬(English Foxhound)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

[历史]

    美国的猎狐运动几乎与大不列颠的猎狐运动在同一时期产生。在美国的犬展上或者其他地方我们所接触的猎狐犬被称为英国猎狐犬,虽然我们很难理解为什么被冠以那个名字而不被叫作猎狐梗即应称为英国猎狐梗的原因。英国猎狐犬被精心饲养了150多年。由猎狐犬主人协会(英国)出版的优良品种登记簿可追溯到1800多年以前,并且对于每一个英国猎狐犬的主人来说,追溯它的血统是一件十分容易的事。英国猎狐犬的饲养掌握在猎犬的主人手中,这些人保留着最精心的饲养的记录。

    有记录记载,费尔法克斯伯爵1783年第一次从英国出口这种猎犬到美国,美国猎狐犬主人协会出版的美国英国猎狐犬优良品种登记簿,将最早的进口追溯到1890年,但是还有更早的记录记载,人们倾向于认为,可能还在更早的时期就开始了进口。当然,杰纳西河谷的血统至少应追溯到那个时期以前20年,从那时起到现在,都保持着相当精确的记录。

    在英国,像在美国一样,这些猎犬在流行骑马打猎时被用于猎狐。大不列颠拥有250多群猎犬,所有的猎群都使用英国猎犬,而在美国,我们有100多群猎犬,虽然这个血统可自由地与美国猎狐犬混合,但其中使用的猎犬能够符合英国猎狐犬优良品种登记簿的还不到10%。

    在外观上,英国猎狐犬远比它的美国亲戚健壮,并且,可能没有比卡斯伯特?布拉德利所著的《弗兰克?吉拉德回忆录》中所引用的一个段落更能描述这种猎犬的一般外貌,在这本书中,他描绘了“拜利成尔?盖姆布勒”,一头他曾饲养过的最大的猎犬之一的猎狐犬。

    虽然拜利威尔?盖姆布勒不能根据经验饲养,但这只非凡的猎狐犬的比例值得作为对称性标准的例子来保存。站立时,从它匀称的肩膀尖端到它的四肢。身高为58.4厘米,它的体长为69.9厘米,同时,从肘到地面,它的长度仅为30.5厘米。拥有十分深陷的肋以为心脏提供空间,它的胸围为78.7厘米,它前臂以下的围长为21.0厘米,膝以下是21.0厘米高的结实的骨骼,大腿的围长为25.5厘米,从颅骨到肩,伸展的颈部为25.4厘米,头为26.7厘米长,它的毛色十分丰富,展示了所有漂亮的 “拜利威尔棕褐色”.它的头部看起来十分聪明的样子,富有极高的智慧。盖姆布勒可以激发诗人的创作激情,坎农?金斯利在描述现代猎狐犬时说,“自然的结果没有被限制,而文明高度发展。在古希腊雕像之后,很少有像猎狐犬一样能够将优美和力量完美结合。

[体型]

[头部]

    有足够的尺寸,但并不意味着头部很沉重。眉毛明显,但不是很高或很突出。应该有合理的长度和宽度,有足够的长度,绕到耳朵后的周长至少为40.6厘米,鼻子长(10.8厘米)而宽,鼻孔张开。耳朵位置低且靠在面颊两侧。大多数英国猎狐犬的耳朵是\"圆形\"的,这意味着到耳朵末端的长度约3.8厘米。牙齿必须以正方形方式接触(剪状咬合或钳状咬合)。猪嘴(上颚突出式咬合)或下颚突出式咬合都属于失格。

[颈部]

    长而整洁,没有任何赘肉,从头盖骨到肩部不小于25.4厘米。从肩部到头部呈精致的锥形,上轮廓线略呈弧线形。

[肩胛和肋骨]

    肩胛:肩胛骨长,且被发达的肌肉所覆盖,不显得沉重,尤其在尖端。适度倾斜,上臂长而肌肉发达,没有多余的脂肪和其他废物。胸部和肋骨:61.0厘米的犬,胸围大约78.7厘米,肋骨必须非常深。

[背部和腰部]

