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[亲宠交流] 名犬品种(纯种狗介绍)




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发表于 2007-6-10 10:39:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

刚毛指示格里芬犬(Wirehaired Pointing Griffon)












[以下为硬毛指示格里芬犬(Wirehaired Pointing Griffon)AKC标准英文原版]

Wirehaired Pointing Griffon Breed Standard

General Appearance
Medium sized, with a noble, square-shaped head, strong of limb, bred to cover all terrain encountered by the walking hunter. Movement showing an easy catlike gracefulness. Excels equally as a pointer in the field, or a retriever in the water. Coat is hard and coarse, never curly or woolly, with a thick undercoat of fine hair, giving an unkempt appearance. His easy trainability, devotion to family, and friendly temperament endear him to all. The nickname of "supreme gundog" is well earned.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--22 to 24 inches for males, 20 to 22 inches for females. Correct size is important. Oversize to be severely penalized. Proportion--Slightly longer than tall, in a ratio of 10 to 9. Height from withers to ground; length from point of shoulder to point of buttocks. The Griffon must not evolve towards a square conformation. Substance medium, reflecting his work as an all-terrain hunting dog.

The head is to be in proportion to the overall dog. The skull is of medium width with equal length from nose to stop and from stop to occiput. The skull is slightly rounded on top, but from the side the muzzle and head are square. The stop and occiput are only slightly pronounced. The required abundant mustache and eyebrows contribute to the friendly expression. The eyes are large and well open, more rounded than elliptical. They have an alert, friendly, and intelligent expression. Eye color ranges in all shades of yellow and brown. Haws should not show nor should there be protruding eyes. The ears should be of medium size, lying flat and close to the head, set high, at the height of the eye line. Nose--Well open nostrils are essential. Nose color is always brown. Any other color is a disqualification. Bite scissors. Overshot or undershot bite is a serious fault.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck-- rather long, slightly arched, no dewlap. Topline-- The back is strong and firm, descending in a gentle slope from the slightly higher withers to the base of the tail. Body-Chest-- The chest must descend to the level of the elbow, with a moderate spring of rib. The chest must neither be too wide nor too narrow, but of medium width to allow freedom of movement. The loin is strong and well developed, being of medium length. The croup and rump are stoutly made with adequate length to favor speed. The tail extends from the back in a continuation of the topline. It may be carried straight or raised slightly. It is docked by one-third to one-half length.

Shoulders are long, with good angulation, and well laid back. The forelegs are straight and vertical from the front and set well under the shoulder from the side. Pasterns are slightly sloping. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet are round, firm, with tightly closed webbed toes. Pads are thick.

The thighs are long and well muscled. Angulation in balance with the front. The legs are vertical with the hocks turning neither in nor out. The stifle and hock joints are strong and well angulated. Feet as in front.

The coat is one of the distinguishing features of the breed. It is a double coat. The outer coat is medium length, straight and wiry, never curly or woolly. The harsh texture provides protection in rough cover. The obligatory undercoat consists of a fine, thick down, which provides insulation as well as water resistance. The undercoat is more or less abundant, depending upon the season, climate, and hormone cycle of the dog. It is usually lighter in color. The head is furnished with a prominent mustache and eyebrows. These required features are extensions of the undercoat, which gives the Griffon a somewhat untidy appearance. The hair covering the ears is fairly short and soft, mixed with longer harsh hair from the coat. The overall feel is much less wiry than the body. The legs, both front and rear, are covered with denser, shorter, and less coarse hair. The coat on the tail is the same as the body; any type of plume is prohibited. The breed should be exhibited in full body coat, not stripped short in pattern. Trimming and stripping are only allowed around the ears, top of head, cheeks and feet.

Preferably steel gray with brown markings, frequently chestnut brown, or roan, white and brown; white and orange also acceptable. A uniformly brown coat, all white coat, or white and orange are less desirable. A black coat disqualifies.

Although close working, the Griffon should cover ground in an efficient, tireless manner. He is a medium-speed dog with perfect coordination between front and rear legs. At a trot, both front and rear legs tend to converge toward the center line of gravity. He shows good extension both front and rear. Viewed from the side, the topline is firm and parallel to the line of motion. A smooth, powerful ground-covering ability can be seen.

The Griffon has a quick and intelligent mind and is easily trained. He is outgoing, shows a tremendous willingness to please and is trustworthy. He makes an excellent family dog as well as a meticulous hunting companion.

Nose any color other than brown.
Black coat.

[ 本帖最后由 薄荷清香 于 2007-6-10 15:58 编辑 ]


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:39:29 | 显示全部楼层

威尔士跳猎犬、威尔斯激飞猎犬(Welsh Springer Spaniel)AKC标准及介绍









[以下为威尔士跳猎犬、威尔斯激飞猎犬(Welsh Springer Spaniel)AKC标准英文原版]

Welsh Springer Spaniel Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Welsh Springer Spaniel is a dog of distinct variety and ancient origin, who derives his name from his hunting style and not his relationship to other breeds. He is an attractive dog of handy size, exhibiting substance without coarseness. He is compact, not leggy, obviously built for hard work and endurance. The Welsh Springer Spaniel gives the impression of length due to obliquely angled forequarters and well developed hindquarters. Being a hunting dog, he should be shown in hard muscled working condition. His coat should not be so excessive as to hinder his work as an active flushing spaniel, but should be thick enough to protect him from heavy cover and weather.

Size, Proportion, Substance
A dog is ideally 18-19 inches in height at the withers and a bitch is 17-18 inches at the withers. Any animal above or below the ideal to be proportionately penalized. Weight should be in proportion to height and overall balance. Length of body from the withers to the base of the tail is very slightly greater than the distance from the withers to the ground. This body length may be the same as the height but never shorter, thus preserving the rectangular silhouette of the Welsh Springer Spaniel.

The Welsh Springer Spaniel head is unique and should in no way approximate that of other spaniel breeds. Its overall balance is of primary importance. Head is in proportion to body, never so broad as to appear coarse nor so narrow as to appear racy. The skull is of medium length, slightly domed, with a clearly defined stop. It is well chiseled below the eyes. The top plane of the skull is very slightly divergent from that of the muzzle, but with no tendency toward a down-faced appearance. A short chubby head is most objectionable.

Eyes should be oval in shape, dark to medium brown in color with a soft expression. Preference is for a darker eye though lighter shades of brown are acceptable. Yellow or mean-looking eyes are to be heavily penalized. Medium in size, they are neither prominent, nor sunken, nor do they show haw. Eye rims are tight and dark pigmentation is preferred.

Ears are set on approximately at eye level and hang close to the cheeks. Comparatively small, the leather does not reach to the nose. Gradually narrowing toward the tip, they are shaped somewhat like a vine leaf and are lightly feathered.

The length of the muzzle is approximately equal to, but never longer than that of the skull. It is straight, fairly square, and free from excessive flew. Nostrils are well developed and black or any shade of brown in color. A pink nose is to be severely penalized. A scissors bite is preferred. An undershot jaw is to be severely penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is long and slightly arched, clean in throat, and set into long, sloping shoulders. Topline is level. The loin is slightly arched, muscular, and close-coupled. The croup is very slightly rounded, never steep nor falling off. The topline in combination with proper angulation fore and aft presents a silhouette that appears rectangular. The chest is well developed and muscular with a prominent forechest, the ribs well sprung and the brisket reaching to the elbows. The tail is an extension of the topline. Carriage is nearly horizontal or slightly elevated when the dog is excited. The tail is generally docked and displays a lively action.

The shoulder blade and upper arm are approximately equal in length. The upper arm is set well back, joining the shoulder blade with sufficient angulation to place the elbow beneath the highest point of the shoulder blade when standing. The forearms are of medium length, straight and moderately feathered. The legs are well boned but not to the extent of coarseness. The Welsh Springer Spaniel\'s elbows should be close to the body and its pasterns short and slightly sloping. Height to the elbows is approximately equal to the distance from the elbows to the top of the shoulder blades. Dewclaws are generally removed. Feet should be round, tight and well arched with thick pads.

The hindquarters must be strong, muscular, and well boned, but not coarse. When viewed in profile the thighs should be wide and the second thighs well developed. The angulation of the pelvis and femur corresponds to that of the shoulder and upper arm. Bend of stifle is moderate. The bones from the hocks to the pads are short with a well angulated hock joint. When viewed from the side or rear they are perpendicular to the ground. Rear dewclaws are removed. Feet as in front.

The coat is naturally straight flat and soft to the touch, never wiry or wavy. It is sufficiently dense to be waterproof, thornproof, and weatherproof. The back of the forelegs, the hind legs above the hocks, chest and underside of the body are moderately feathered. The ears and tail are lightly feathered. Coat so excessive as to be a hindrance in the field is to be discouraged. Obvious barbering is to be avoided as well.

The color is rich red and white only. Any pattern is acceptable and any white area may be flecked with red ticking.

The Welsh Springer moves with a smooth, powerful, ground covering action that displays drive from the rear. Viewed from the side, he exhibits a strong forward stride with a reach that does not waste energy. When viewed from the front, the legs should appear to move forward in an effortless manner with no tendency for the feet to cross over or interfere with each other. Viewed from the rear, the hocks should follow on a line with the forelegs, neither too widely nor too closely spaced. As the speed increases the feet tend to converge towards a center line.

The Welsh Springer Spaniel is an active dog displaying a loyal and affectionate disposition. Although reserved with strangers, he is not timid, shy nor unfriendly. To this day he remains a devoted family member and hunting companion.


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:39:46 | 显示全部楼层
















Weimaraner Breed Standard
General Appearance
A medium-sized gray dog, with fine aristocratic features. He should present a picture of grace, speed, stamina, alertness and balance. Above all, the dog\'s conformation must indicate the ability to work with great speed and endurance in the field.

Height at the withers: dogs, 25 to 27 inches; bitches, 23 to 25 inches. One inch over or under the specified height of each sex is allowable but should be penalized. Dogs measuring less than 24 inches or more than 28 inches and bitches measuring less than 22 inches or more than 26 inches shall be disqualified.

Moderately long and aristocratic, with moderate stop and slight median line extending back over the forehead. Rather prominent occipital bone and trumpets well set back, beginning at the back of the eye sockets. Measurement from tip of nose to stop equals that from stop to occipital bone. The flews should be straight, delicate at the nostrils. Skin drawn tightly. Neck clean-cut and moderately long. Expression kind, keen and intelligent. Ears--Long and lobular, slightly folded and set high. The ear when drawn snugly alongside the jaw should end approximately 2 inches from the point of the nose. Eyes--In shades of light amber, gray or blue-gray, set well enough apart to indicate good disposition and intelligence. When dilated under excitement the eyes may appear almost black. Teeth--Well set, strong and even; well-developed and proportionate to jaw with correct scissors bite, the upper teeth protruding slightly over the lower teeth but not more than 1/16 of an inch. Complete dentition is greatly to be desired. Nose--Gray. Lips and Gums--Pinkish flesh shades.

The back should be moderate in length, set in a straight line, strong, and should slope slightly from the withers. The chest should be well developed and deep with shoulders well laid back. Ribs well sprung and long. Abdomen firmly held; moderately tucked-up flank. The brisket should extend to the elbow.

Coat and Color
Short, smooth and sleek, solid color, in shades of mouse-gray to silver-gray, usually blending to lighter shades on the head and ears. A small white marking on the chest is permitted, but should be penalized on any other portion of the body. White spots resulting from injury should not be penalized. A distinctly long coat is a disqualification. A distinctly blue or black coat is a disqualification.

Straight and strong, with the measurement from the elbow to the ground approximately equaling the distance from the elbow to the top of the withers.

Well-angulated stifles and straight hocks. Musculation well developed.

Firm and compact, webbed, toes well arched, pads closed and thick, nails short and gray or amber in color. Dewclaws--Should be removed.

Docked. At maturity it should measure approximately 6 inches with a tendency to be light rather than heavy and should be carried in a manner expressing confidence and sound temperament. A non-docked tail shall be penalized.

The gait should be effortless and should indicate smooth coordination. When seen from the rear, the hind feet should be parallel to the front feet. When viewed from the side, the topline should remain strong and level.

The temperament should be friendly, fearless, alert and obedient.

Minor Faults--Tail too short or too long. Pink nose.

Major Faults--Doggy bitches. Bitchy dogs. Improper muscular condition. Badly affected teeth. More than four teeth missing. Back too long or too short. Faulty coat. Neck too short, thick or throaty. Low-set tail. Elbows in or out. Feet east and west. Poor gait. Poor feet. Cowhocks. Faulty backs, either roached or sway. Badly overshot, or undershot bite. Snipy muzzle. Short ears.

Very Serious Faults--White, other than a spot on the chest. Eyes other than gray, blue-gray or light amber. Black mottled mouth. Non-docked tail. Dogs exhibiting strong fear, shyness or extreme nervousness.

Deviation in height of more than one inch from standard either way.
A distinctly long coat. A distinctly blue or black coat.

Approved December 14, 1971


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:40:08 | 显示全部楼层













Vizsla Breed Standard

General Appearance
That of a medium-sized short-coated hunting dog of distinguished appearance and bearing. Robust but rather lightly built; the coat is an attractive solid golden rust. This is a dog of power and drive in the field yet a tractable and affectionate companion in the home. It is strongly emphasized that field conditioned coats, as well as brawny or sinewy muscular condition and honorable scars indicating a working and hunting dog are never to be penalized in this dog. The qualities that make a \"dual dog\" are always to be appreciated, not deprecated.

Lean and muscular. Skull moderately wide between the ears with a median line down the forehead. Stop between skull and foreface is moderate, not deep. Foreface or muzzle is of equal length or slightly shorter than skull when viewed in profile, should taper gradually from stop to tip of nose. Muzzle square and deep. It must not turn up as in a \"dish\" face nor should it turn down. Whiskers serve a functional purpose; their removal is permitted but not preferred. Nostrils slightly open. Nose brown. Any other color is faulty. A totally black nose is a disqualification. Ears, thin, silky and proportionately long, with rounded-leather ends, set fairly low and hanging close to cheeks. Jaws are strong with well developed white teeth meeting in a scissors bite. Eyes medium in size and depth of setting, their surrounding tissue covering the whites. Color of the iris should blend with the color of the coat. Yellow or any other color is faulty. Prominent pop-eyes are faulty. Lower eyelids should neither turn in nor out since both conditions allow seeds and dust to irritate the eye. Lips cover the jaws completely but are neither loose nor pendulous.

Neck and Body
Neck strong, smooth and muscular, moderately long, arched and devoid of dewlap, broadening nicely into shoulders which are moderately laid back. This is mandatory to maintain balance with the moderately angulated hindquarters. Body is strong and well proportioned. Back short. Withers high and the topline slightly rounded over the loin to the set on of the tail. Chest moderately broad and deep reaching down to the elbows. Ribs well-sprung; underline exhibiting a slight tuck-up beneath the loin. Tail set just below the level of the croup, thicker at the root and docked one-third off. Ideally, it should reach to the back of the stifle joint and be carried at or near the horizontal. An undocked tail is faulty.

Shoulder blades proportionately long and wide sloping moderately back and fairly close at the top. Forelegs straight and muscular with elbows close. Feet cat-like, round and compact with toes close. Nails brown and short. Pads thick and tough. Dewclaws, if any, to be removed on front and rear feet. Hare feet are faulty.

Hind legs have well developed thighs with moderately angulated stifles and hocks in balance with the moderately laid back shoulders. They must be straight as viewed from behind. Too much angulation at the hocks is as faulty as too little. The hocks are let down and parallel to each other.

Short, smooth, dense and close-lying, without woolly undercoat. A distinctly long coat is a disqualification.

Solid golden rust in different shadings. Solid dark mahogany red and pale yellow are faulty. White on the forechest, preferably as small as possible, and white on the toes are permissible. Solid white extending above the toes or white anywhere else on the dog except the forechest is a disqualification. When viewing the dog from the front, white markings on the forechest must be confined to an area from the top of the sternum to a point between the elbows when the dog is standing naturally. White extending on the shoulders or neck is a disqualification. White due to aging shall not be faulted. Any noticable area of black in the coat is a serious fault.

Far reaching, light footed, graceful and smooth. When moving at a fast trot, a properly built dog single tracks.

The ideal male is 22 to 24 inches at the highest point over the shoulder blades. The ideal female is 21 to 23 inches. Because the Vizsla is meant to be a medium-sized hunter, any dog measuring more than 1½ inches over or under these limits must be disqualified.

A natural hunter endowed with a good nose and above-average ability to take training. Lively, gentle-mannered, demonstrably affectionate and sensitive though fearless with a well developed protective instinct. Shyness, timidity or nervousness should be penalized.

Completely black nose.
Solid white extending above the toes or white anywhere else on the dog except the forechest.
White extending on the shoulders or neck.
A distinctly long coat.
Any male over 25½ inches, or under 20½ inches and any female over 24½ inches or under 19½ inches at the highest point over the shoulder blades.

Approved December 11, 1995
Effective January 31, 1996


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:49:27 | 显示全部楼层

苏塞克斯猎犬(Sussex Spaniel)



























标准通过日期:1992年4月 7日


General Appearance
The Sussex Spaniel was among the first ten breeds to be recognized and admitted to the Stud Book when the American Kennel Club was formed in 1884, but it has existed as a distinct breed for much longer. As its name implies, it derives its origin from the county of Sussex, England, and it was used there since the eighteenth century as a field dog. During the late 1800\'s the reputation of the Sussex Spaniel as an excellent hunting companion was well known among the estates surrounding Sussex County. Its short legs, massive build, long body, and habit of giving tongue when on scent made the breed ideally suited to penetrating the dense undergrowth and flushing game within range of the gun. Strength, maneuverability, and desire were essential for this purpose. Although it has never gained great popularity in numbers, the Sussex Spaniel continues today essentially unchanged in character and general appearance from those 19th century sporting dogs.

The Sussex Spaniel presents a long and low, rectangular and rather massive appearance coupled with free movements and nice tail action. The breed has a somber and serious expression. The rich golden liver color is unique to the breed.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--The height of the Sussex Spaniel as measured at the withers ranges from 13 to 15 inches. Any deviation from these measurements is a minor fault. The weight of the Sussex Spaniel ranges between 35 and 45 pounds. Proportion--The Sussex Spaniel presents a rectangular outline as the breed is longer in body than it is tall. Substance--The Sussex Spaniel is muscular and rather massive.

Correct head and expression are important features of the breed. Eyes--The eyes are hazel in color, fairly large, soft and languishing, but do not show the haw overmuch. Expression--The Sussex Spaniel has a somber and serious appearance, and its fairly heavy brows produce a frowning expression. Ears--The ears are thick, fairly large, and lobe-shaped and are set moderately low, slightly above the outside corner of the eye. Skull and Muzzle--The skull is moderately long and also wide with an indentation in the middle and with a full stop. The brows are fairly heavy, the occiput is full but not pointed, the whole giving an appearance of heaviness without dullness. The muzzle should be approximately three inches long, broad, and square in profile. The skull as measured from the stop to the occiput is longer than the muzzle. The nostrils are well-developed and liver colored. The lips are somewhat pendulous. Bite-- A scissors bite is preferred. Any deviation from a scissors bite is a minor fault.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--The neck is rather short, strong, and slightly arched, but does not carry the head much above the level of the back. There should not be much throatiness about the skin. Topline and Body-- he whole body is characterized as low and long with a level topline. The chest is round, especially behind the shoulders, and is deep and wide which gives a good girth. The back and loin are long and very muscular both in width and depth. For this development, the back ribs must be deep. Tail-- The tail is docked from 5 to 7 inches and set low. When gaiting the Sussex Spaniel exhibits nice tail action, but does not carry the tail above the level of the back.

The shoulders are well laid back and muscular. The upper arm should correspond in length and angle of return to the shoulder blade so that the legs are set well under the dog. The forelegs should be very short, strong, and heavily boned. They may show a slight bow. Both straight and slightly bowed constructions are proper and correct. The pasterns are very short and heavily boned. The feet are large and round with short hair between the toes.

The hindquarters are full and well-rounded, strong, and heavily boned. They should be parallel with each other and also set wide apart--about as wide as the dog at the shoulders. The hind legs are short from the hock to the ground, heavily boned, and should seem neither shorter than the forelegs nor much bent at the hocks. The hindquarters must correspond in angulation to the forequarters. The hocks should turn neither in nor out. The rear feet are like the front feet.

The body coat is abundant, flat or slightly waved, with no tendency to curl. The legs are moderately well-feathered, but clean below the hocks. The ears are furnished with soft, wavy hair. The neck has a well-marked frill in the coat. The tail is thickly covered with moderately long feather. No trimming is acceptable except to shape foot feather, or to remove feather between the pads or between the hock and the feet. The feather between the toes must be left in sufficient length to cover the nails.

Rich golden liver is the only acceptable color and is a certain sign of the purity of the breed. Dark liver or puce is a major fault. White on the chest is a minor fault. White on any other part of the body is a major fault.

The round, deep and wide chest of the Sussex Spaniel coupled with its short legs and long body produce a rolling gait. While its movement is deliberate, the Sussex Spaniel is in no sense clumsy. Gait is powerful and true with perfect coordination between the front and hind legs. The front legs do not paddle, wave, or overlap. The head is held low when gaiting. The breed should be shown on a loose lead so that its natural gait is evident.

Despite its somber and serious expression, the breed is friendly and has a cheerful and tractable disposition.

The standard ranks features of the breed into three categories. The most important features of the breed are color and general appearance. The features of secondary importance are the head, ears, back and back ribs, legs, and feet. The features of lesser importance are the eyes, nose, neck, chest and shoulders, tail, and coat. Faults also fall into three categories. Major faults are color that is too light or too dark, white on any part of the body other than the chest, and a curled coat. Serious faults are a narrow head, weak muzzle, the presence of a topknot, and a general appearance that is sour and crouching. Minor faults are light eyes, white on chest, the deviation from proper height ranges, lightness of bone, shortness of body or a body that is flat-sided, and a bite other than scissors. There are no disqualifications in the Sussex Spaniel standard.

Approved April 7, 1992
Effective May 27, 1992


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:50:12 | 显示全部楼层

史毕诺犬(Spinone Italiano)AKC标准及介绍

肌肉发达且骨骼强健的狗。精力旺盛且充沛,他无疑是一种能辛苦工作的枪猎犬。天生喜欢交际,听话而耐心的史毕诺犬能吃苦耐劳,在任何地形条件下,都是一条有经验的猎犬。他质地坚硬的被毛能抵御恶劣的气候条件。史毕诺犬刚毛质的、浓密的被毛,及粗厚的皮肤,使他能穿越灌木丛,并使他能够忍耐冰冷的雨水,缺乏天然 \"盔甲\"的狗将受到严厉处罚。他另一种与众不同的特点是步幅很大,且速度很快的步态。因此,史毕诺犬天生就是一种非常卓越的寻回犬。


高度:雄性肩高约为 23~27英寸;雌性肩高约为22~25英寸。体重:与他的大小及体质成正比。比例:他的结构趋向于正方形。身躯长度,从胸骨到臀部的距离,近似等于肩高,体长比肩高略长,但不超过1英寸是可以接受的。体质:史毕诺犬是一种结构坚固的狗,精力充沛且骨量充足。


史毕诺犬的头部轮廓是非常独特的。表情对这个品种极为重要。应该显示出聪明和温顺。脑袋呈卵形,侧面略微倾斜。后枕骨明显突出,前额的凹槽十分明显。口吻:从前面观察,呈四方形。口吻的长度与后脑的长度相同。口吻的轮廓与脑袋的轮廓相互不平行,脸部向下。口吻中间位置的宽度大约为长度的 1/3。止部勉强可以察觉。鼻梁略呈罗马鼻更好,但笔直的鼻梁也可以接受,不属于缺陷。嘴唇:紧密地包裹着下巴。嘴唇集中到脑袋和口吻所在面或形成盘子脸都属于严重缺陷,并需要严格排除在比赛之外。眼睛:必须带有柔和甜蜜的表情,赭石色(略带微黄的褐色),深色狗的眼睛颜色深,浅色狗的眼睛颜色浅。眼睛大,张开,位置分地较远,眼睛差不多是圆形的。眼睑紧密贴合眼睛,在狩猎中,能保护眼睛不受到泥沙碎屑的伤害,眼睑松懈属于缺陷。眼睛既不突出,也不深陷。眼圈明显可见,颜色随被毛不同而不同,从肉色到褐色都有。眼内有色环属于失格。鼻镜:外观呈球状、海绵状,上边缘显得圆。鼻孔大而张开。从轮廓上看,鼻镜突出部分比唇线更向前一点。白色狗的鼻镜色素为肉色;白色和橘色狗的鼻镜颜色深一些;褐色或褐色杂毛狗的鼻镜颜色为褐色。鼻镜为标准允许颜色以外的任何颜色,或色素缺乏都属于失格。牙齿:颌部强健有力,牙齿为剪状咬和或钳状咬和。上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和属于失格。耳朵:实际上是三角形的。位置与眼睛齐平或略低,向下垂,胆略有向上抬起的力量。耳廓细腻,覆盖着短而浓密的毛发,混合着长而稀疏的毛发,形成厚实的边缘。耳朵的长度,沿着头部向前延伸,可以达到鼻子的部位,不会短于鼻尖后1英寸。前侧边缘贴着面颊,无折叠,但略向外翻,耳尖略圆。



胸部:宽,深,肌肉发达且相当圆;深度达到肘部。肋骨支撑良好,从地面到肘部的距离约为肩高的 1/2。背部:背线由两部分组成。第一部分略微向下倾斜,几乎是笔直的线条,从马肩隆开始到第十一节胸椎为止;大约到马肩隆后6英寸处。第二部分逐渐上升,延伸到坚固而圆拱的腰部。下腹曲线坚固,非常轻微地上提。

臀部:肌肉发达,长。髋骨倾斜,与脊椎呈大约 30度角,形成轻巧的圆弧形,丰满的臀部。尾巴:臀部曲线的延伸,根部粗,姿势为水平或向下,走动时左右摇摆是最好的。尾巴上没有刘海,断尾,保留5.5~8英寸。尾巴习惯于高过后背或在工作中笔直向上都属于缺陷。


肩胛:有力而长,马肩隆不过分突出;肩胛骨与上臂骨成大约 105度角。肌肉发达且非常清晰,肩胛骨上端不十分靠近。肩胛骨上端的理想距离为2英寸或更多。肩胛骨的角度与后躯的角度相互平衡。前肢:从前面观察,前肢非常直,骨骼强健,肌肉发达而清晰;肘部位于马肩隆下方,且贴近身躯。骹骨长、倾斜、柔韧,连接垂直的前臂。从轮廓上看,略微倾斜。足爪:大而紧凑,圆形,脚趾圆拱且紧密,覆盖着短而浓密的毛发,包括脚趾间也有。脚垫倾斜而坚硬,趾甲结实,向地面弯曲,趾甲色素充足,但决不是黑色。狼爪可以切除。


大腿结实,肌肉发达,膝关节显示出来的角度恰当,第二节大腿非常发达,肌肉强健且宽度良好。飞节位于臀部到足爪距离的 1/3处比较理想,结实,精干且完全垂直于地面。缺陷:牛肢。足爪:与前肢足爪的特征基本一致,但更接近卵形。狼爪可以切除。




史毕诺犬必须有正确的被毛和正确的样式。身躯的被毛长度约为 1.5~2.5英寸,允许的误差为0.5英寸。头部、耳朵、口吻、腿部前面及足爪覆盖着短短的毛发,腿部后面的毛发形成粗糙的刷子状,但没有任何刘海。眼睛和嘴唇周围有硬硬的毛发,构成眉毛、髭须及虬髯,在石楠和灌木丛中保护脸部。被毛浓密、硬、平坦或略有波纹,决不卷曲。没有底毛。史毕诺犬必须体现出自然的外貌,他的外貌不允许改变。他应该体现出一个在野外工作的狗的自然相貌。被毛长、柔软、丝质、有底毛、或其他背离标准所描述的地方,也包括了过度修饰被毛,例如:修剪毛发、刨除毛发、及装饰都属于严重缺陷,并将他们严格排除在比赛之外。


承认的颜色包括:纯白色;白色和橘色;橘色杂毛,带或不带橘色斑纹;白色和褐色;褐色杂毛带或不带褐色斑纹。最希望得到的褐色斑纹是栗子色的, \"修道士长袍\"色,但是不同深度的褐色都是允许的。失格:被毛出现黑色;棕色、三色斑纹以任何方式组合,及承认的颜色以外的其他任何颜色。












标准修正日期: 2000年9月28日

Spinone Italiano Breed Standard

General Appearance
Muscular dog with powerful bone. Vigorous and robust, his purpose as hardworking gun dog is evident. Naturally sociable, the docile and patient Spinone is resistant to fatigue and is an experienced hunter on any terrain. His hard textured coat is weather resistant. His wiry, dense coat and thick skin enable the Spinone to negotiate underbrush and endure cold water that would severely punish any dog not so naturally armored. He has a remarkable tendency for an extended and fast trotting gait. The Spinone is an excellent retriever by nature.

Size, Proportion, Substance:
Height: The height at the withers is 23 to 27 inches for males and 22 to 25 inches for females. Weight: In direct proportion to size and structure of dog. Proportion: His build tends to fit into a square. The length of the body, measured from sternum to point of buttocks, is approximately equal to the height at the withers with tolerance of no more than 1 inch in length compared to height. Substance: The Spinone is a solidly built dog, robust with powerful bone.

Long. The profile of the Spinone is unique to this breed. Expression is of paramount importance to the breed. It should denote intelligence and gentleness. Skull of oval shape, with sides gently sloping. With occipital protuberance well developed, medial-frontal furrow is very pronounced. Muzzle: Square when viewed from the front. Muzzle length is equal to that of backskull. The planes of the skull and muzzle are diverging, downfaced. Its width measured at its midpoint is a third of its length. Stop is barely perceptible. Bridge of the muzzle is preferably slightly Roman, however, straight is not to be faulted. Lips fitting tightly to the jawline. Convergence of planes of the skull and muzzle or a dish-faced muzzle is to be faulted so severely as to eliminate from further competition. Eyes: Must have a soft sweet expression. Ochre (yellowish brown) in color, darker eyes with darker colored dogs, lighter eyes with lighter colored dogs. Large, well opened, set well apart, the eye is almost round, the lids closely fitting the eye, to protect the eye from gathering debris while the dog is hunting, loose eye lids must be faulted. Which is neither protruding nor deep set. Eye rim clearly visible, color will vary with coat color from flesh colored to brown.Disqualification: Walleye. Nose: Bulbous and spongy in appearance with upper edge rounded. Nostrils are large and well opened. In profile, the nose protrudes past the forward line of the lips. (Pigment is flesh colored in white dogs, darker in white and orange dogs, brown in brown or brown roan dogs.) Disqualification: Any pigment other than described or incomplete pigment of the nose is to be disqualified. Teeth: Jaw is powerful. Teeth are positioned in a scissors or level bite. Disqualification: Overshot or undershot bite. Ears: Practically triangular shape. Set on a level just below the eye, carried low, with little erectile power. The leather is fine, covered with short, thick hair mixed with a longer sparser hair, which becomes thicker along edges. Length, if measured along the head would extend to tip of nose and no more than 1 inch beyond the tip. The forward edge is adherent to the cheek, not folded, but turned outward; the tip of the ear is slightly rounded.

Neck, Topline, Body:
Neck: Strong, thick, and muscular. Clearly defined from the nape, blending in to the shoulders in a harmonious line. The throat is moderate in skin with a double dewlap. Chest: Broad, deep, well muscled and well rounded; extending at least to the elbow. The ribs are well sprung. The distance from ground to the elbow is equal to 1/2 the height at the withers. Back: The topline consists of two segments. The first slopes slightly downward in a nearly straight line from the withers to the 11th thoracic vertebrae, approximately 6 inches behind the withers. The second rises gradually and continues into a solid and well-arched loin. The underline is solid and should have minimal tuck up. Croup: Well muscled, long. The hipbones fall away from the spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees, producing a lightly rounded, well filled-out croup. Tail: Follows the line of the croup, thick at the base, carried horizontally or down; flicking from side to side while moving is preferred. The tail should lack fringes. It is docked to a length of 5 1/2 to 8 inches. Tail habitually carried above the level of the back or straight up when working is to be penalized.

Shoulders: Powerful and long, withers not too prominent; forming an angle with the upper arm of approximately angle 105. With well-developed muscles, the points of the shoulder blades are not close together. The ideal distance between the shoulder blades is approximately two inches or more. Angulation of shoulder is in balance with angulation in the rear. Forelegs: The forelegs are straight when viewed from the front angle with strong bone and well-developed muscles; elbows set under the withers and close to the body. Pasterns are long, lean and flexible following the vertical line of the forearm. In profile, they are slightly slanted. Feet: Large compact, rounded with well-arched toes, which are close together, covered with short, dense hair, including between the toes. Pads are lean and hard with strong nails curving toward the ground, well pigmented, but never black. Dewclaws may be removed.

Thighs are strong and well muscled, stifles show good function angulation, lower thigh to be well developed and muscled with good breadth. The hock, with proportion of 1/3 the distance from the hip joint to foot being ideal, is strong, lean and perpendicular to the ground. Fault: Cowhocks. Feet: Slightly more oval than the forefoot with the same characteristics. Dewclaws may be removed.

The skin must be very thick, closely fitting the body. The skin is thinner on the head, throat, groin, under the legs and in the folds of the elbows is soft to the touch. Pigmentation is dependent upon the color or markings of the coat. Disqualification: Any black pigmentation.

A Spinone must have a correct coat to be of correct type. The ideal coat length is 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches on the body, with a tolerance of 1/2 inch over or under the ideal length. Head, ears, muzzle and front sides of legs and feet are covered by shorter hair. The hair on the backsides of the legs forms a rough brush, but there are never any fringes. The eyes and lips are framed by stiff hair forming eyebrows, mustache and tufted beard, which combine to save fore face from laceration by briar and bush. The coat is dense, stiff and flat or slightly crimped, but not curly, with an absence of undercoat. The Spinone is exhibited in a natural state. The appearance of the Spinone may not be altered. The dog must present the natural appearance of a functional field dog. Dogs with a long, soft or silky coat, the presence of undercoat, or any deviation of the coat is defined in this as well as excessive grooming, i.e., scissoring, clipping, or setting of pattern shall be severely penalized as to eliminate them from further competition.

The accepted colors are: Solid white, white and orange; orange roan with or without orange markings; white with brown markings, brown roan with or without brown markings. The most desired color of brown is chestnut brown, \"monks habit\", however, varying colors of brown are acceptable. Disqualification: Any black in the coat, tan, tri-color, in any combination, or any color other than accepted colors.