    背部和腰部肌肉都很发达,彼此紧密结合。结合处宽,平顺,背线完全水平。尾巴:位置恰当,且欢快地举着,但决不能过分向前而超过背部(象松鼠尾巴)。末端逐渐变细,且在下方有较多毛发。后躯:主要用于产生推动力,必须十分强壮,并且有很强的耐力,能长时间保持匀速前进,比单纯的速度更重要,笔直的膝关节是首选,而非常倾斜的膝关节是属于灵缇犬的。肘部:相当直,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。位置比较低,就象前面说过的,上臂很长。

[腿和足爪]

    每个猎狐犬的主人都坚持认为,它们的腿应该象柱子一样直,结实;踝骨的尺寸尤其重要。希望得到笔直的腿,而导致过度的关节,曾经非常普遍,但近年来,这种缺陷,已经被细心的繁殖家和聪明的裁判所根除了,所以现在已经很少看见优秀的猎狐犬还存在这样的问题了。骨骼不应该太大,足爪应该是圆形的猫足,具有发达的指关节和结实的趾甲,这是最后的重要特征。

[被毛和颜色]

    不是十分重要的特征,只要其式样属于所谓的\"猎犬颜色\",被毛是短、浓密、硬且有光泽就可以了。猎犬颜色是黑色、褐色、和白色,三种颜色的任意组合,同样,以白色、野兔色、獾色或黄色、褐色的不同的组合模式都可以。\"匀称性\"对猎狐犬来说是至关重要的,也就是我们所知道的\"品质\",这是所有裁判都非常关注的问题。

[步态]

[性格]

[失格]

    猪嘴(上颚突出式咬合)或下颚突出式咬合。

[评分标准]

    外形得分比例



头部               5

颈部              10

肩胛              10

胸部和肋骨        10

背部和腰部        15

后躯              10

肘部                5

腿和足爪           20

被毛和颜色          5

尾巴                5

匀称性              5

总计              100



标准通过日期:1935年


English Foxhound Breed Standard


Head
Should be of full size, but by no means heavy. Brow pronounced, but not high or sharp. There should be a good length and breadth, sufficient to give in a dog hound a girth in front of the ears of fully 16 inches. The nose should be long (4½ inches) and wide, with open nostrils. Ears set on low and lying close to the cheeks. Most English hounds are \"rounded\" which means that about 1½ inches is taken off the end of the ear. The teeth must meet squarely, either a pig-mouth (overshot) or undershot being a disqualification.

Neck
Must be long and clean, without the slightest throatiness, not less than 10 inches from cranium to shoulder. It should taper nicely from shoulders to head, and the upper outline should be slightly convex.

The Shoulders should be long and well clothed with muscle, without being heavy, especially at the points. They must be well sloped, and the true arm between the front and the elbow must be long and muscular, but free from fat or lumber. Chest and Back Ribs--The chest should girth over 31 inches in a 24-inch hound, and the back ribs must be very deep.

Back and Loin
Must both be very muscular, running into each other without any contraction between them. The couples must be wide, even to raggedness, and the topline of the back should be absolutely level, the Stern well set on and carried gaily but not in any case curved over the back like a squirrel\'s tail. The end should taper to a point and there should be a fringe of hair below. The Hindquarters or propellers are required to be very strong, and as endurance is of even greater consequence than speed, straight stifles are preferred to those much bent as in a Greyhound. Elbows set quite straight, and neither turned in nor out are a sine qua non. They must be well let down by means of the long true arm above mentioned.

Legs and Feet
Every Master of Foxhounds insists on legs as straight as a post, and as strong; size of bone at the ankle being especially regarded as all important. The desire for straightness had a tendency to produce knuckling-over, which at one time was countenanced, but in recent years this defect has been eradicated by careful breeding and intelligent adjudication, and one sees very little of this trouble in the best modern Foxhounds. The bone cannot be too large, and the feet in all cases should be round and catlike, with well-developed knuckles and strong horn, which last is of the greatest importance.

Color and Coat
Not regarded as very important, so long as the former is a good \"hound color,\" and the latter is short, dense, hard, and glossy. Hound colors are black, tan, and white, or any combination of these three, also the various \"pies\" compounded of white and the color of the hare and badger, or yellow, or tan. The Symmetry of the Foxhound is of the greatest importance, and what is known as \"quality\" is highly regarded by all good judges.

Scale of Points Head 5
Neck 10
Shoulders 10
Chest and back ribs 10
Back and loin 15
Hindquarters 10
Elbows 5
Legs and feet 20
Color and coat 5
Stern 5
Symmetry 5
Total 100

Disqualification
Pig-mouth (overshot) or undershot.

Approved 1935

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:45:11 | 显示全部楼层


腊肠犬(Dachshund)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






[简介]

身躯长,靠近地面,腿短,精力充沛且肌肉发达,皮肤有弹性而柔韧,没有皱纹。它的行动能力看起来既不显得瘸、笨拙,也不显得艰难。头部自信地昂起,非常和谐、清晰,而且面部表情聪明、警惕。在捕猎时,依靠它的鼻子、大嗓门、及与众不同的身体结构,使它适合在地下或灌木丛中工作。它敏锐的嗅觉使它能远远超越其他品种。注意:由于它是一种猎犬,疤痕是光荣的象征,不被作为缺陷。

[历史]

腊肠犬与巴吉度犬相比,腊肠犬名符其实的同族中的小弟弟,它与巴吉度外型相似,四脚矮矮,身体长长,大耳朵是名符其实的大腊肠,但此犬不因矮人一等而自卑,它也是捕猎能手,也以嗅觉灵敏而著称,它活动性强,特别显示敏捷机智,此犬在澳洲被列为最受欢迎的十种纯种狗之一。

古埃及寺院里壁画上,有此类身长脚短物的画像;墨西哥、希腊、秘鲁、中国大陆上都可发现类似腊肠犬的石雕模型及粘土制品。从德国古代罗马人居住的遗迹上挖掘类似腊肠犬的遗体化石判断,认为此犬为杜唐产的纯种犬。腊肠犬种依毛质可分为短毛种、长毛种、钢毛种,又有标准型犬及小型犬之分,共分为六种。其基本特征相同,只是体型和毛皮不同。初期的小型犬即是更类犬和体形最小且最轻的腊肠犬交配改良品种而来的。

[体型]

腊肠犬可以分为两种尺寸,标准型和迷你型。迷你型在繁殖和犬展中并不单独分类,但在比赛中,会将“12个月以后,体重4.99千克”的犬单独分类。标准型的体重大约在7.26~14.52千克。

[头部]

从上面或从侧面观察,头部都是呈锥形(向鼻尖方向逐渐变细)。眼睛中等大小,杏仁形,深色眼圈,表情令人愉快、舒适;眼神不尖利;颜色非常深。鼻梁骨(越过眼睛)非常有力而突出。除了斑点色的腊肠犬,眼睛出现色环属于非常严重的缺陷。耳朵位置非常接近头顶,不能过分靠前,中等长度,圆,不能太窄、太尖或折叠。耳朵挂着,当活动时,耳朵前侧边缘贴着面颊,成为脸部的一部分。脑袋略微圆拱,既不 太宽,也不太窄,逐渐倾斜,经过轻微,但可以察觉的止部,过渡到精致、略微圆拱的口吻。黑色是鼻镜的首选颜色。嘴唇紧密延伸,覆盖下颌。鼻孔张开。嘴能张的很大,下颌与头骨结合处位于眼睛下后方,骨骼与牙齿都很结实。牙齿:有力的犬齿,牙齿紧密,剪状咬合。钳状咬合属于小缺陷,其他咬合属于严重缺陷。

[颈部、身躯]

颈部:长,肌肉发达,整洁,无赘肉,颈背略微圆拱,流畅地融入肩部。 躯干:长而肌肉充分发达。从轮廓上观察,背部(从马肩隆到短而略微圆拱的腰部之间)尽可能直。身躯松弛地挂在肩胛上属于严重缺陷。腹部:略微上提。

[前躯]