Gait: The Spinone is first and foremost a functional working gun dog. Its purpose as a versatile hunting dog must be given the utmost consideration. Easy and loose trot geared for endurance. Maximum ground is covered with least amount of effort, which his purpose as a versatile working gun dog demands. Profile of the topline kept throughout the trotting gait, light body roll in mature bitches is characteristic of the breed. While hunting, an extended fast trot with intermittent paces of a gallop allows the Spinone to cover ground quickly and thoroughly. Any characteristics that interfere with the accomplishment of the function of the Spinone shall be considered as a serious fault.

Faults: Any departure from the foregoing points constitutes a fault which when judging must be penalized according to its seriousness and extension.

Wall Eye
Any pigment other than described or incomplete pigment of the nose.
Overshot or undershot bite.
Any black pigmentation.
Any black in the coat; tan, tri-color markings in any combination, or any color other than accepted colors.

Approved: February 11, 2000
Effective: September 28, 2000


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:50:42 | 显示全部楼层















对波音达猎犬来说,比例的平衡、协调比尺寸更重要。一个平顺、协调的波音达比一个优点和缺陷同样突出的波音达要理想的多。猎犬或梗类犬的特征都很不理想。因为是一种运动犬,所以力量和耐力都需要,尺寸差异太大也不理想。理想的高度和体重如下:雄性 高度:25~28英寸
雌性 高度:23~26英寸

Pointer Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Pointer is bred primarily for sport afield; he should unmistakably look and act the part. The ideal specimen gives the immediate impression of compact power and agile grace; the head noble, proudly carried; the expression intelligent and alert; the muscular body bespeaking both staying power and dash. Here is an animal whose every movement shows him to be a wide-awake, hard-driving hunting dog possessing stamina, courage, and the desire to go. And in his expression are the loyalty and devotion of a true friend of man.

The Pointer\'s even temperament and alert good sense make him a congenial companion both in the field and in the home. He should be dignified and should never show timidity toward man or dog.

The skull of medium width, approximately as wide as the length of the muzzle, resulting in an impression of length rather than width. Slight furrow between the eyes, cheeks cleanly chiseled. There should be a pronounced stop. From this point forward the muzzle is of good length, with the nasal bone so formed that the nose is slightly higher at the tip than the muzzle at the stop. Parallel planes of the skull and muzzle are equally acceptable. The muzzle should be deep without pendulous flews. Jaws ending square and level, should bite evenly or as scissors. Nostrils well developed and wide open. Ears--Set on at eye level. When hanging naturally, they should reach just below the lower jaw, close to the head, with little or no folding. They should be somewhat pointed at the tip--never round--and soft and thin in leather. Eyes--Of ample size, rounded and intense. The eye color should be dark in contrast with the color of the markings, the darker the better.

Long, dry, muscular, and slightly arched, springing cleanly from the shoulders.

Long, thin, and sloping. The top of blades close together.

Elbows well let down, directly under the withers and truly parallel so as to work just clear of the body. Forelegs straight and with oval bone. Knee joint never to knuckle over. Pasterns of moderate length, perceptibly finer in bone than the leg, and slightly slanting. Chest, deep rather than wide, must not hinder free action of forelegs. The breastbone bold, without being unduly prominent. The ribs well sprung, descending as low as the elbow-point.

Strong and solid with only a slight rise from croup to top of shoulders. Loin of moderate length, powerful and slightly arched. Croup falling only slightly to base of tail. Tuck-up should be apparent, but not exaggerated.

Heavier at the root, tapering to a fine point. Length no greater than to hock. A tail longer than this or docked must be penalized. Carried without curl, and not more than 20 degrees above the line of the back; never carried between the legs.

Muscular and powerful with great propelling leverage. Thighs long and well developed. Stifles well bent. The hocks clean; the legs straight as viewed from behind. Decided angulation is the mark of power and endurance.

Oval, with long, closely-set, arched toes, well-padded, and deep. Catfoot is a fault. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed.

Short, dense, smooth with a sheen.

Liver, lemon, black, orange; either in combination with white or solid-colored. A good Pointer cannot be a bad color. In the darker colors, the nose should be black or brown; in the lighter shades it may be lighter or flesh-colored.

Smooth, frictionless, with a powerful hindquarters\' drive. The head should be carried high, the nostrils wide, the tail moving from side to side rhythmically with the pace, giving the impression of a well-balanced, strongly-built hunting dog capable of top speed combined with great stamina. Hackney gait must be faulted.

Balance and Size
Balance and over-all symmetry are more important in the Pointer than size. A smooth, balanced dog is to be more desired than a dog with strongly contrasting good points and faults. Hound or terrier characteristics are most undesirable. Because a sporting dog must have both endurance and power, great variations in size are undesirable, the desirable height and weight being within the following limits:

Dogs: Height -- 25-28 inches
  Weight -- 55-75 pounds
Bitches: Height -- 23-26 inches
  Weight -- 44-65 pounds

Approved November 11, 1975


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:51:06 | 显示全部楼层

新斯科舍诱鸭寻回犬(Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever)

  新斯科舍水鸭引诱寻回犬(特勒尔)是在 19世纪早期培育的,用来引诱、吸引和寻找水禽的一个品种。特勒尔犬沿着岸边玩一个木棒或小球,作些有趣的动作来引起远离岸边的鸭子的好奇心。鸭子被引诱到射程范围内,开枪后,犬被放出叼回打死的或受伤的猎物。




  大小:马肩隆高-雄性 18-21英寸,理想为19英寸;雌性17-20英寸,理想为18英寸。


  重量:于犬的高度和骨量成比例。犬的长度应当略大于高度,比例约为 10比9,但是不能有背长的感觉。















  失格:下颚突出,歪嘴,上颚突出多于 1/8英寸






























  下颚突出的咬合,歪嘴,上鄂突出超过 1/8英寸




通过: 2001年6月11日

Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (Toller) was developed in the early 19th century to toll, lure, and retrieve waterfowl. The playful action of the Toller retrieving a stick or ball along the shoreline arouses the curiosity of the ducks offshore. They are lured within gunshot range, and the dog is sent out to retrieve the dead or wounded birds.

This medium sized, powerful, compact, balanced dog is the smallest of the retrievers. The Toller\'s attitude and bearing suggest strength with a high degree of agility. He is alert, determined, and quick, with a keen desire to work and please.

Many Tollers have a slightly sad or worried expression when they are not working. The moment the slightest indication is given that retrieving is required, they set themselves for springy action with an expression of intense concentration and excitement. The heavily feathered tail is held high in constant motion while working.

The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever Club (USA) feels strongly that all Tollers should have these innate abilities, and encourages all Tollers to prove them by passing an approved Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever Club (USA) field test.

Size, Proportion and Substance
Size: Height at the withers - males, 18-21 inches. The ideal is 19 inches. Females, 17-20 inches. The ideal is 18 inches. Bone: is medium. Weight is in proportion to height and bone of the dog. The dog\'s length should be slightly longer than height, in a ratio of 10 to 9, but should not give the impression of a long back.

Skull: The head is clean-cut and slightly wedge shaped. The broad skull is only slightly rounded, giving the appearance of being flat when the ears are alert. The occiput is not prominent. The cheeks are flat. The length of the skull from the occiput to the stop is slightly longer than the length of the muzzle from the stop to the tip of the nose. The head must be in proportion to body size. Expression: The expression is alert, friendly, and intelligent. Many Tollers have a slightly sad expression until they go to work, when their aspect changes to intense concentration and desire. Eyes: The eyes are set well apart, slightly oblique and almond in shape. Eye color blends with the coat or is darker. Eye rims must be self-colored or black, matching the nose and lips. Faults: large round eyes. Eye rims and/or eyes not of prescribed color. Ears: The high set ears are triangular in shape with rounded tips, set well back on the skull, framing the face, with the base held slightly erect. Ear length should reach approximately to the inside corners of the eyes. Ears should be carried in a drop fashion. Ears are short-coated, and well feathered only on the back of the fold. Stop: The stop is moderate. Muzzle: The muzzle tapers in a clean line from stop to nose, with the lower jaw not overly prominent. The jaws are strong enough to carry a sizeable bird, and softness in the mouth is essential. The underline of the muzzle is strong and clean. Fault: dish face. Nose: The nose is fairly broad with the nostrils well open, tapering at the tip. The color should blend with that of the coat, or be black. Fault: bright pink nose. Disqualification: butterfly nose. Lips and flews: Lips fit fairly tightly, forming a gentle curve in profile, with no heaviness in the flews. Bite: The correct bite is tight scissors. Full dentition is required. Disqualifications: Undershot bite. Wry mouth. Overshot by more then 1/8 inch.

Neck, Backline, Body
Neck: The neck is strongly muscled and well set on, of medium length, with no indication of throatiness. Backline: Level. Faults: roached or sway back. Body: The body is deep in chest, with good spring of rib, the brisket reaching to the elbow. Ribs are neither barrel shaped nor flat. The back is strong, short and straight. The loins are strong and muscular, with moderate tuck-up. Fault: slack loins. Tail: The tail follows the natural very slight slope of the croup, is broad at the base, and is luxuriant and well feathered, with the last vertebra reaching at least to the hock. The tail may be carried below the level of the back except when the dog is alert, when it is held high in a curve, though never touching the body. Faults: tail too short, kinked, or curled over touching the back. Tail carried below the level of the back when the dog is gaiting.

The shoulder should be muscular, strong, and well angulated, with the blade roughly equal in length to the upper arm. The elbows should work close to the body, cleanly and evenly. When seen from the front, the foreleg\'s appearance is that of parallel columns. The pasterns are strong and slightly sloping. Fault: down in the pasterns. Feet: The feet are strongly webbed, slightly oval medium in size, and tight, with well-arched toes and thick pads. Front dewclaws may be removed. Faults: splayed or paper feet.

The hindquarters are muscular, broad, and square in appearance. The croup is very slightly sloped. The rear and front angulation should be in balance. The upper and lower thighs are very muscular and equal in length. The stifles are well bent. The hocks are well let down, turning neither in nor out. Rear Dewclaws must not be present. Disqualification: rear dewclaws.

The Toller was bred to retrieve from icy waters and must have a water-repellent double coat of medium length and softness, and a soft dense undercoat. The coat may have a slight wave on the back, but is otherwise straight. Some winter coats may form a long loose curl at the throat. Featherings are soft and moderate in length. The hair on the muzzle is short and fine. Seasonal shedding is to be expected. Overcoated specimens are not appropriate for a working dog and should be faulted. While neatening of the feet, ears, and hocks for the show ring is permitted, the Toller should always appear natural, never barbered. Whiskers must be present. Faults: coat longer than medium length. Open coat.

Color is any shade of red, ranging from a golden red through dark coppery red, with lighter featherings on the underside of the tail, pantaloons, and body. Even the lighter shades of golden red are deeply pigmented and rich in color. Disqualifications: brown coat, black areas in coat, or buff. Buff is bleached, faded, or silvery. Buff may also appear as faded brown with or without silver tips. Markings: the Toller has usually at least one of the following white markings - tip of tail, feet (not extending above the pasterns) chest and blaze. A dog of otherwise high quality is not to be penalized for lack of white. Disqualifications: white on the shoulders, around the ears, back of neck, or across the flanks.

The Toller combines an impression of power with a springy gait, showing good reach in front and a strong driving rear. Feet should turn neither in nor out, and legs travel in a straight line. In its natural gait at increased speeds, the dog\'s feet tend to converge towards a center line, with the backline remaining level.

The Toller is highly intelligent, alert, outgoing, and ready for action, though not to the point of nervousness or hyperactivity. He is affectionate and loving with family members and is good with children, showing patience. Some individuals may display reserved behavior in new situations, but this is not to be confused with shyness. Shyness in adult classes should be penalized. The Toller\'s strong retrieving desire coupled with his love of water, endurance and intense birdiness, is essential for his role as a tolling retriever.

Butterfly nose.
Undershot bite, wry mouth, overshot by more than 1/8 inch.
Rear dewclaws.
Brown coat, black areas in coat, or buff. Buff is bleached, faded or silvery. Buff may also appear as faded brown, with or without silver tips.
White on the shoulders, around the ears, back of the neck, or across the flanks.

Approved: June 11, 2001
Effective: September 1, 2001


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:51:40 | 显示全部楼层

拉布拉多猎犬(Labrador Retriever)AKC标准及简介

拉布拉多图片集 | 拉布拉多猎犬视频


  早在19世纪,Malmesbury伯爵普遍了解了被渔民带到英国的该种犬并直接安排进口了一些这样的犬。1830年著名的英国运动员 Colonel Hawker查看了普通的纽芬兰犬和St.John种的水犬,对前者作了这样的描述:“体格大,肢体强健,毛发硬,尾巴高抬。”他所描述的就是现在的拉布拉多犬。他评价说:“到目前为止,这种犬是所有不同种猎犬中最好的一种,它一般是黑色,不比指示猎犬大,四肢较细,短而平的毛发以及尾巴不像其他犬种有卷曲,奔跑、游水非常迅速,好斗,嗅觉非常灵敏。”



  Bucdleuch公爵的拉布拉多犬有一本血统书,这本书使查出繁殖现代拉布拉多犬的两头犬的出身成为可能。这两头犬是A.C.Butter先生的“Peter of Faskally犬”和Portal少校的“Flapper犬”,这一世系可追溯到1878年。

  拉布拉多猎犬作为一单独的犬种是在1903年首先由英国养犬俱乐部承认的。第一个被美国养犬俱乐部注册登记的拉布拉多犬是在1917年的“Brocklehirst Nell犬”——一头从苏格兰进口的母犬。从1920年末到1930年,随着英国犬的大量涌进(包括苏格兰猎犬训练者),在这个国家形成了该犬种的优势。







  大小——对一头公犬来说,体高一般为57.2 ~ 62.2厘米;母犬一般为54.6 ~ 59.7厘米。凡是高于或低于这一范围1.3厘米的犬都是不符合标准的。在工作条件下,公犬和母犬的近似重量为:公犬为29.48 ~ 36.29千克;母犬为24.95 ~ 31.75千克。最低限度的体高范围不适用于小于12个月龄的公犬或母犬。

  比例——短躯干;体长(从肩部最高点到臀部最后点之间距离)等于或稍长于它的身高(肩胛上缘到地面的垂直距离),从肘部到地面的垂直距离等于1 / 2身高,胸部一般延展到肘部,但不太深。躯干必须有足够的长度,允许有一个直的、流畅的和充分的大步伐。但这种犬一般不表现出过低和过长的体形。















  肩部—— 双肩长且适当后倾,与上肢形成一个近似90°角,允许犬以一个容易的方式移动它的前肢,坚定地迈向前方。肩胛骨的长度等于上肢的长度,以形成完美的结构。垂直的肩胛骨、短上肢、不灵活的肌肉或负重的双肩等所有妨碍自由活动的状态都是一种缺陷。












Labrador Retriever Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Labrador Retriever is a strongly built, medium-sized, short-coupled, dog possessing a sound, athletic, well-balanced conformation that enables it to function as a retrieving gun dog; the substance and soundness to hunt waterfowl or upland game for long hours under difficult conditions; the character and quality to win in the show ring; and the temperament to be a family companion. Physical features and mental characteristics should denote a dog bred to perform as an efficient Retriever of game with a stable temperament suitable for a variety of pursuits beyond the hunting environment.

The most distinguishing characteristics of the Labrador Retriever are its short, dense, weather resistant coat; an \"otter\" tail; a clean-cut head with broad back skull and moderate stop; powerful jaws; and its \"kind,\" friendly eyes, expressing character, intelligence and good temperament.

Above all, a Labrador Retriever must be well balanced, enabling it to move in the show ring or work in the field with little or no effort. The typical Labrador possesses style and quality without over refinement, and substance without lumber or cloddiness. The Labrador is bred primarily as a working gun dog; structure and soundness are of great importance.

Size, Proportion and Substance
Size--The height at the withers for a dog is 22½ to 24½ inches; for a bitch is 21½ to 23½ inches. Any variance greater than ½ inch above or below these heights is a disqualification. Approximate weight of dogs and bitches in working condition: dogs 65 to 80 pounds; bitches 55 to 70 pounds.

The minimum height ranges set forth in the paragraph above shall not apply to dogs or bitches under twelve months of age.

Proportion--Short-coupled; length from the point of the shoulder to the point of the rump is equal to or slightly longer than the distance from the withers to the ground. Distance from the elbow to the ground should be equal to one half of the height at the withers. The brisket should extend to the elbows, but not perceptibly deeper. The body must be of sufficient length to permit a straight, free and efficient stride; but the dog should never appear low and long or tall and leggy in outline. Substance--Substance and bone proportionate to the overall dog. Light, \"weedy\" individuals are definitely incorrect; equally objectionable are cloddy lumbering specimens. Labrador Retrievers shall be shown in working condition well-muscled and without excess fat.