为了能有效的在地下工作,前躯必须结实、深、肌肉整洁。理想的前躯是:胸部.胸骨在前面非常强烈的突出,使两侧都显示出塌陷或凹陷。从前面观察,胸腔呈卵形,向下延伸到前臂中间。周围是支撑良好的肋骨,肋骨呈卵形且丰满,产生充足的空间,使心脏和肺部能充分发展。胸底线条逐渐融入腹部,且充分延伸,超过前肢。从轮廓上看,胸底最深处被前肢遮住。肩胛骨.长、宽、向后倾斜,稳固地安在丰满的胸腔之上,马肩隆非常靠近,肌肉坚硬而柔韧。上臂.理想的情况是长度与肩胛骨相同,与肩胛骨成直角,向后倾斜,且紧贴肋骨,肘部靠近身体,但能自由运动。前臂.短、前面和外侧的肌肉坚硬但柔韧,内侧和背面肌腱紧密延伸,略微向内弯曲。前臂与足爪之间的关节(手腕)之间的距离比肩关节之间的距离要近,所以前面看起来不非常直;关节超出属于失格。足爪.前脚掌丰满,紧密、紧凑、配合了适度圆拱的脚趾和非常坚硬、厚实的脚垫。足爪可能都略向外倾斜。有五个脚趾,四个脚趾有用,紧密结合在一起,圆拱而结实,趾甲短。前肢狼爪可以切除。

[后躯]

结实而肌肉清晰。骨盆、第一节大腿骨、第二节大腿骨、跖骨的理想结构是长度都一样,以多个连续的直角相互连接。从后面观察,大腿结实而有力。腿既不向内弯,也不向外翻。跖骨:短而结实,垂直于第二节大腿骨,从后面观察,它们垂直且相互平行。足爪(后脚掌):比前足爪小,有四个紧密贴和,圆拱的脚趾,脚垫厚实。整个足爪笔直向前,足爪整体和谐,呈球状,而不只是脚趾。后狼爪可以切除。臀部:长、圆而丰满,略微没入明显的尾巴中。尾巴:位于脊椎的延长线上,不歪歪扭扭、扭曲、或明显弯曲、也不过于欢快地举起。

[步态]

流畅而平滑。前肢向前伸展良好,不能抬腿太高,与后躯的驱动动作相互配合。正确的肩部结构和合适的肘部允许步伐舒展,步幅很大。从正面观察,前肢并非在绝对平行的平面上运动,而是略向内,以抵消腿太短、及胸部宽度带来的影响。后肢驱动动作与前肢在同一直线上,飞节(跖骨)既不向内弯也不向外翻。后腿的推动力主要是依赖它能完全伸展它的后腿,从侧面观察,后腿向前伸展的程度与向后伸展的程度一致。后蹬的正确动作,是在整个向后伸展的过程中,后脚垫清晰可见。足爪应该与行进方向平行,既不摇摆、横行、也不相互干涉。步伐短、起伏的动作,摇摆、高抬腿的步态,过来或过去时,太近、太远都属于错误。腊肠犬必须具有活泼,舒展的动作,有耐力完成它的工作。

[性格]

腊肠犬是机灵、活泼、勇敢、有点轻率,在地面或地下工作时不屈不挠,所有的感官都非常发达。任何羞怯的表现都属于严重缺陷。

[三种不同的被毛特征]

腊肠犬有三种不同的被毛类型:(1)短毛型,(2)刚毛型,(3)长毛型,有两种规格:标准型和迷你型,这两种规格都有上面三种毛发类型。下面所描述的所有面貌都包括了两种不同的规格。

[短毛型]

被毛短、平顺、光滑。既不太长,也不能太薄。耳朵不能象皮革的样子。尾巴:向尾尖逐渐变细,但没有过多的毛发。下腹部的毛发长而圆滑,有部分块有粗壮的毛发不属于缺陷。刷子状的尾巴属于缺陷,整个无毛或部分无毛的尾巴也属于缺陷。毛发的颜色:基本颜色虽然不重要,确定的样式和基本色还是占优势。单一颜色,红色(带有或不带深色、浅褐色的阴影散布着)和奶油色。胸部有少量的白色是允许的,但不理想。鼻镜和趾甲为黑色。

双色,包括黑色、巧克力色、野猪色、灰色(兰色)、驼色(伊莎贝拉棕),各自带有褐色斑纹,在眼睛上方,颌部两侧,下唇,耳朵内边缘,前面,胸部、前腿内侧和后面,脚掌和肛门周围,并在尾巴下侧,向尾巴延伸1/3到1/2。不恰当的突出或太浅的褐色斑纹不理想。胸部有少量的白色是允许的,但不理想。鼻镜和趾甲,黑色的犬为黑色;巧克力色和其他颜色的犬是深褐色,但自身的颜色也可以接受。

斑纹色,\"单一斑纹\"的样式,明显的浅色斑纹范围,与非常深的底色交汇,可以是任何可能的颜色。既不能是浅的颜色也不能是深的颜色占主导地位。鼻镜和趾甲与单色腊肠或双色腊肠一样。部分或整个眼睛的颜色为兰色(眼睛内有色环),与深色眼睛一样可以接受。斑纹色腊肠在胸前有大面积的白色斑纹是允许的。

\"双重斑纹\"是在斑纹色腊肠身体上出现不同数量的白色斑纹,鼻镜和趾甲与单色腊肠或双色腊肠一样。局部或部分是自身的颜色也可以接受。

斑纹色的图案(对比色)是在全身有黑色或深色斑纹,虽然,有些斑纹色的腊肠犬只能看到褐色斑纹。

[刚毛型]

被毛:除了颌部、眉毛、耳朵外,身体上都覆盖着统一的紧密、短、厚重、粗糙、坚硬的外层披毛,有细腻、柔软、短的毛发(底毛)分布在粗糙的毛发中。缺乏底毛属于缺陷。有特色的面部毛发包括胡须、眉毛。耳朵的毛发比身体上毛发短,差不多是平滑的。刚毛腊肠犬毛发的一般排列,从远处观察,与短毛腊肠犬大体一样。如果有些柔软的毛发,不论在身体上,尤其在头顶,属于缺陷。正确的毛发长度、卷曲的毛发或波浪状的毛发是一样的。毛发呈不规则的条状,向不同方向。尾巴:健壮,有浓密的毛发,向尖端逐渐变细。平坦的尾巴属于缺陷。毛发颜色:大多的颜色是野猪色、黑色、褐色、带有不同深度的红色、所有的颜色都允许。胸前有少量白色虽然能接受,但不理想。鼻镜和趾甲:与短毛型相同。

[长毛型]

被毛:圆滑、光亮略呈波浪状的毛发,颈部以下、胸部、身体下方、耳朵和腿后面的毛发长。被毛给与它一种文雅的外貌。耳朵的毛发短不理想。毛发过与丰富,形成面具,整个身体的毛发长度一致,卷曲的被毛,或在背部有明显的区别都属于缺陷。尾巴:温和的举着,在脊椎的延长线上。毛发达到最佳长度,形成旗帜状。毛发的颜色:与短毛腊肠犬一样。鼻镜和趾甲:与短毛腊肠犬一样。

注意:前面描述的都是理想的腊肠犬,所有背离上面描述的地方都属于缺陷,并根据背离的地方是否重要,是否违背了培育这个品种不同类型的目的而扣分。

[失格]

关节超过前腿。



标准通过日期:1992年4月 7日

标准执行日期:1992年5月27日


Dachshund Breed Standard


General Appearance
Low to ground, long in body and short of leg with robust muscular development, the skin is elastic and pliable without excessive wrinkling. Appearing neither crippled, awkward, nor cramped in his capacity for movement, the Dachshund is well-balanced with bold and confident head carriage and intelligent, alert facial expression. His hunting spirit, good nose, loud tongue and distinctive build make him well-suited for below-ground work and for beating the bush. His keen nose gives him an advantage over most other breeds for trailing. Note: Inasmuch as the Dachshund is a hunting dog, scars from honorable wounds shall not be considered a fault.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Bred and shown in two sizes, standard and miniature, miniatures are not a separate classification but compete in a class division for \"11 pounds and under at 12 months of age and older.\" Weight of the standard size is usually between 16 and 32 pounds.