Skull--The skull should be wide; well developed but without exaggeration. The skull and foreface should be on parallel planes and of approximately equal length. There should be a moderate stop--the brow slightly pronounced so that the skull is not absolutely in a straight line with the nose. The brow ridges aid in defining the stop. The head should be clean-cut and free from fleshy cheeks; the bony structure of the skull chiseled beneath the eye with no prominence in the cheek. The skull may show some median line; the occipital bone is not conspicuous in mature dogs. Lips should not be squared off or pendulous, but fall away in a curve toward the throat. A wedge-shape head, or a head long and narrow in muzzle and back skull is incorrect as are massive, cheeky heads. The jaws are powerful and free from snippiness-- the muzzle neither long and narrow nor short and stubby. Nose-- The nose should be wide and the nostrils well-developed. The nose should be black on black or yellow dogs, and brown on chocolates. Nose color fading to a lighter shade is not a fault. A thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment is a disqualification. Teeth--The teeth should be strong and regular with a scissors bite; the lower teeth just behind, but touching the inner side of the upper incisors. A level bite is acceptable, but not desirable. Undershot, overshot, or misaligned teeth are serious faults. Full dentition is preferred. Missing molars or pre-molars are serious faults. Ears--The ears should hang moderately close to the head, set rather far back, and somewhat low on the skull; slightly above eye level. Ears should not be large and heavy, but in proportion with the skull and reach to the inside of the eye when pulled forward. Eyes--Kind, friendly eyes imparting good temperament, intelligence and alertness are a hallmark of the breed. They should be of medium size, set well apart, and neither protruding nor deep set. Eye color should be brown in black and yellow Labradors, and brown or hazel in chocolates. Black, or yellow eyes give a harsh expression and are undesirable. Small eyes, set close together or round prominent eyes are not typical of the breed. Eye rims are black in black and yellow Labradors; and brown in chocolates. Eye rims without pigmentation is a disqualification.

Neck, Topline and Body
Neck--The neck should be of proper length to allow the dog to retrieve game easily. It should be muscular and free from throatiness. The neck should rise strongly from the shoulders with a moderate arch. A short, thick neck or a \"ewe\" neck is incorrect. Topline--The back is strong and the topline is level from the withers to the croup when standing or moving. However, the loin should show evidence of flexibility for athletic endeavor. Body--The Labrador should be short-coupled, with good spring of ribs tapering to a moderately wide chest. The Labrador should not be narrow chested; giving the appearance of hollowness between the front legs, nor should it have a wide spreading, bulldog-like front. Correct chest conformation will result in tapering between the front legs that allows unrestricted forelimb movement. Chest breadth that is either too wide or too narrow for efficient movement and stamina is incorrect. Slab-sided individuals are not typical of the breed; equally objectionable are rotund or barrel chested specimens. The underline is almost straight, with little or no tuck-up in mature animals. Loins should be short, wide and strong; extending to well developed, powerful hindquarters. When viewed from the side, the Labrador Retriever shows a well-developed, but not exaggerated forechest. Tail--The tail is a distinguishing feature of the breed. It should be very thick at the base, gradually tapering toward the tip, of medium length, and extending no longer than to the hock. The tail should be free from feathering and clothed thickly all around with the Labrador\'s short, dense coat, thus having that peculiar rounded appearance that has been described as the \"otter\" tail. The tail should follow the topline in repose or when in motion. It may be carried gaily, but should not curl over the back. Extremely short tails or long thin tails are serious faults. The tail completes the balance of the Labrador by giving it a flowing line from the top of the head to the tip of the tail. Docking or otherwise altering the length or natural carriage of the tail is a disqualification.

Forequarters should be muscular, well coordinated and balanced with the hindquarters. Shoulders--The shoulders are well laid-back, long and sloping, forming an angle with the upper arm of approximately 90 degrees that permits the dog to move his forelegs in an easy manner with strong forward reach. Ideally, the length of the shoulder blade should equal the length of the upper arm. Straight shoulder blades, short upper arms or heavily muscled or loaded shoulders, all restricting free movement, are incorrect. Front Legs--When viewed from the front, the legs should be straight with good strong bone. Too much bone is as undesirable as too little bone, and short legged, heavy boned individuals are not typical of the breed. Viewed from the side, the elbows should be directly under the withers, and the front legs should be perpendicular to the ground and well under the body. The elbows should be close to the ribs without looseness. Tied-in elbows or being \"out at the elbows\" interfere with free movement and are serious faults. Pasterns should be strong and short and should slope slightly from the perpendicular line of the leg. Feet are strong and compact, with well-arched toes and well-developed pads. Dew claws may be removed. Splayed feet, hare feet, knuckling over, or feet turning in or out are serious faults.

The Labrador\'s hindquarters are broad, muscular and well-developed from the hip to the hock with well-turned stifles and strong short hocks. Viewed from the rear, the hind legs are straight and parallel. Viewed from the side, the angulation of the rear legs is in balance with the front. The hind legs are strongly boned, muscled with moderate angulation at the stifle, and powerful, clearly defined thighs. The stifle is strong and there is no slippage of the patellae while in motion or when standing. The hock joints are strong, well let down and do not slip or hyper-extend while in motion or when standing. Angulation of both stifle and hock joint is such as to achieve the optimal balance of drive and traction. When standing the rear toes are only slightly behind the point of the rump. Over angulation produces a sloping topline not typical of the breed. Feet are strong and compact, with well-arched toes and well-developed pads. Cow-hocks, spread hocks, sickle hocks and over-angulation are serious structural defects and are to be faulted.

The coat is a distinctive feature of the Labrador Retriever. It should be short, straight and very dense, giving a fairly hard feeling to the hand. The Labrador should have a soft, weather-resistant undercoat that provides protection from water, cold and all types of ground cover. A slight wave down the back is permissible. Woolly coats, soft silky coats, and sparse slick coats are not typical of the breed, and should be severely penalized.

The Labrador Retriever coat colors are black, yellow and chocolate. Any other color or a combination of colors is a disqualification. A small white spot on the chest is permissible, but not desirable. White hairs from aging or scarring are not to be misinterpreted as brindling. Black--Blacks are all black. A black with brindle markings or a black with tan markings is a disqualification. Yellow--Yellows may range in color from fox-red to light cream, with variations in shading on the ears, back, and underparts of the dog. Chocolate--Chocolates can vary in shade from light to dark chocolate. Chocolate with brindle or tan markings is a disqualification.

Movement of the Labrador Retriever should be free and effortless. When watching a dog move toward oneself, there should be no sign of elbows out. Rather, the elbows should be held neatly to the body with the legs not too close together. Moving straight forward without pacing or weaving, the legs should form straight lines, with all parts moving in the same plane. Upon viewing the dog from the rear, one should have the impression that the hind legs move as nearly as possible in a parallel line with the front legs. The hocks should do their full share of the work, flexing well, giving the appearance of power and strength. When viewed from the side, the shoulders should move freely and effortlessly, and the foreleg should reach forward close to the ground with extension. A short, choppy movement or high knee action indicates a straight shoulder; paddling indicates long, weak pasterns; and a short, stilted rear gait indicates a straight rear assembly; all are serious faults. Movement faults interfering with performance including weaving; side-winding; crossing over; high knee action; paddling; and short, choppy movement, should be severely penalized.

True Labrador Retriever temperament is as much a hallmark of the breed as the \"otter\" tail. The ideal disposition is one of a kindly, outgoing, tractable nature; eager to please and non-aggressive towards man or animal. The Labrador has much that appeals to people; his gentle ways, intelligence and adaptability make him an ideal dog. Aggressiveness towards humans or other animals, or any evidence of shyness in an adult should be severely penalized.

1. Any deviation from the height prescribed in the Standard.
2. A thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment.
3. Eye rims without pigment.
4. Docking or otherwise altering the length or natural carriage of the tail.
5. Any other color or a combination of colors other than black, yellow or chocolate as described in the Standard.

Approved February 12, 1994
Effective March 31, 1994


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:52:11 | 显示全部楼层

爱尔兰水猎犬(Irish Water Spaniel)AKC标准及简介



爱尔兰水猎犬是一种漂亮的、结构坚固的运动犬,非常聪明,结合了耐力和胆大的性格,活跃、热情的气质。独特的特征在于顶髻上长而松散的卷毛,身躯上覆盖着浓密、清晰的肝色卷毛,与他平滑的脸部及平滑的 \"老鼠\"尾巴形成鲜明的对照。


结构有力,骨量充足,爱尔兰水猎犬长度适中,略呈矩形外观。他非常匀称,不会显得腿很细长或很粗糙。雄性肩高约在 22~24英寸;雌性肩高约在21~23英寸。雄性体重约为55~65磅;雌性体重约为45~58磅。


头部轮廓整洁,没有 \"厚脸皮\",也不显得很短,呈楔形。脑袋稍大,顶部圆拱,后枕骨突出,止部逐渐过渡。口吻呈四方形,且稍长。嘴巴开口较深,嘴唇质地细腻。鼻镜大,肝色。牙齿结实而整齐,剪状咬和或钳状咬和。脸部的毛发短而平顺。除了胡须是生长在下巴后面的一条窄线上。顶髻:这个品种独特的特征,长而下坠,松散的卷毛向下生长,在眼睛中间形成清晰的\"鸭舌\",并象披肩一样垂下来,围绕着耳朵上端及后枕骨。以夸张的方式修剪这各品种独特的特征是非常讨厌的。眼睛:中等大小,略呈杏仁形,眼睑紧密。眼睛颜色为榛色,越深越好。表情敏锐、警惕、聪明、直率而好奇。耳朵:长、叶子状,位置低,耳廓向前伸展的话,可以延伸到鼻尖,覆盖着长长的卷毛,能延伸到耳廓下1~2英寸。








尾巴是所谓的 \"老鼠尾\",是这个品种独特的特征。根部粗,隐藏着2~3英寸的短短的卷。尾巴呈锥形,尖端细腻。从根部出发,尾巴卷隐藏在短而平顺的毛发中,使他看起来象被剪短了。尾巴的长度不应该能延伸到飞节。


适当的双层被毛,在工作中能起到保护作用,是至关重要的。颈部、后背、两侧、及后面,都隐藏在浓厚、紧密而清晰的卷毛中,肋骨下的毛发稍长。前肢上覆盖着丰富的卷毛或波浪状的毛发。后腿上也覆盖着丰富的卷毛或波浪状的毛发,除了后腿飞节下方的前面,毛发短而平滑。喉咙处的毛发非常短,且平滑,形成 V字形区域。所有的卷毛区域都整洁而清晰,有足够的长度,与被毛平滑的脸部、喉咙、尾巴及后腿飞节以下部位形成鲜明的对比。前后足爪上都有毛发覆盖,脚趾间和脚趾上都有毛发。他可以显示其自然的被毛,也可以修剪过。无论如何,能不能将毛发过分修饰或修剪,使卷曲的被毛质地变的不明显。









标准通过日期: 1990年6月12日
标准执行日期: 1990年8月1日

Irish Water Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Irish Water Spaniel presents a picture of a smart, upstanding strongly built sporting dog. Great intelligence is combined with rugged endurance and a bold, dashing eagerness of temperament. Distinguishing characteristics are a topknot of long, loose curls, a body covered with a dense, crisply curled liver colored coat, contrasted by a smooth face and a smooth \"rat\" tail.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Strongly built and well boned, the Irish Water Spaniel is a dog of medium length, slightly rectangular in appearance. He is well balanced and shows no legginess or coarseness. Dogs 22 to 24 inches, bitches 21 to 23 inches, measured at the highest point of the shoulder. Dogs 55 to 65 pounds, bitches 45 to 58 pounds.

The head is cleanly chiseled, not cheeky, and should not present a short, wedge shaped appearance. The skull is rather large and high in the dome, with a prominent occiput and a gradual stop. The muzzle is square and rather long, with a deep mouth opening and lips fine in texture. The nose large and liver in color. Teeth strong and regular with a scissors or level bite. The hair on the face is short and smooth, except for a beard which grows in a narrow line at the back of the jaw. Topknot--A characteristic of the breed, consists of long, loose curls growing down into a well-defined peak between the eyes and falling like a shawl over the tops of the ears and occiput. Trimming of this breed characteristic in an exaggerated manner is highly objectionable. Eyes--Medium in size, slightly almond shaped with tight eyelids. Eyes are hazel in color, preferably of a dark shade. The expression is keenly alert, intelligent, direct and quizzical. Ears--Long, lobular, set low, with leathers reaching about to the end of the nose when extended forward, and abundantly covered with long curls, extending two or more inches below the tips of the leathers.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is long, arching, strong and muscular; smoothly set into cleanly sloping shoulders. Topline--Strong and level, or slightly higher in the rear; never descending, or showing sag or roach. Body--The body is of medium length, slightly rectangular. Chest deep, with brisket extending to the elbows. Ribs well sprung and carried well back. Immediately behind the shoulders ribs are flattened enough to allow free movement of the forelegs, becoming rounder behind. Loin short, wide and muscular. The body should not present a tucked-up appearance.

The entire front gives the impression of strength without heaviness. Shoulders are sloping and clean. Forelegs well boned, muscular, medium in length; with sufficient length of upper arm to ensure efficient reach. Elbows close set. Forefeet are large, thick and somewhat spreading; well clothed with hair both over and between the toes.

Sound hindquarters are of great importance to provide swimming power and drive. They should be as high or slightly higher than the shoulders, powerful and muscular, with well developed upper and second thighs. Hips wide, stifles moderately bent, hocks low set and moderately bent. Rear angulation is moderate, and balance of front and rear angulation is of paramount importance. Rear feet are large, thick and somewhat spreading; well clothed with hair. Tail should be set on low enough to give a rather rounded appearance to the hindquarters and should be carried nearly level with the back.

The so-called \"rat tail\" is a striking characteristic of the breed. At the root it is thick and covered for two or three inches with short curls. It tapers to a fine point at the end; and from the root curls is covered with short, smooth hair so as to look as if it had been clipped. The tail should not be long enough to reach the hock joint.

Proper double coat is of vital importance to protect the dog while working. The neck, back, sides, and rear are densely covered with tight, crisp ringlets, with the hair longer underneath the ribs. Forelegs are well covered with abundant curls or waves. The hind legs should also be abundantly covered by hair falling in curls or waves, except that the hair should be short and smooth on the front of the legs below the hocks. The hair on the throat is very short and smooth, forming a V-shaped patch. All curled areas should be clearly defined by curls of sufficient length to form a sharp contrast with the smooth coat on face, throat, tail, and rear legs below the hocks. Fore and hind feet should be well clothed with hair both over and between the toes. Dogs may be shown in natural coat or trimmed. However, no dog should be groomed or trimmed so excessively as to obscure the curl or texture of the coat.

Solid liver. With the exception of graying due to age, white hair or markings objectionable.

The Irish Water Spaniel moves with a smooth, free, ground covering action that, when viewed from the side, exhibits balanced reach and drive. True and precise coming and going. When walking or standing, the legs are perpendicular to the ground, toeing neither in nor out.

Very alert and inquisitive, the Irish Water Spaniel is often reserved with strangers. However, aggressive behavior or excessive shyness should be penalized. A stable temperament is essential in a hunting dog.

The foregoing description is that of the ideal Irish Water Spaniel in hard working condition. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation, keeping in mind the importance of the various features toward the basic original purpose of the breed.

Approved June 12, 1990
Effective August 1, 1990


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:52:42 | 显示全部楼层

爱尔兰塞特犬(Irish Setter)AKC标准及介绍

爱尔兰塞特犬是一种活跃的、贵族化的猎鸟犬,颜色是浓烈的红色,结构坚固,但很文雅。站立时,肩高超过 2英尺,他拥有直、细腻、且有光泽的被毛,耳朵、胸部、尾巴和腿后面的毛发略长。在野外,爱尔兰塞特犬是动作迅速的猎手,在家庭里,他又是性情甜蜜,容易调教的伴侣。


不会因为尺寸原因而取消资格。所有部分的结构都很正确,且非常平衡,对爱尔兰塞特犬来说,是最重要的。雄性最理想的尺寸是肩高 27英寸,体重大约70磅;而雌性最理想的尺寸是肩高25英寸,体重大约60磅。误差超过1英寸以上都不理想。比例:从前胸到大腿后面的距离(体长)与马肩隆到地面的距离(肩高)相比,体长略大于肩高。体质:腿部都非常强健,且骨量充足。雄性的结构反映出雄壮,但不粗糙;雌性的结构反映出柔美,但没有骨量不足的现象。


长而倾斜,其长度至少是耳朵处宽度的 2倍。漂亮的头部强调的是沿着口吻一线及周围,眼睛下面,沿着面颊一线的轮廓和线条非常精致。表情:温和,但警惕。眼睛:有点呈杏仁状,中等大小,位置分的比较开,既不凹陷,也不突出。颜色是从深褐色到中褐色。耳朵:位置靠后且低,不能高过眼睛所在的水平线。耳廓薄,有优雅的折痕,悬挂着,贴近头部,长度几乎能够延伸到鼻尖。脑袋:从上面或前面观察,脑袋的形状为卵形;观察其轮廓,非常轻微的圆拱。眉毛凸起,在鼻尖与清晰的后枕骨(脑袋后面的尖端)的中途,止部非常清晰。因而,从后枕骨到眉毛的几乎是水平的线条略微靠上一些,从眼睛到鼻尖的线条与之平行、长度相等,且笔直。口吻:中等深度,颌部的长度大致与其相等。下颌的线条与口吻上轮廓的线条差不多完全平行。鼻镜:黑色或巧克力色,鼻孔宽阔,上嘴唇相当方正,但不下垂。牙齿:剪状咬和为首选,钳状咬和也可以接受。








前肢的被毛短而细腻。其他部位的被毛平直,中等长度。耳朵、前腿和后腿后面的羽状丝质饰毛长而细腻,在腹部和胸底有合适的刘海,并延伸到胸部。尾巴上的刘海略长,末端逐渐变短。所有的被毛和羽状饰毛都很平直,尽可能没有卷曲或波浪状毛发。爱尔兰塞特犬在比赛前需要修剪,着重突出倾斜的头部和整洁的颈部。上 1/3的耳朵和喉咙靠近胸部的位置也需要修剪。过多的羽状饰毛需要修剪,使足爪的自然轮廓能够显示出来。所有的修剪都必须保留他自然的外貌特征。







标准通过日期: 1990年8月14日

Irish Setter Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Irish Setter is an active, aristocratic bird dog, rich red in color, substantial yet elegant in build. Standing over two feet tall at the shoulder, the dog has a straight, fine, glossy coat, longer on ears, chest, tail and back of legs. Afield, the Irish Setter is a swift-moving hunter; at home, a sweet natured, trainable companion.
At their best, the lines of the Irish Setter so satisfy in overall balance that artists have termed it the most beautiful of all dogs. The correct specimen always exhibits balance, whether standing or in motion. Each part of the dog flows and fits smoothly into its neighboring parts without calling attention to itself.