Head
Viewed from above or from the side, the head tapers uniformly to the tip of the nose. The eyes are of medium size, almond-shaped and dark-rimmed, with an energetic, pleasant expression; not piercing; very dark in color. The bridge bones over the eyes are strongly prominent. Wall eyes, except in the case of dappled dogs, are a serious fault. The ears are set near the top of the head, not too far forward, of moderate length, rounded, not narrow, pointed, or folded. Their carriage, when animated, is with the forward edge just touching the cheek so that the ears frame the face. The skull is slightly arched, neither too broad nor too narrow, and slopes gradually with little perceptible stop into the finely-formed, slightly arched muzzle. Black is the preferred color of the nose. Lips are tightly stretched, well covering the lower jaw. Nostrils well open. Jaws opening wide and hinged well back of the eyes, with strongly developed bones and teeth. Teeth--Powerful canine teeth; teeth fit closely together in a scissors bite. An even bite is a minor fault. Any other deviation is a serious fault.

Neck
Long, muscular, clean-cut, without dewlap, slightly arched in the nape, flowing gracefully into the shoulders.

Trunk
The trunk is long and fully muscled. When viewed in profile, the back lies in the straightest possible line between the withers and the short very slightly arched loin. A body that hangs loosely between the shoulders is a serious fault. Abdomen--Slightly drawn up.

Forequarters
For effective underground work, the front must be strong, deep, long and cleanly muscled. Forequarters in detail: Chest-- The breastbone is strongly prominent in front so that on either side a depression or dimple appears. When viewed from the front, the thorax appears oval and extends downward to the mid-point of the forearm. The enclosing structure of well-sprung ribs appears full and oval to allow, by its ample capacity, complete development of heart and lungs. The keel merges gradually into the line of the abdomen and extends well beyond the front legs. Viewed in profile, the lowest point of the breast line is covered by the front leg. Shoulder Blades--Long, broad, well-laid back and firmly placed upon the fully developed thorax, closely fitted at the withers, furnished with hard yet pliable muscles. Upper Arm--Ideally the same length as the shoulder blade and at right angles to the latter, strong of bone and hard of muscle, lying close to the ribs, with elbows close to the body, yet capable of free movement. Forearm--Short; supplied with hard yet pliable muscles on the front and outside, with tightly stretched tendons on the inside and at the back, slightly curved inwards. The joints between the forearms and the feet (wrists) are closer together than the shoulder joints, so that the front does not appear absolutely straight. Knuckling over is a disqualifying fault. Feet--Front paws are full, tight, compact, with well-arched toes and tough, thick pads. They may be equally inclined a trifle outward. There are five toes, four in use, close together with a pronounced arch and strong, short nails. Front dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters
Strong and cleanly muscled. The pelvis, the thigh, the second thigh, and the metatarsus are ideally the same length and form a series of right angles. From the rear, the thighs are strong and powerful. The legs turn neither in nor out. Metatarsus-- Short and strong, perpendicular to the second thigh bone. When viewed from behind, they are upright and parallel. Feet--Hind Paws--Smaller than the front paws with four compactly closed and arched toes with tough, thick pads. The entire foot points straight ahead and is balanced equally on the ball and not merely on the toes. Rear dewclaws should be removed. Croup--Long, rounded and full, sinking slightly toward the tail. Tail-- Set in continuation of the spine, extending without kinks, twists, or pronounced curvature, and not carried too gaily.

Gait
Fluid and smooth. Forelegs reach well forward, without much lift, in unison with the driving action of hind legs. The correct shoulder assembly and well-fitted elbows allow the long, free stride in front. Viewed from the front, the legs do not move in exact parallel planes, but incline slightly inward to compensate for shortness of leg and width of chest. Hind legs drive on a line with the forelegs, with hocks (metatarsus) turning neither in nor out. The propulsion of the hind leg depends on the dog\'s ability to carry the hind leg to complete extension. Viewed in profile, the forward reach of the hind leg equals the rear extension. The thrust of correct movement is seen when the rear pads are clearly exposed during rear extension. Feet must travel parallel to the line of motion with no tendency to swing out, cross over, or interfere with each other. Short, choppy movement, rolling or high-stepping gait, close or overly wide coming or going are incorrect. The Dachshund must have agility, freedom of movement, and endurance to do the work for which he was developed.