Size, Proportion, Substance
There is no disqualification as to size. The make and fit of all parts and their overall balance in the animal are rated more important. 27 inches at the withers and a show weight of about 70 pounds is considered ideal for the dog; the bitch 25 inches, 60 pounds. Variance beyond an inch up or down is to be discouraged. Proportion --Measuring from the breastbone to rear of thigh and from the top of the withers to the ground, the Irish Setter is slightly longer than it is tall. Substance--All legs sturdy with plenty of bone. Structure in the male reflects masculinity without coarseness. Bitches appear feminine without being slight of bone.

Long and lean, its length at least double the width between the ears. Beauty of head is emphasized by delicate chiseling along the muzzle, around and below the eyes, and along the cheeks. Expression soft, yet alert. Eyes somewhat almond shaped, of medium size, placed rather well apart, neither deep set nor bulging. Color, dark to medium brown. Ears set well back and low, not above level of eye. Leather thin, hanging in a neat fold close to the head, and nearly long enough to reach the nose. The skull is oval when viewed from above or front; very slightly domed when viewed in profile. The brow is raised, showing a distinct stop midway between the tip of the nose and the well-defined occiput (rear point of skull). Thus the nearly level line from occiput to brow is set a little above, and parallel to, the straight and equal line from eye to nose. Muzzle moderately deep, jaws of nearly equal length, the underline of the jaws being almost parallel with the top line of the muzzle. Nose black or chocolate; nostrils wide. Upper lips fairly square but not pendulous. The teeth meet in a scissors bite in which the upper incisors fit closely over the lower, or they may meet evenly.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck moderately long, strong but not thick, and slightly arched; free from throatiness and fitting smoothly into the shoulders. Topline of body from withers to tail should be firm and incline slightly downward without sharp drop at the croup. The tail is set on nearly level with the croup as a natural extension of the topline, strong at root, tapering to a fine point, nearly long enough to reach the hock. Carriage straight or curving slightly upward, nearly level with the back. Body sufficiently long to permit a straight and free stride. Chest deep, reaching approximately to the elbows with moderate forechest, extending beyond the point where the shoulder joins the upper arm. Chest is of moderate width so that it does not interfere with forward motion and extends rearwards to well sprung ribs. Loins firm, muscular and of moderate length.

Shoulder blades long, wide, sloping well back, fairly close together at the withers. Upper arm and shoulder blades are approximately the same length, and are joined at sufficient angle to bring the elbows rearward along the brisket in line with the top of the withers. The elbows moving freely, incline neither in nor out. Forelegs straight and sinewy. Strong, nearly straight pastern. Feet rather small, very firm, toes arched and close.

Hindquarters should be wide and powerful with broad, well developed thighs. Hind legs long and muscular from hip to hock; short and perpendicular from hock to ground; well angulated at stifle and hock joints, which, like the elbows, incline neither in nor out. Feet as in front. Angulation of the forequarters and hindquarters should be balanced.

Short and fine on head and forelegs. On all other parts of moderate length and flat. Feathering long and silky on ears; on back of forelegs and thighs long and fine, with a pleasing fringe of hair on belly and brisket extending onto the chest. Fringe on tail moderately long and tapering. All coat and feathering as straight and free as possible from curl or wave. The Irish Setter is trimmed for the show ring to emphasize the lean head and clean neck. The top third of the ears and the throat nearly to the breastbone are trimmed. Excess feathering is removed to show the natural outline of the foot. All trimming is done to preserve the natural appearance of the dog.

Mahogany or rich chestnut red with no black. A small amount of white on chest, throat or toes, or a narrow centered streak on skull is not to be penalized.

At the trot the gait is big, very lively, graceful and efficient. At an extended trot the head reaches slightly forward, keeping the dog in balance. The forelegs reach well ahead as if to pull in the ground without giving the appearance of a hackney gait. The hindquarters drive smoothly and with great power. Seen from front or rear, the forelegs, as well as the hind legs below the hock joint, move perpendicularly to the ground, with some tendency towards a single track as speed increases. Structural characteristics which interfere with a straight, true stride are to be penalized.

The Irish Setter has a rollicking personality. Shyness, hostility or timidity are uncharacteristic of the breed. An outgoing, stable temperament is the essence of the Irish Setter.

Approved August 14, 1990
Effective September 30, 1990


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:53:13 | 显示全部楼层

戈登雪达犬、哥顿塞特犬、哥顿雪达(Gordon Setter)AKC标准及介绍












头部和颈部(包括耳朵和眼睛) 10
身躯 15
肩胛、前肢、前足爪 10
后肢和足爪 10
尾巴 5
被毛 8
颜色和斑纹 5
气质 10
大小和整体外观 15
步态 12
总计 100
标准通过日期:2002年10月 7日

Gordon Setter Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Gordon Setter is a good-sized, sturdily built, black and tan dog, well muscled, with plenty of bone and substance, but active, upstanding and stylish, appearing capable of doing a full day\'s work in the field. He has a strong, rather short back, with well sprung ribs and a short tail. The head is fairly heavy and finely chiseled. His bearing is intelligent, noble, and dignified, showing no signs of shyness or viciousness. Clear colors and straight or slightly waved coat are correct. He suggests strength and stamina rather than extreme speed. Symmetry and quality are most essential. A dog well balanced in all points is preferable to one with outstanding good qualities and defects. A smooth, free movement, with high head carriage, is typical.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--Shoulder height for males, 24 to 27 inches; females, 23 to 26 inches. Weight for males, 55 to 80 pounds; females, 45 to 70 pounds. Animals that appear to be over or under the prescribed weight limits are to be judged on the basis of conformation and condition. Extremely thin or fat dogs are discouraged on the basis that under or overweight hampers the true working ability of the Gordon Setter. The weight-to-height ratio makes him heavier than other Setters. Proportion The distance from the forechest to the back of the thigh is approximately equal the height from the ground to the withers. The Gordon Setter has plenty of bone and substance.

Head deep, rather than broad, with plenty of brain room. Eyes of fair size, neither too deep-set nor too bulging, dark brown, bright and wise. The shape is oval rather than round. The lids are tight. Ears set low on the head approximately on line with the eyes, fairly large and thin, well folded and carried close to the head. Skull nicely rounded, good-sized, broadest between the ears. Below and above the eyes is lean and the cheeks as narrow as the leanness of the head allows. The head should have a clearly indicated stop. Muzzle fairly long and not pointed, either as seen from above or from the side. The flews are not pendulous. The muzzle is the same length as the skull from occiput to stop and the top of the muzzle is parallel to the line of the skull extended. Nose broad, with open nostrils and black in color. The lip line from the nose to the flews shows a sharp, well-defined, square contour. Teeth strong and white, meeting in front in a scissors bite, with the upper incisors slightly forward of the lower incisors. A level bite is not a fault. Pitted teeth from distemper or allied infections are not penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck long, lean, arched to the head, and without throatiness. Topline moderately sloping. Body short from shoulder to hips. Chest deep and not too broad in front; the ribs well sprung, leaving plenty of lung room. The chest reaches to the elbows. A pronounced forechest is in evidence. Loins short and broad and not arched. Croup nearly flat, with only a slight slope to the tailhead. Tail short and not reaching below the hocks, carried horizontal or nearly so, not docked, thick at the root and finishing in a fine point. The placement of the tail is important for correct carriage. When the angle of the tail bends too sharply at the first coccygeal bone, the tail will be carried too gaily or will droop. The tail placement is judged in relationship to the structure of the croup.

Shoulders fine at the points, and laying well back. The tops of the shoulder blades are close together. When viewed from behind, the neck appears to fit into the shoulders in smooth, flat lines that gradually widen from neck to shoulder. The angle formed by the shoulder blade and upper arm bone is approximately 90 degrees when the dog is standing so that the foreleg is perpendicular to the ground. Forelegs big-boned, straight and not bowed, with elbows free and not turned in or out. Pasterns are strong, short and nearly vertical with a slight spring. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet catlike in shape, formed by close-knit, well arched toes with plenty of hair between; with full toe pads and deep heel cushions. Feet are not turned in or out.

The hind legs from hip to hock are long, flat and muscular; from hock to heel, short and strong. The stifle and hock joints are well bent and not turned either in or out. When the dog is standing with the rear pastern perpendicular to the ground, the thighbone hangs downward parallel to an imaginary line drawn upward from the hock. Feet as in front.

Soft and shining, straight or slightly waved, but not curly, with long hair on ears, under stomach and on chest, on back of the fore and hind legs, and on the tail. The feather which starts near the root of the tail is slightly waved or straight, having a triangular appearance, growing shorter uniformly toward the end.

Color and Markings
Black with tan markings, either of rich chestnut or mahogany color. Black pencilling is allowed on the toes. The borderline between black and tan colors is clearly defined. There are not any tan hairs mixed in the black. The tan markings are located as follows: (1) Two clear spots over the eyes and not over three-quarters of an inch in diameter; (2) On the sides of the muzzle. The tan does not reach to the top of the muzzle, but resembles a stripe around the end of the muzzle from one side to the other; (3) On the throat; (4) Two large clear spots on the chest; (5) On the inside of the hind legs showing down the front of the stifle and broadening out to the outside of the hind legs from the hock to the toes. It must not completely eliminate the black on the back of the hind legs; (6) On the forelegs from the carpus, or a little above, downward to the toes; (7) Around the vent; (8) A white spot on the chest is allowed, but the smaller the better. Predominantly tan, red or buff dogs which do not have the typical pattern of markings of a Gordon Setter are ineligible for showing and undesirable for breeding. Predominantly tan, red or buff dogs are ineligible for showing and undesirable for breeding.

A bold, strong, driving free-swinging gait. The head is carried up and the tail \"flags\" constantly while the dog is in motion. When viewed from the front the forefeet move up and down in straight lines so that the shoulder, elbow and pastern joints are approximately in line. When viewed from the rear the hock, stifle and hip joints are approximately in line. Thus the dog moves in a straight pattern forward without throwing the feet in or out. When viewed from the side the forefeet are seen to lift up and reach forward to compensate for the driving hindquarters. The hindquarters reach well forward and stretch far back, enabling the stride to be long and the drive powerful. The overall appearance of the moving dog is one of smooth-flowing, well balanced rhythm, in which the action is pleasing to the eye, effortless, economical and harmonious.

The Gordon Setter is alert, gay, interested, and confident. He is fearless and willing, intelligent and capable. He is loyal and affectionate, and strong-minded enough to stand the rigors of training.

Predominantly tan, red or buff dogs.

Scale of Points
To be used as a guide when judging the Gordon Setter:

Head and neck (include ears and eyes) 10
Body  15  
Shoulders, forelegs, forefeet 10
Hind legs and feet 10
Tail 5
Coat 8
Color and markings  5
Temperament 10
Size, general appearance  15
Gait 12
Total 100

Approved October 7, 2002
Effective November 27, 2002


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:55:00 | 显示全部楼层

金毛巡回猎犬、金毛寻回猎犬(Golden Retriever)AKC标准












Golden Retriever Breed Standard

General Appearance
A symmetrical, powerful, active dog, sound and well put together, not clumsy nor long in the leg, displaying a kindly expression and possessing a personality that is eager, alert and self-confident. Primarily a hunting dog, he should be shown in hard working condition. Overall appearance, balance, gait and purpose to be given more emphasis than any of his component parts. Faults--Any departure from the described ideal shall be considered faulty to the degree to which it interferes with the breed\'s purpose or is contrary to breed character.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Males 23-24 inches in height at withers; females 21½-22½ inches. Dogs up to one inch above or below standard size should be proportionately penalized. Deviation in height of more than one inch from the standard shall disqualify. Length from breastbone to point of buttocks slightly greater than height at withers in ratio of 12:11. Weight for dogs 65-75 pounds; bitches 55-65 pounds.

Broad in skull, slightly arched laterally and longitudinally without prominence of frontal bones (forehead) or occipital bones. Stop well defined but not abrupt. Foreface deep and wide, nearly as long as skull. Muzzle straight in profile, blending smooth and strongly into skull; when viewed in profile or from above, slightly deeper and wider at stop than at tip. No heaviness in flews. Removal of whiskers is permitted but not preferred. Eyes friendly and intelligent in expression, medium large with dark, close-fitting rims, set well apart and reasonably deep in sockets. Color preferably dark brown; medium brown acceptable. Slant eyes and narrow, triangular eyes detract from correct expression and are to be faulted. No white or haw visible when looking straight ahead. Dogs showing evidence of functional abnormality of eyelids or eyelashes (such as, but not limited to, trichiasis, entropion, ectropion, or distichiasis) are to be excused from the ring. Ears rather short with front edge attached well behind and just above the eye and falling close to cheek. When pulled forward, tip of ear should just cover the eye. Low, hound-like ear set to be faulted. Nose black or brownish black, though fading to a lighter shade in cold weather not serious. Pink nose or one seriously lacking in pigmentation to be faulted. Teeth scissors bite, in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors. Undershot or overshot bite is a disqualification. Misalignment of teeth (irregular placement of incisors) or a level bite (incisors meet each other edge to edge) is undesirable, but not to be confused with undershot or overshot. Full dentition. Obvious gaps are serious faults.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck medium long, merging gradually into well laid back shoulders, giving sturdy, muscular appearance. No throatiness. Backline strong and level from withers to slightly sloping croup, whether standing or moving. Sloping backline, roach or sway back, flat or steep croup to be faulted. Body well balanced, short coupled, deep through the chest. Chest between forelegs at least as wide as a man\'s closed hand including thumb, with well developed forechest. Brisket extends to elbow. Ribs long and well sprung but not barrel shaped, extending well towards hindquarters. Loin short, muscular, wide and deep, with very little tuck-up. Slab-sidedness, narrow chest, lack of depth in brisket, excessive tuck-up to be faulted. Tail well set on, thick and muscular at the base, following the natural line of the croup. Tail bones extend to, but not below, the point of hock. Carried with merry action, level or with some moderate upward curve; never curled over back nor between legs.

Muscular, well coordinated with hindquarters and capable of free movement. Shoulder blades long and well laid back with upper tips fairly close together at withers. Upper arms appear about the same length as the blades, setting the elbows back beneath the upper tip of the blades, close to the ribs without looseness. Legs, viewed from the front, straight with good bone, but not to the point of coarseness. Pasterns short and strong, sloping slightly with no suggestion of weakness. Dewclaws on forelegs may be removed, but are normally left on. Feet medium size, round, compact, and well knuckled, with thick pads. Excess hair may be trimmed to show natural size and contour. Splayed or hare feet to be faulted.

Broad and strongly muscled. Profile of croup slopes slightly; the pelvic bone slopes at a slightly greater angle (approximately 30 degrees from horizontal). In a natural stance, the femur joins the pelvis at approximately a 90-degree angle; stifles well bent; hocks well let down with short, strong rear pasterns. Feet as in front. Legs straight when viewed from rear. Cow-hocks, spread hocks, and sickle hocks to be faulted.

Dense and water-repellent with good undercoat. Outer coat firm and resilient, neither coarse nor silky, lying close to body; may be straight or wavy. Untrimmed natural ruff; moderate feathering on back of forelegs and on underbody; heavier feathering on front of neck, back of thighs and underside of tail. Coat on head, paws, and front of legs is short and even. Excessive length, open coats, and limp, soft coats are very undesirable. Feet may be trimmed and stray hairs neatened, but the natural appearance of coat or outline should not be altered by cutting or clipping.

Rich, lustrous golden of various shades. Feathering may be lighter than rest of coat. With the exception of graying or whitening of face or body due to age, any white marking, other than a few white hairs on the chest, should be penalized according to its extent. Allowable light shadings are not to be confused with white markings. Predominant body color which is either extremely pale or extremely dark is undesirable. Some latitude should be given to the light puppy whose coloring shows promise of deepening with maturity. Any noticeable area of black or other off-color hair is a serious fault.

When trotting, gait is free, smooth, powerful and well coordinated, showing good reach. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward center line of balance. It is recommended that dogs be shown on a loose lead to reflect true gait.

Friendly, reliable, and trustworthy. Quarrelsomeness or hostility towards other dogs or people in normal situations, or an unwarranted show of timidity or nervousness, is not in keeping with Golden Retriever character. Such actions should be penalized according to their significance.

Deviation in height of more than one inch from standard either way.
Undershot or overshot bite.