Temperament
The Dachshund is clever, lively and courageous to the point of rashness, persevering in above and below ground work, with all the senses well-developed. Any display of shyness is a serious fault.

Special Characteristics of the Three Coat Varieties
The Dachshund is bred with three varieties of coat: (1) Smooth; (2) Wirehaired; (3) Longhaired and is shown in two sizes, standard and miniature. All three varieties and both sizes must conform to the characteristics already specified. The following features are applicable for each variety:

Smooth Dachshund
Coat--Short, smooth and shining. Should be neither too long nor too thick. Ears not leathery. Tail--Gradually tapered to a point, well but not too richly haired. Long sleek bristles on the underside are considered a patch of strong-growing hair, not a fault. A brush tail is a fault, as is also a partly or wholly hairless tail.

Color of Hair--Although base color is immaterial, certain patterns and basic colors predominate. One-colored Dachshunds include red (with or without a shading of interspersed dark hairs or sable) and cream. A small amount of white on the chest is acceptable, but not desirable. Nose and nails--black.

Two-colored Dachshunds include black, chocolate, wild boar, gray (blue) and fawn (Isabella), each with tan markings over the eyes, on the sides of the jaw and underlip, on the inner edge of the ear, front, breast, inside and behind the front legs, on the paws and around the anus, and from there to about one-third to one-half of the length of the tail on the underside. Undue prominence or extreme lightness of tan markings is undesirable. A small amount of white on the chest is acceptable but not desirable. Nose and nails--in the case of black dogs, black; for chocolate and all other colors, dark brown, but self-colored is acceptable.

Dappled Dachshunds--The \"single\" dapple pattern is expressed as lighter-colored areas contrasting with the darker base color, which may be any acceptable color. Neither the light nor the dark color should predominate. Nose and nails are the same as for one and two-colored Dachshunds. Partial or wholly blue (wall) eyes are as acceptable as dark eyes. A large area of white on the chest of a dapple is permissible.

A \"double\" dapple is one in which varying amounts of white coloring occur over the body in addition to the dapple pattern. Nose and nails: as for one and two-color Dachshunds; partial or wholly self-colored is permissible.

Brindle is a pattern (as opposed to a color) in which black or dark stripes occur over the entire body although in some specimens the pattern may be visible only in the tan points.

Wirehaired Dachshund
Coat-- With the exception of jaw, eyebrows, and ears, the whole body is covered with a uniform tight, short, thick, rough, hard, outer coat but with finer, somewhat softer, shorter hairs (undercoat) everywhere distributed between the coarser hairs. The absence of an undercoat is a fault. The distinctive facial furnishings include a beard and eyebrows. On the ears the hair is shorter than on the body, almost smooth. The general arrangement of the hair is such that the wirehaired Dachshund, when viewed from a distance, resembles the smooth. Any sort of soft hair in the outercoat, wherever found on the body, especially on the top of the head, is a fault. The same is true of long, curly, or wavy hair, or hair that sticks out irregularly in all directions. Tail-- Robust, thickly haired, gradually tapering to a point. A flag tail is a fault. Color of Hair--While the most common colors are wild boar, black and tan, and various shades of red, all colors are admissible. A small amount of white on the chest, although acceptable, is not desirable. Nose and nails--same as for the smooth variety.

Longhaired Dachshund
Coat--The sleek, glistening, often slightly wavy hair is longer under the neck and on the forechest, the underside of the body, the ears, and behind the legs. The coat gives the dog an elegant appearance. Short hair on the ear is not desirable. Too profuse a coat which masks type, equally long hair over the whole body, a curly coat, or a pronounced parting on the back are faults. Tail--Carried gracefully in prolongation of the spine; the hair attains its greatest length here and forms a veritable flag. Color of Hair--Same as for the smooth Dachshund. Nose and nails--same as for the smooth.

The foregoing description is that of the ideal Dachshund. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation keeping in mind the importance of the contribution of the various features toward the basic original purpose of the breed.

Disqualification
Knuckling over of front legs

Approved April 7, 1992
Effective May 27, 1992

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