Approved October 13, 1981
Reformatted August 18, 1990


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:55:48 | 显示全部楼层

国刚毛指示犬(German Wirehaired Pointer)AKC标准及简介

德国刚毛指示犬(德国刚毛波音达犬)是 20世纪初育成的,由德国波音达猎犬、刚毛格林芬犬、波音达猎犬,血提和万能犬精心杂交产生的。为保持品种纯化,每窝只选最好的6头仔犬。




雄性肩高大约 24~26英寸;雌性略小,但不低于22英寸。为了保证其工作能力得到很好的维持,肩高大于上限或低于下限都属于严重缺陷。身体长度略大于肩高,大约为 10比9的比例。德国刚毛指示犬在陆地上是一种多用途猎犬,敏捷而有耐力。恰当的尺寸和比例是得到好成绩的基本条件。












尾巴:位置高,警惕时上举,超过水平线。断尾大约为整个长度的 2/5。






功能丰富的刚毛质被毛是这个品种显著的特点。它必须具有正确的被毛和正确的类型。被毛能抵御恶劣的气候条件,在某种程度上,还可以防水。冬天底毛浓厚,可以抵御寒冷,而在夏天底毛薄的几乎看不见。与众不同的外层披毛笔直,粗硬,刚毛质地且平躺着,长度大约为 1~2英寸。被毛有足够的长度,能很好的保护身体不受伤害,但不能太长,而遮住它的轮廓曲线。在腿部下方的毛发略短,且脚趾之间的毛发质地柔软。脑袋上的毛发,天生就比较短,且紧贴着皮肤。肩胛周围和尾巴周围的毛发浓厚而沉重。尾巴上的毛发精致,下面更为独特,但没有羽状饰毛。眉毛是强健而直的毛发。胡须和络腮胡中等长度。肝色斑纹或肝色部分的毛发略短于白色毛发。短而平顺的被毛,柔软而羊毛质的被毛,过分长的被毛都属于严重缺陷。虽然短而刚毛质的被毛十分重要,但幼犬的毛发比成年犬的毛发短。被毛允许修饰整洁,体现出它的自然轮廓曲线。过度修饰,使它的外貌显得虚假,属于严重缺陷。







标准通过日期: 1985年7月 9日

German Wirehaired Pointer Breed Standard

General Appearance
The German Wirehaired Pointer is a well muscled, medium sized dog of distinctive appearance. Balanced in size and sturdily built, the breed\'s most distinguishing characteristics are its weather resistant, wire-like coat and its facial furnishings. Typically Pointer in character and style, the German Wirehaired Pointer is an intelligent, energetic and determined hunter.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The height of males should be from 24 to 26 inches at the withers. Bitches are smaller but not under 22 inches. To insure the working quality of the breed is maintained, dogs that are either over or under the specified height must be severely penalized. The body is a little longer than it is high, as ten is to nine. The German Wirehaired Pointer is a versatile hunter built for agility and endurance in the field. Correct size and balance are essential to high performance.

The head is moderately long. Eyes are brown, medium in size, oval in contour, bright and clear and overhung with medium length eyebrows. Yellow eyes are not desirable. The ears are rounded but not too broad and hang close to the head. The skull broad and the occipital bone not too prominent. The stop is medium. The muzzle is fairly long with nasal bone straight, broad and parallel to the top of the skull. The nose is dark brown with nostrils wide open. A spotted or flesh colored nose is to be penalized. The lips are a trifle pendulous but close to the jaw and bearded. The jaws are strong with a full complement of evenly set and properly intermeshing teeth. The incisors meet in a true scissors bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is of medium length, slightly arched and devoid of dewlap. The entire back line showing a perceptible slope down from withers to croup. The skin throughout is notably tight to the body. The chest is deep and capacious with ribs well sprung. The tuck-up apparent. The back is short, straight and strong. Loins are taut and slender. Hips are broad with the croup nicely rounded. The tail is set high, carried at or above the horizontal when the dog is alert. The tail is docked to approximately two-fifths of its original length.

The shoulders are well laid back. The forelegs are straight with elbows close. Leg bones are flat rather than round, and strong, but not so heavy or coarse as to militate against the dog\'s natural agility. Dewclaws are generally removed. Round in outline, the feet are webbed, high arched with toes close, pads thick and hard, and nails strong and quite heavy.

The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. The thighs are strong and muscular. The hind legs are moderately angulated at the stifle and hock and, as viewed from behind, parallel to each other. Dewclaws are generally removed. Feet as in front.

The functional wiry coat is the breed\'s most distinctive feature. A dog must have a correct coat to be of correct type. The coat is weather resistant and, to some extent, water-repellent. The undercoat is dense enough in winter to insulate against the cold but is so thin in summer as to be almost invisible. The distinctive outer coat is straight, harsh, wiry and flat lying, and is from one to two inches in length. The outer coat is long enough to protect against the punishment of rough cover, but not so long as to hide the outline of the dog. On the lower legs the coat is shorter and between the toes it is of softer texture. On the skull the coat is naturally short and close fitting. Over the shoulders and around the tail it is very dense and heavy. The tail is nicely coated, particularly on the underside, but devoid of feather. Eyebrows are of strong, straight hair. Beard and whiskers are medium length. The hairs in the liver patches of a liver and white dog may be shorter than the white hairs. A short smooth coat, a soft woolly coat, or an excessively long coat is to be severely penalized. While maintaining a harsh, wiry texture, the puppy coat may be shorter than that of an adult coat. Coats may be neatly groomed to present a dog natural in appearance. Extreme and excessive grooming to present a dog artificial in appearance should be severely penalized.

The coat is liver and white, usually either liver and white spotted, liver roan, liver and white spotted with ticking and roaning or solid liver. The head is liver, sometimes with a white blaze. The ears are liver. Any black in the coat is to be severely penalized.

The dog should be evaluated at a moderate gait. The movement is free and smooth with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. The topline should remain firm.

Of sound, reliable temperament, the German Wirehaired Pointer is at times aloof but not unfriendly toward strangers; a loyal and affectionate companion who is eager to please and enthusiastic to learn.

Approved July 9, 1985
Reformatted May 14, 1989


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:57:01 | 显示全部楼层

德国短毛指示犬(German Shorthaired Pointer)AKC标准及介绍

德国短毛指示犬是一种万能猎犬,一种多用途的枪猎犬,能在水中和陆地执行各种困难的任务。在犬展中评判这德国短毛指示犬时,必须考虑他是否能反映出这种基本特征。在观察者眼睛中反映出来的应该是一个贵族化、非常平稳协调、匀称的动物,整体结构显示出力量、耐力、敏捷、且看起来非常聪明的动物。他既不小的夸张,也不大的离谱。给人的印象是中等身材,但很象严格意义上的猎犬, “背部短,但站立时,身躯有足够的长度”。



尺寸:他的身高,雄性肩高约 23~25英寸;雌性肩高约21~23英寸。误差1英寸属于严重缺陷。雄性体重约55~70磅;雌性体重约45~60磅。















尾巴:位置高且稳固,必须断尾,离开约总长度的 40%。当狗平静时,尾巴下垂,行走时,尾巴保持水平。当它运动时,尾巴决不能举过后背(向头部方向)。尾巴举向头部或向头部弯曲都属于严重缺陷。


肩胛:倾斜,灵活,肌肉发达。肩胛骨平躺着,向后倾斜约 45度角。上臂(在肩胛骨与肘关节之间的骨骼)尽可能长,站立时,有点接近躯干,所以腿直,靠近且肌肉发达,从前面观察,显得彼此平行。站立时,如果肘部接近身躯或太接近,会导致脚趾向内弯或向外翻,所以属于一种缺陷。胶骨结实、短、且非常轻微地倾斜,几乎是垂直的。松懈、肩胛骨短、或肩胛太直都属于缺陷。关节突出也属于缺陷。前肢的狼爪可以切除。














标准通过日期: 1992年8月11日

German Shorthaired Pointer Breed Standard

General Appearance
The German Shorthaired Pointer is a versatile hunter, an all-purpose gun dog capable of high performance in field and water. The judgement of Shorthairs in the show ring reflects this basic characteristic. The overall picture which is created in the observer\'s eye is that of an aristocratic, well balanced, symmetrical animal with conformation indicating power, endurance and agility and a look of intelligence and animation. The dog is neither unduly small nor conspicuously large. It gives the impression of medium size, but is like the proper hunter, \"with a short back, but standing over plenty of ground.\" Symmetry and field quality are most essential. A dog in hard and lean field condition is not to be penalized; however, overly fat or poorly muscled dogs are to be penalized. A dog well balanced in all points is preferable to one with outstanding good qualities and defects. Grace of outline, clean-cut head, sloping shoulders, deep chest, powerful back, strong quarters, good bone composition, adequate muscle, well carried tail and taut coat produce a look of nobility and indicate a heritage of purposefully conducted breeding. Further evidence of this heritage is movement which is balanced, alertly coordinated and without wasted motion.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--height of dogs, measured at the withers, 23 to 25 inches. Height of bitches, measured at the withers, 21 to 23 inches. Deviations of one inch above or below the described heights are to be severely penalized. Weight of dogs 55 to 70 pounds. Weight of bitches 45 to 60 pounds. Proportion--measuring from the forechest to the rearmost projection of the rump and from the withers to the ground, the Shorthair is permissibly either square or slightly longer than he is tall. Substance--thin and fine bones are by no means desirable in a dog which must possess strength and be able to work over any type of terrain. The main importance is not laid so much on the size of bone, but rather on the bone being in proper proportion to the body. Bone structure too heavy or too light is a fault. Tall and leggy dogs, dogs which are ponderous because of excess substance, doggy bitches, and bitchy dogs are to be faulted.

The head is clean-cut, is neither too light nor too heavy, and is in proper proportion to the body. The eyes are of medium size, full of intelligence and expression, good-humored and yet radiating energy, neither protruding nor sunken. The eye is almond shaped, not circular. The preferred color is dark brown. Light yellow eyes are not desirable and are a fault. Closely set eyes are to be faulted. China or wall eyes are to be disqualified. The ears are broad and set fairly high, lie flat and never hang away from the head. Their placement is just above eye level. The ears when laid in front without being pulled, should extend to the corner of the mouth. In the case of heavier dogs, the ears are correspondingly longer. Ears too long or fleshy are to be faulted. The skull is reasonably broad, arched on the side and slightly round on top. Unlike the Pointer, the median line between the eyes at the forehead is not too deep and the occipital bone is not very conspicuous. The foreface rises gradually from nose to forehead. The rise is more strongly pronounced in the dog than in the bitch. The jaw is powerful and the muscles well developed. The line to the forehead rises gradually and never has a definite stop as that of the Pointer, but rather a stop-effect when viewed from the side, due to the position of the eyebrows. The muzzle is sufficiently long to enable the dog to seize game properly and be able to carry it for a long time. A pointed muzzle is not desirable. The depth is in the right proportion to the length, both in the muzzle and in the skull proper. The length of the muzzle should equal the length of skull. A dish-shaped muzzle is a fault. A definite Pointer stop is a serious fault. Too many wrinkles in the forehead is a fault. The nose is brown, the larger the better, and with nostrils well opened and broad. A spotted nose is not desirable. A flesh colored nose disqualifies. The chops fall away from the somewhat projecting nose. Lips are full and deep yet are never flewy. The teeth are strong and healthy. The molars intermesh properly. The bite is a true scissors bite. A perfect level bite is not desirable and must be penalized. Extreme overshot or undershot disqualifies.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is of proper length to permit the jaws reaching game to be retrieved, sloping downwards on beautifully curving lines. The nape is rather muscular, becoming gradually larger toward the shoulders. Moderate throatiness is permitted. The skin is close and tight. The chest in general gives the impression of depth rather than breadth; for all that, it is in correct proportion to the other parts of the body. The chest reaches down to the elbows, the ribs forming the thorax show a rib spring and are not flat or slabsided; they are not perfectly round or barrel-shaped. The back ribs reach well down. The circumference of the thorax immediately behind the elbows is smaller than that of the thorax about a hand\'s breadth behind elbows, so that the upper arm has room for movement. Tuck-up is apparent. The back is short, strong, and straight with a slight rise from the root of the tail to the withers. The loin is strong, is of moderate length, and is slightly arched. An excessively long, roached or swayed back must be penalized. The hips are broad with hip sockets wide apart and fall slightly toward the tail in a graceful curve. A steep croup is a fault. The tail is set high and firm, and must be docked, leaving approximately 40% of its length. The tail hangs down when the dog is quiet and is held horizontally when he is walking. The tail must never be curved over the back toward the head when the dog is moving. A tail curved or bent toward the head is to be severely penalized.

The shoulders are sloping, movable, and well covered with muscle. The shoulder blades lie flat and are well laid back nearing a 45 degree angle. The upper arm (the bones between the shoulder and elbow joint) is as long as possible, standing away somewhat from the trunk so that the straight and closely muscled legs, when viewed from the front, appear to be parallel. Elbows which stand away from the body or are too close result in toes turning inwards or outwards and must be faulted. Pasterns are strong, short and nearly vertical with a slight spring. Loose, short-bladed or straight shoulders must be faulted. Knuckling over is to be faulted. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. The feet are compact, close-knit and round to spoon-shaped. The toes are sufficiently arched and heavily nailed. The pads are strong, hard and thick.

Thighs are strong and well muscled. Stifles are well bent. Hock joints are well angulated and strong with straight bone structure from hock to pad. Angulation of both stifle and hock joint is such as to achieve the optimal balance of drive and traction. Hocks turn neither in nor out. Cowhocked legs are a serious fault.

The hair is short and thick and feels tough to the hand; it is somewhat longer on the underside of the tail and the back edges of the haunches. The hair is softer, thinner and shorter on the ears and the head. Any dog with long hair in the body coat is to be severely penalized.

The coat may be of solid liver or a combination of liver and white such as liver and white ticked, liver patched and white ticked, or liver roan. A dog with any area of black, red, orange, lemon or tan, or a dog solid white will be disqualified.

A smooth lithe gait is essential. It is to be noted that as gait increases from the walk to a faster speed, the legs converge beneath the body. The tendency to single track is desirable. The forelegs reach well ahead as if to pull in the ground without giving the appearance of a hackney gait. The hindquarters drive the back legs smoothly and with great power.

The Shorthair is friendly, intelligent, and willing to please. The first impression is that of a keen enthusiasm for work without indication of nervous or flightly character.

China or wall eyes.
Flesh colored nose.
Extreme overshot or undershot.
A dog with any area of black, red, orange, lemon, or tan, or a dog solid white.

Approved August 11, 1992
Effective September 30, 1992


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:57:58 | 显示全部楼层

平毛巡回猎犬(Flat-Coated Retriever)AKC标准及介绍
原产英国。起源于 19世纪。虽然是英国犬,却是由拉布拉多犬和纽芬兰犬两个美洲品种培育而来。




一、 [简介]

平毛巡回犬是一种多用途犬,可以成为家庭伴侣犬、猎犬、寻回犬,他是一种快乐、活泼的狗,表情聪明,线条整洁。平毛寻回犬必须象传统中所描述的那样: \"有力而不笨重,活泼但不瘦弱\"。平毛巡回犬与众不同的、非常重要的特征是他的侧面轮廓(不论在运动中,还是站立着),平滑、轻松的动作,头部类型,被毛和特征,使平毛寻回犬的侧面轮廓都显示出长、结实、整洁、及\"片状\"的头部,这些都是该品种独特的特征。没有夸张的止部和面颊,头部位置恰当,安放在中等长度的颈部上面,颈部平滑地融入向后倾斜的肩胛。背线水平,胸腔(肋骨)深,且长,向后延伸,逐渐变细,并轻微上提,构成一个钝的三角形。胸骨非常清晰,前胸明显突出,这种有效的寻回犬非常和谐,结实,但文雅,不能象矮脚马的样子,褪太短或四肢细长。被毛浓厚,且平躺着,褪部和尾巴有羽状饰毛。自豪的,反映敏捷的姿势,波浪状的尾巴,整体感觉非常有力,品质,风格,及匀称构成了典型的平毛寻回犬的形象。


二、 [体型]

尺寸:肩高误差(理想的肩高范围)超过 1英寸的个体,就不能作为典型的,作为工作用途的平毛寻回犬。雄性理想的肩高范围约在23~24.5英寸;雌性理想的肩高范围约在22~23.5英寸。由于平毛寻回犬是作为一种在艰苦环境下工作的、寻回猎犬,所以应该显得精干、没有多余的体重。



三、 [头部]

长,整洁,形状良好的头部应该拥有足够的尺寸和力量,可以轻松地叼回大个头的野鸡、野鸭、野兔等。脑袋和口吻:脑袋和口吻给人的印象是 \"铸造成一整块\",是由相当平坦的、中等宽度的脑袋,平坦、整洁的面颊,结合了长、结实、深的口吻(在眼睛下面、眼睛之间、眼睛后面都很丰满)所组成的。从上面观察,口吻的长度和宽度与脑袋一致。止部:逐渐过度的、轻微的、勉强可以察觉的止部,决不能向下或形成盘子脸。眉毛轻微突起,非常灵活,产生丰富的表情。必须在轮廓中正确评估止部,而不能受到突起的眉毛的影响。后枕骨不明显,脑袋应该形成一条优雅的曲线,与颈部接合。表情:警惕、聪明而友善。眼睛:位置分的较开,中等大小,杏仁形,深褐色或榛色,不能太大、圆或黄色。眼圈为相同的颜色,紧绷。耳朵:相对较小,位置恰当,悬挂着,贴近头部,有厚厚的羽状饰毛。位置不能太低(象猎犬或雪达犬)。鼻镜:大,鼻孔张开。黑色狗的鼻镜为黑色,肝色狗的鼻镜为褐色。嘴唇:相当紧,稳固、整洁而干燥,有极少量的羽状饰毛。颌部:长而有力,有能力叼回野兔或野鸡。咬和:剪状咬和为首选,钳状咬和也可以接受。牙齿折断不算缺陷。严重缺陷:扭曲的牙齿、上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和有明显的间隙属于严重缺陷。

四、 [颈部、背线、身躯]


五、 [前躯]


六、 [后躯]


七、 [被毛]


八、 [颜色]


九、 [步态]


十、 [概括]


十一、 [气质]


十二、 [特征]



十二、 [失格]


标准通过日期: 1990年 9月11日

Flat-Coated Retriever Breed Standard

General Appearance

The Flat-Coated Retriever is a versatile family companion hunting retriever with a happy and active demeanor, intelligent expression, and clean lines. The Flat-Coat has been traditionally described as showing \"power without lumber and raciness without weediness.\"

The distinctive and most important features of the Flat-Coat are the silhouette (both moving and standing), smooth effortless movement, head type, coat and character. In silhouette the Flat-Coat has a long, strong, clean, \"one piece\" head, which is unique to the breed. Free from exaggeration of stop or cheek, the head is set well into a moderately long neck which flows smoothly into well laid back shoulders. A level topline combined with a deep, long rib cage tapering to a moderate tuck-up create the impression of a blunted triangle. The brisket is well developed and the forechest forms a prominent prow. This utilitarian retriever is well balanced, strong, but elegant; never cobby, short legged or rangy. The coat is thick and flat lying, and the legs and tail are well feathered. A proud carriage, responsive attitude, waving tail and overall look of functional strength, quality, style and symmetry complete the picture of the typical Flat-Coat.

Judging the Flat-Coat moving freely on a loose lead and standing naturally is more important than judging him posed. Honorable scars should not count against the dog.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--Individuals varying more than an inch either way from the preferred height should be considered not practical for the types of work for which the Flat-Coat was developed. Preferred height is 23 to 24½; inches at the withers for dogs, 22 to 23½ inches for bitches. Since the Flat-Coat is a working hunting retriever he should be shown in lean, hard condition, free of excess weight.

Proportion--The Flat-Coat is not cobby in build. The length of the body from the point of the shoulder to the rearmost projection of the upper thigh is slightly more than the height at the withers. The female may be slightly longer to better accommodate the carrying of puppies. Substance-- Moderate. Medium bone is flat or oval rather than round; strong but never massive, coarse, weedy or fine. This applies throughout the dog.

The long, clean, well molded head is adequate in size and strength to retrieve a large pheasant, duck or hare with ease. Skull and Muzzle--The impression of the skull and muzzle being \"cast in one piece\" is created by the fairly flat skull of moderate breadth and flat, clean cheeks, combined with the long, strong, deep muzzle which is well filled in before, between and beneath the eyes. Viewed from above, the muzzle is nearly equal in length and breadth to the skull. Stop--There is a gradual, slight, barely perceptible stop, avoiding a down or dish-faced appearance. Brows are slightly raised and mobile, giving life to the expression. Stop must be evaluated in profile so that it will not be confused with the raised brow. Occiput not accentuated, the skull forming a gentle curve where it fits well into the neck. Expression alert, intelligent and kind. Eyes are set widely apart. Medium sized, almond shaped, dark brown or hazel; not large, round or yellow. Eye rims are self-colored and tight. Ears relatively small, well set on, lying close to the side of the head and thickly feathered. Not low set (houndlike or setterish). Nose--Large open nostrils. Black on black dogs, brown on liver dogs. Lips fairly tight, firm, clean and dry to minimize the retention of feathers. Jaws long and strong, capable of carrying a hare or a pheasant. Bite-- Scissors bite preferred, level bite acceptable. Broken teeth should not count against the dog. Severe Faults Wry and undershot or overshot bites with a noticeable gap must be severely penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck strong and slightly arched for retrieving strength. Moderately long to allow for easy seeking of the trail. Free from throatiness. Coat on neck is untrimmed. Topline strong and level. Body--Chest (Brisket)--Deep, reaching to the elbow and only moderately broad. Forechest--Prow prominent and well developed. Rib cage deep, showing good length from forechest to last rib (to allow ample space for all body organs), and only moderately broad. The foreribs fairly flat showing a gradual spring, well arched in the center of the body but rather lighter towards the loin. Underline--Deep chest tapering to a moderate tuck-up. Loin strong, well muscled and long enough to allow for agility, freedom of movement and length of stride, but never weak or loosely coupled. Croup slopes very slightly; rump moderately broad and well muscled. Tail fairly straight, well set on, with bone reaching approximately to the hock joint. When the dog is in motion, the tail is carried happily but without curl as a smooth extension of the topline, never much above the level of the back.

Shoulders long, well laid back shoulder blade with upper arm of approximately equal length to allow for efficient reach. Musculature wiry rather than bulky. Elbows clean, close to the body and set well back under the withers. Forelegs straight and strong with medium bone of good quality. Pasterns slightly sloping and strong. Dewclaws--Removal of dewclaws is optional. Feet oval or round. Medium sized and tight with well arched toes and thick pads.

Powerful with angulation in balance with the front assembly. Upper thighs powerful and well muscled. Stifle--Good turn of stifle with sound, strong joint. Second thighs (Stifle to hock joint)--Second or lower thigh as long as or only slightly longer than upper thight. Hock--Hock joint strong, well let down. Dewclaws There are no hind dewclaws. Feet oval or round. Medium sized and tight with well arched toes and thick pads.

Coat is of moderate length density and fullness, with a high lustre. The ideal coat is straight and flat lying. A slight waviness is permissible but the coat is not curly, wooly, short, silky or fluffy. The Flat-Coat is a working retriever and the coat must provide protection from all types of weather, water and ground cover. This requires a coat of sufficient texture, length and fullness to allow for adequate insulation. When the dog is in full coat the ears, front, chest, back of forelegs, thighs and underside of tail are thickly feathered without being bushy, stringy or silky. Mane of longer heavier coat on the neck extending over the withers and shoulders is considered typical, especially in the male dog, and can cause the neck to appear thicker and the withers higher, sometimes causing the appearance of a dip behind the withers. Since the Flat-Coat is a hunting retriever, the feathering is not excessively long. Trimming --The Flat-Coat is shown with as natural a coat as possible and must not be penalized for lack of trimming, as long as the coat is clean and well brushed. Tidying of ears, feet, underline and tip of tail is acceptable. Whiskers serve a specific function and it is preferred that they not be trimmed. Shaving or barbering of the head, neck or body coat must be severely penalized.

Solid black or solid liver. Disqualification-- Yellow, cream or any color other than black or liver.

Sound, efficient movement is of critical importance to a hunting retriever. The Flat-Coat viewed from the side covers ground efficiently and movement appears balanced, free flowing and well coordinated, never choppy, mincing or ponderous. Front and rear legs reach well forward and extend well back, achieving long clean strides. Topline appears level, strong and supple while dog is in motion.

The Flat-Coat is a strong but elegant, cheerful hunting retriever. Quality of structure, balance and harmony of all parts both standing and in motion are essential. As a breed whose purpose is of a utilitarian nature, structure, condition and attitude should give every indication of being suited for hard work.

Character is a primary and outstanding asset of the Flat-Coat. He is a responsive, loving member of the family, a versatile working dog, multi-talented, sensible, bright and tractable. In competition the Flat-Coat demonstrates stability and a desire to please with a confident, happy and outgoing attitude characterized by a wagging tail. Nervous, hyperactive, apathetic, shy or obstinate behavior is undesirable. Severe Fault--Unprovoked aggressive behavior toward people or animals is totally unacceptable.

Character is as important to the evaluation of stock by a potential breeder as any other aspect of the breed standard. The Flat-Coat is primarily a family companion hunting retriever. He is keen and birdy, flushing within gun range, as well as a determined, resourceful retriever on land and water. He has a great desire to hunt with self-reliance and an uncanny ability to adapt to changing circumstances on a variety of upland game and waterfowl.

As a family companion he is sensible, alert and highly intelligent; a lighthearted, affectionate and adaptable friend. He retains these qualities as well as his youthfully good-humored outlook on life into old age. The adult Flat-Coat is usually an adequate alarm dog to give warning, but is a good-natured, optimistic dog, basically inclined to be friendly to all.

The Flat-Coat is a cheerful, devoted companion who requires and appreciates living with and interacting as a member of his family. To reach full potential in any endeavor he absolutely must have a strong personal bond and affectionate individual attention.

Yellow, cream or any color other than black or liver.

Approved September 11, 1990
Effective October 30, 1990


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:58:43 | 显示全部楼层

田野猎犬(Field Spaniel)AKC标准及简介





各部分的匀称性是他的本质。尺寸:一个成熟的雄性肩高约为 18英寸;成熟雌性的肩高约为17英寸。误差在1英寸以内是可以接受的。比例:非常匀称的狗,体长略大于肩高,体长与肩高的比例大约为7:6(体长的测量是从肩胛骨最前面的一点到臀部最后一点的水平距离)。体质:结构坚固,骨量适中,肌肉平顺而稳固。

















标准通过日期:1998年 9月14日

Field Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Field Spaniel is a combination of beauty and utility. It is a well balanced, substantial hunter-companion of medium size, built for activity and endurance in a heavy cover and water. It has a noble carriage; a proud but docile attitude; is sound and free moving. Symmetry, gait, attitude and purpose are more important than any one part.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Balance between these three components is essential. Size--Ideal height for mature adults at the withers is 18 inches for dogs and 17 inches for bitches. A one inch deviation either way is acceptable. Proportion--A well balanced dog, somewhat longer than tall. The ratio of length to height is approximately 7:6. (Length is measured on a level from the foremost point of the shoulder to the rearmost point of the buttocks.) Substance--Solidly built, with moderate bone, and firm smooth muscles.

Conveys the impression of high breeding, character and nobility, and must be in proportion to the size of the dog. Expression--Grave, gentle and intelligent. Eyes--Almond in shape, open and of medium size; set moderately wide and deep. Color: dark hazel to dark brown. The lids are tight and show no haw; rims comparable to nose in color. Ears--Moderately long (reaching the end of the muzzle) and wide. Set on slightly below eye level: pendulous, hanging close to the head; rolled and well feathered. Leather is moderately heavy, supple, and rounded at the tip. Skull--The crown is slightly wider at the back than at the brow and lightly arched laterally; sides and cheeks are straight and clean. The occiput is distinct and rounded. Brows are slightly raised. The stop is moderate, but well defined by the brows. The face is chiselled beneath the eyes. Muzzle--Strong, long and lean, neither snipy nor squarely cut. The nasal bone is straight and slightly divergent from parallel, sloping downward toward the nose from the plane of the top skull. In profile, the lower plane curves gradually from the nose to the throat. Jaws are level. Nose--Large, flesh and well developed with open nostrils. Set on as an extension of the muzzle. Color: solid: light to dark brown or black as befits the color of the coat. Lips--Close fitting, clean, and sufficiently deep to cover the lower jaw without being pendulous. Bite--Scissors or level, with complete dentition. Scissors preferred.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--Long, strong, muscular, slightly arched, clean, and well set into shoulders. Topline--The neck slopes smoothly into the withers; the back is level, well muscled, firm and strong; the croup is short and gently rounded. Body--The prosternum is prominent and well fleshed. The depth of chest is roughly equal to the length of the front leg from elbow to ground. The rib cage is long and extending into a short loin. Ribs are oval, well sprung and curve gently into a firm loin. Loin--Short, strong, and deep, with little or no tuck up. Tail--Set on low, in line with the croup, just below the level of the back with a natural downward inclination. Docked tails preferred, natural tails are allowed. The tail whether docked or natural length should be in balance with the overall dog.

Shoulders blades are oblique and sloping. The upper arm is closed-set; elbows are directly below the withers, and turn neither in nor out. Bone is flat. Forelegs are straight and well boned to the feet. Pasterns are moderately sloping but strong. Dewclaws may be removed. Feed face forward and are large, rounded, and webbed, with strong, well arched relatively tight toes and thick pads.

Strong and driving; stifles and hocks only moderately bent. Hocks well let down; pasterns relatively short, strong and parallel when viewed from the rear. Hips moderately broad and muscular; upper tigh broad and powerful; second thigh well muscled. Bone corresponds to that of the forelegs. No dewclaws.

Single; moderately long; flat or slightly wavy; silky; and glossy; dense and water-repellent. Moderate setter-like feathering adorns the chest, underbody, backs of the legs, buttocks, and may also be present on the second thigh and underside of the tail. Pasterns have clean outlines to the ground. There is short, soft hair between the toes. Overabundance of coat, or cottony texture, impractical for field work should be penalized. Trimming is limited to that which enhances the natural appearance of the dog. Amount of coat or absence of coat should not be faulted as much as structural faults.

Black, liver, golden liver or shades thereof, in any intensity (dark or light); either self-colored or bi-colored. Bi-colored dogs must be roaned and/or ticked in white areas. Tan points are acceptable on the aforementioned colors and are the same as any normally tan pointed breed. White is allowed on the throat, chest, and/or brisket, and may be clear, ticked, or roaned on a self color dog.

The head is carried alertly, neither so high nor so low as to impede motion or stride. There is good forward reach that begins in the shoulder, coupled with strong drive from the rear, giving the characteristic effortless, long, low majestic stride. When viewed from front and/or rear elbows and hocks move parallel. The legs move straight, with slight converence at increased speed. When moving, the tail is carried inclined slightly downward or level with the back, and with a wagging motion. Tail carried above the back is incorrect. Side movement is straight and clean, without energy wasting motions. Over-reaching and single tracking are incorrect. The Field Spaniel should be show at its own natural speed in an endurance trot, preferably on a loose lead, in order to evaluate its movement.

Unusually docile, sensitive, funloving, independent and intelligent, with a great affinity for human companionship. They may be somewhat reserved in initial meetings. Any display of shyness, fear, or agression is to be severely penalized.

Approved September 14, 1998
Effective October 30, 1998


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:59:23 | 显示全部楼层

英国激飞猎犬(English Springer Spaniel)AKC标准及介绍
英国激飞猎犬图片、照片集 | 英国激飞猎犬视频、录像



英国激飞猎犬的结构使他能覆盖杂乱粗糙的地面,敏捷且速度合理。他的结构使他能产生很强的耐力。他应该保持中等体型。雄性的理想肩高为 20英寸;雌性的理想肩高为19英寸。误差超过1英寸属于缺陷。一个肩高20英寸的雄性,在结构匀称,各方面的条件都很好的时候,体重约为50磅;肩高 19英寸的雌性,体重约为40磅。身躯的长度(从肩胛骨与上臂接合处到臀部的距离)略微大于肩高。一个身躯太长的狗,尤其是腰部太长,容易疲劳而且缺乏这个品种应有的紧凑的轮廓线;一个相对于腿的长度而言,身躯太短的狗,破坏了整体平衡,且影响步态。这两种情况一样不可取,都属于缺陷。英国激飞猎犬应该拥有正确的体质,显得扎实而强健,骨量充足,但决不能显得粗笨或笨拙。







鼻梁骨直,到鼻尖为止,没有向下弯曲的迹象,后者会造成盘子脸的外貌,属于缺陷。鼻梁骨既不是向下弯曲,形成 “盘子”脸;也不是向上突起,形成罗马鼻。




牙齿结实,整洁,尺寸恰当,剪状咬和最为理想。钳状咬和或有 1~2颗门牙略微偏离对齐线,属于次要缺陷。上颚突出式咬和、下颚突出式咬和或歪曲的颌部属于严重缺陷,并需要严厉惩罚。






尾巴的姿势保持水平,或略高一些,显示出他特有的活泼、欢快的动作,在游戏时更明显。夹起来的尾巴(显得胆怯或不可靠)属于缺陷,反之,尾巴象梗类犬那样,与背线呈 90度角也属于缺陷。


正确的前躯结构能够产生有效率的动作。肩胛骨平坦,且在顶端非常靠近,平滑地融入身躯曲线。理想的情况是:从马肩隆到肩胛骨与上臂骨结合关节,再到肘部这端部位,肩胛骨与上臂骨的长度大致相同,而且,上臂骨与肩胛骨呈大约 90度的角;这样使前臂再身躯下方正确的位置,且肘部正好再肩胛骨顶端的正下方。肘部贴近身躯。




英国激飞猎犬不论在工作中,还是在比赛中,都需要有坚实、肌肉发达、而且非常强健的臀部和大腿。他的整个后躯显示出强健有力,且驱动力强大。大腿宽而肌肉发达。膝关节结实。考虑到功能和效率,后躯的角度决不能大于前躯,更不能有任何缺乏。飞节略呈圆形,不能太小或轮廓过于锐利。后骹骨短(大约为从臀部到足爪距离的 1/3)、结实且骨骼强健。从后面观察,后腿彼此平行。狼爪通常需要切除。足爪与前躯相同,除了略小一些,且更紧凑。


英国激飞猎犬拥有外层披毛和底毛。在身躯上,披毛为中等长度,平坦或略呈波浪状,很容易与底毛区分开,底毛短、柔软和浓密。底毛的数量受到季节和气候的影响。在底毛和披毛的共同保护下,使他可以防水、抵御恶劣气候,并能在荆棘从中得到保护。英国激飞猎犬的耳朵、胸部、腿部和腹部,有许多羽状饰毛,饰毛长度适中,非常厚重。在头部、前肢前面、飞节下面和后肢前面,毛发短而细腻。被毛整洁、有光泽、 “活跃”的外观,显示出良好的健康状况。在头部、耳朵、颈部和足爪进行合理的修剪,去处死毛(脱落的底毛)、将多余的饰毛修薄、修短,使外观更漂亮。尾巴可以修剪,或在边缘保留波浪状饰毛。总的来说,外观应该显得自然,过度修剪,尤其是身躯上的被毛,毛发破碎、毛发起伏、或显得虚假的造型都属于缺陷;同样,饰毛太多,影响了运动犬整洁的轮廓曲线,也属于缺陷。正确的被毛品质和样式,比单纯的被毛数量更重要。



( 1)黑色或肝色带有白色斑纹或主要是白色,带有黑色或肝色斑纹。

( 2)兰色或肝色的杂色。

( 3)三色:黑色和白色或肝色和白色,带有棕色斑纹,棕色斑纹通常在眉毛、面颊、耳朵内侧和尾巴下面。白色被毛有可能带有污迹。没有怪异的颜色,如柠檬色、红色或橘色。







标准通过日期: 1994年2月12日

English Springer Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The English Springer Spaniel is a medium-sized sporting dog, with a compact body and a docked tail. His coat is moderately long, with feathering on his legs, ears, chest and brisket. His pendulous ears, soft gentle expression, sturdy build and friendly wagging tail proclaim him unmistakably a member of the ancient family of Spaniels. He is above all a well-proportioned dog, free from exaggeration, nicely balanced in every part. His carriage is proud and upstanding, body deep, legs strong and muscular, with enough length to carry him with ease. Taken as a whole, the English Springer Spaniel suggests power, endurance and agility. He looks the part of a dog that can go, and keep going, under difficult hunting conditions. At his best, he is endowed with style, symmetry, balance and enthusiasm, and is every inch a sporting dog of distinct spaniel character, combining beauty and utility.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The Springer is built to cover rough ground with agility and reasonable speed. His structure suggests the capacity for endurance. He is to be kept to medium size. Ideal height at the shoulder for dogs is 20 inches; for bitches, it is 19 inches. Those more than one inch under or over the breed ideal are to be faulted. A 20 inch dog, well-proportioned and in good condition, will weigh approximately 50 pounds; a 19 inch bitch will weigh approximately 40 pounds. The length of the body (measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks) is slightly greater than the height at the withers. The dog too long in body, especially when long in the loin, tires easily and lacks the compact outline characteristic of the breed. A dog too short in body for the length of his legs, a condition which destroys balance and restricts gait, is equally undesirable. A Springer with correct substance appears well-knit and sturdy with good bone, however, he is never coarse or ponderous.

The head is impressive without being heavy. Its beauty lies in a combination of strength and refinement. It is important that its size and proportion be in balance with the rest of the dog. Viewed in profile, the head appears approximately the same length as the neck and blends with the body in substance. The stop, eyebrows and chiseling of the bony structure around the eye sockets contribute to the Springer\'s beautiful and characteristic expression, which is alert, kindly and trusting. The eyes, more than any other feature, are the essence of the Springer\'s appeal. Correct size, shape, placement and color influence expression and attractiveness. The eyes are of medium size and oval in shape, set rather well-apart and fairly deep in their sockets. The color of the iris harmonizes with the color of the coat, preferably dark hazel in the liver and white dogs and black or deep brown in the black and white dogs. Eyerims are fully pigmented and match the coat in color. Lids are tight with little or no haw showing. Eyes that are small, round or protruding, as well as eyes that are yellow or brassy in color, are highly undesirable. Ears are long and fairly wide, hanging close to the cheeks with no tendency to stand up or out. The ear leather is thin and approximately long enough to reach the tip of the nose. Correct ear set is on a level with the eye and not too far back on the skull. The skull is medium-length and fairly broad, flat on top and slightly rounded at the sides and back. The occiput bone is inconspicuous. As the skull rises from the foreface, it makes a stop, divided by a groove, or fluting, between the eyes. The groove disappears as it reaches the middle of the forehead. The amount of stop is moderate. It must not be a pronounced feature; rather it is a subtle rise where the muzzle joins the upper head. It is emphasized by the groove and by the position and shape of the eyebrows, which are well-developed. The muzzle is approximately the same length as the skull and one half the width of the skull. Viewed in profile, the toplines of the skull and muzzle lie in approximately parallel planes. The nasal bone is straight, with no inclination downward toward the tip of the nose, the latter giving an undesirable downfaced look. Neither is the nasal bone concave, resulting in a \"dish-faced\" profile; nor convex, giving the dog a Roman nose. The cheeks are flat, and the face is well-chiseled under the eyes. Jaws are of sufficient length to allow the dog to carry game easily: fairly square, lean and strong. The upper lips come down full and rather square to cover the line of the lower jaw, however, the lips are never pendulous or exaggerated. The nose is fully-pigmented, liver or black in color, depending on the color of the coat. The nostrils are well-opened and broad. Teeth are strong, clean, of good size and ideally meet in a close scissors bite. An even bite or one or two incisors slightly out of line are minor faults. Undershot, overshot and wry jaws are serious faults and are to be severely penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is moderately long, muscular, clean and slightly arched at the crest. It blends gradually and smoothly into sloping shoulders. The portion of the topline from withers to tail is firm and slopes very gently. The body is short-coupled, strong and compact. The chest is deep, reaching the level of the elbows, with well-developed forechest; however, it is not so wide or round as to interfere with the action of the front legs. Ribs are fairly long, springing gradually to the middle of the body, then tapering as they approach the end of the ribbed section. The underline stays level with the elbows to a slight upcurve at the flank. The back is straight, strong and essentially level. Loins are strong, short and slightly arched. Hips are nicely-rounded, blending smoothly into the hind legs. The croup slopes gently to the set of the tail, and tail-set follows the natural line of the croup. The tail is carried horizontally or slightly elevated and displays a characteristic lively, merry action, particularly when the dog is on game. A clamped tail (indicating timidity or undependable temperament) is to be faulted, as is a tail carried at a right angle to the backline in Terrier fashion.

Efficient movement in front calls for proper forequarter assembly. The shoulder blades are flat and fairly close together at the tips, molding smoothly into the contour of the body. Ideally, when measured from the top of the withers to the point of the shoulder to the elbow, the shoulder blade and upper arm are of apparent equal length, forming an angle of nearly 90 degrees; this sets the front legs well under the body and places the elbows directly beneath the tips of the shoulder blades. Elbows lie close to the body. Forelegs are straight with the same degree of size continuing to the foot. Bone is strong, slightly flattened, not too round or too heavy. Pasterns are short, strong and slightly sloping, with no suggestion of weakness. Dewclaws are usually removed. Feet are round or slightly oval. They are compact and well-arched, of medium size with thick pads, and well-feathered between the toes.

The Springer should be worked and shown in hard, muscular condition with well-developed hips and thighs. His whole rear assembly suggests strength and driving power. Thighs are broad and muscular. Stifle joints are strong. For functional efficiency, the angulation of the hindquarter is never greater than that of the forequarter, and not appreciably less. The hock joints are somewhat rounded, not small and sharp in contour. Rear pasterns are short (about 1/3 the distance from the hip joint to the foot) and strong, with good bone. When viewed from behind, the rear pasterns are parallel. Dewclaws are usually removed. The feet are the same as in front, except that they are smaller and often more compact.

The Springer has an outer coat and an undercoat. On the body, the outer coat is of medium length, flat or wavy, and is easily distinguishable from the undercoat, which is short, soft and dense. The quantity of undercoat is affected by climate and season. When in combination, outer coat and undercoat serve to make the dog substantially waterproof, weatherproof and thornproof. On ears, chest, legs and belly the Springer is nicely furnished with a fringe of feathering of moderate length and heaviness. On the head, front of the forelegs, and below the hock joints on the front of the hind legs, the hair is short and fine. The coat has the clean, glossy, \"live\" appearance indicative of good health. It is legitimate to trim about the head, ears, neck and feet, to remove dead undercoat, and to thin and shorten excess feathering as required to enhance a smart, functional appearance. The tail may be trimmed, or well fringed with wavy feathering. Above all, the appearance should be natural. Overtrimming, especially the body coat, or any chopped, barbered or artificial effect is to be penalized in the show ring, as is excessive feathering that destroys the clean outline desirable in a sporting dog. Correct quality and condition of coat is to take precedence over quantity of coat.

All the following combinations of colors and markings are equally acceptable:(1) Black or liver with white markings or predominantly white with black or liver markings; (2) Blue or liver roan; (3) Tricolor: black and white or liver and white with tan markings, usually found on eyebrows, cheeks, inside of ears and under the tail. Any white portion of the coat may be flecked with ticking. Off colors such as lemon, red or orange are not to place.

The final test of the Springer\'s conformation and soundness is proper movement. Balance is a prerequisite to good movement. The front and rear assemblies must be equivalent in angulation and muscular development for the gait to be smooth and effortless. Shoulders which are well laid-back to permit a long stride are just as essential as the excellent rear quarters that provide driving power. Seen from the side, the Springer exhibits a long, ground-covering stride and carries a firm back, with no tendency to dip, roach or roll from side to side. From the front, the legs swing forward in a free and easy manner. Elbows have free action from the shoulders, and the legs show no tendency to cross or interfere. From behind, the rear legs reach well under the body, following on a line with the forelegs. As speed increases, there is a natural tendency for the legs to converge toward a center line of travel. Movement faults include high-stepping, wasted motion; short, choppy stride; crabbing; and moving with the feet wide, the latter giving roll or swing to the body.

The typical Springer is friendly, eager to please, quick to learn and willing to obey. Such traits are conducive to tractability, which is essential for appropriate handler control in the field. In the show ring, he should exhibit poise and attentiveness and permit himself to be examined by the judge without resentment or cringing. Aggression toward people and aggression toward other dogs is not in keeping with sporting dog character and purpose and is not acceptable. Excessive timidity, with due allowance for puppies and novice exhibits, is to be equally penalized.

In evaluating the English Springer Spaniel, the overall picture is a primary consideration. One should look for type, which includes general appearance and outline, and also for soundness, which includes movement and temperament. Inasmuch as the dog with a smooth easy gait must be reasonably sound and well-balanced, he is to be highly regarded, however, not to the extent of forgiving him for not looking like an English Springer Spaniel. An atypical dog, too short or long in leg length or foreign in head or expression, may move well, but he is not to be preferred over a good all-round specimen that has a minor fault in movement. It must be remembered that the English Springer Spaniel is first and foremost a sporting dog of the Spaniel family, and he must look, behave and move in character.

Approval Date: February 12, 1994
Effective Date: March 31, 1994


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:01:04 | 显示全部楼层

英国雪达犬(English Setter)AKC标准及简介
































雄性约 25英寸;雌性约24英寸。



标准通过日期: 1986年11月11日

English Setter Breed Standard
General Appearance
An elegant, substantial and symmetrical gun dog suggesting the ideal blend of strength, stamina, grace, and style. Flat-coated with feathering of good length. Gaiting freely and smoothly with long forward reach, strong rear drive and firm topline. Males decidedly masculine without coarseness. Females decidedly feminine without over-refinement. Overall appearance, balance, gait, and purpose to be given more emphasis than any component part. Above all, extremes of anything distort type and must be faulted.

Size and proportion in harmony with body. Long and lean with a well defined stop. When viewed from the side, head planes (top of muzzle, top of skull and bottom of lower jaw) are parallel. Skull--oval when viewed from above, of medium width, without coarseness, and only slightly wider at the earset than at the brow. Moderately defined occipital protuberance. Length of skull from occiput to stop equal in length of muzzle. Muzzle-- long and square when viewed from the side, of good depth with flews squared and fairly pendant. Width in harmony with width of skull and equal at nose and stop. Level from eyes to tip of nose. Nose--black or dark brown, fully pigmented. Nostrils wide apart and large. Foreface--skeletal structure under the eyes well chiseled with no suggestion of fullness. Cheeks present a smooth and clean-cut appearance. Teeth--close scissors bite preferred. Even bite acceptable. Eyes--dark brown, the darker the better. Bright, and spaced to give a mild and intelligent expression. Nearly round, fairly large, neither deepset nor protruding. Eyelid rims dark and fully pigmented. Lids fit tightly so that haw is not exposed. Ears--set well back and low, even with or below eye level. When relaxed carried close to the head. Of moderate length, slightly rounded at the ends, moderately thin leather, and covered with silky hair.

Neck and Body
Neck--long and graceful, muscular and lean. Arched at the crest and cleancut where it joins the head at the base of the skull. Larger and more muscular toward the shoulders, with the base of the neck flowing smoothly into the shoulders. Not too throaty. Topline--in motion or standing appears level or sloping slightly downward without sway or drop from withers to tail forming a graceful outline of medium length. Forechest--well developed, point of sternum projecting slightly in front of point of shoulder/upper arm joint. Chest--deep, but not so wide or round as to interfere with the action of the forelegs. Brisket deep enough to reach the level of the elbow. Ribs--long, springing gradually to the middle of the body, then tapering as they approach the end of the chest cavity. Back--straight and strong at its junction with loin. Loin--strong, moderate in length, slightly arched. Tuck up moderate. Hips--croup nearly flat. Hip bones wide apart, hips rounded and blending smoothly into hind legs. Tail--a smooth continuation of the topline. Tapering to a fine point with only sufficient length to reach the hock joint or slightly less. Carried straight and level with the back. Feathering straight and silky, hanging loosely in a fringe.

Shoulder--shoulder blade well laid back. Upper arm equal in length to and forming a nearly right angle with the shoulder blade. Shoulders fairly close together at the tips. Shoulder blades lie flat and meld smoothly with contours of body. Forelegs-- from front or side, forelegs straight and parallel. Elbows have no tendency to turn in or out when standing or gaiting. Arm flat and muscular. Bone substantial but not coarse and muscles hard and devoid of flabbiness. Pasterns--short, strong and nearly round with the slope deviating very slightly forward from the perpendicular. Feet--face directly forward. Toes closely set, strong and well arched. Pads well developed and tough. Dewclaws may be removed.

Wide, muscular thighs and well developed lower thighs. Pelvis equal in length to and forming a nearly right angle with upper thigh. In balance with forequarter assembly. Stifle well bent and strong. Lower thigh only slightly longer than upper thigh. Hock joint well bent and strong. Rear pastern short, strong, nearly round and perpendicular to the ground. Hind legs, when seen from the rear, straight and parallel to each other. Hock joints have no tendency to turn in or out when standing or gaiting.

Flat without curl or wooliness. Feathering on ears, chest, abdomen, underside of thighs, back of all legs and on the tail of good length but not so excessive as to hide true lines and movementor to affect the dog\'s appearance or function as a sporting dog.

Markings and Color
Markings--white ground color with intermingling of darker hairs resulting in belton markings varying in degree from clear distinct flecking to roan shading, but flecked all over preferred. Head and ear patches acceptable, heavy patches of color on the body undesirable. Color--orange belton, blue belton (white with black markings), tricolor (blue belton with tan on muzzle, over the eyes and on the legs), lemon belton, liver belton.

Movement and Carriage
An effortless graceful movement demonstrating endurance while covering ground efficiently. Long forward reach and strong rear drive with a lively tail and a proud head carriage. Head may be carried slightly lower when moving to allow for greater reach of forelegs. The back strong, firm, and free of roll. When moving at a trot, as speed increases, the legs tend to converge toward a line representing the center of gravity.

Dogs about 25 inches; bitches about 24 inches.

Gentle, affectionate, friendly, without shyness, fear or viciousness.

Approved November 11, 1986


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 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:01:51 | 显示全部楼层

英国可卡犬(English Cocker Spaniel)AKC标准及简介
















English Cocker Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The English Cocker Spaniel is an active, merry sporting dog, standing well up at the withers and compactly built. He is alive with energy; his gait is powerful and frictionless, capable both of covering ground effortlessly and penetrating dense cover to flush and retrieve game. His enthusiasm in the field and the incessant action of his tail while at work indicate how much he enjoys the hunting for which he was bred. His head is especially characteristic. He is, above all, a dog of balance, both standing and moving, without exaggeration in any part, the whole worth more than the sum of its parts.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size-Height at withers: males 16 to 17 inches; females 15 to 16 inches. Deviations to be penalized. The most desirable weights: males, 28 to 34 pounds; females, 26 to 32 pounds. Proper conformation and substance should be considered more important than weight alone. Proportion--Compactly built and short-coupled, with height at withers slightly greater than the distance from withers to set-on of tail. Substance--The English Cocker is a solidly built dog with as much bone and substance as is possible without becoming cloddy or coarse.

General appearance: strong, yet free from coarseness, softly contoured, without sharp angles. Taken as a whole, the parts combine to produce the expression distinctive of the breed. Expression--Soft, melting, yet dignified, alert, and intelligent. Eyes--The eyes are essential to the desired expression. They are medium in size, full and slightly oval; set wide apart; lids tight. Haws are inconspicuous; may be pigmented or unpigmented. Eye color dark brown, except in livers and liver parti-colors where hazel is permitted, but the darker the hazel the better. Ears--Set low, lying close to the head; leather fine, extending to the nose, well covered with long, silky, straight or slightly wavy hair. Skull--Arched and slightly flattened when seen both from the side and from the front. Viewed in profile, the brow appears not appreciably higher than the back-skull. Viewed from above, the sides of the skull are in planes roughly parallel to those of the muzzle. Stop definite, but moderate, and slightly grooved. Muzzle--Equal in length to skull; well cushioned; only as much narrower than the skull as is consistent with a full eye placement; cleanly chiseled under the eyes. Jaws strong, capable of carrying game. Nostrils wide for proper development of scenting ability; color black, except in livers and parti-colors of that shade where they will be brown; reds and parti-colors of that shade may be brown, but black is preferred. Lips square, but not pendulous or showing prominent flews. Bite--Scissors. A level bite is not preferred. Overshot or undershot to be severely penalized.

Neck, Topline and Body
Neck--Graceful and muscular, arched toward the head and blending cleanly, without throatiness, into sloping shoulders; moderate in length and in balance with the length and height of the dog. Topline--The line of the neck blends into the shoulder and backline in a smooth curve. The backline slopes very slightly toward a gently rounded croup, and is free from sagging or rumpiness. Body--Compact and well-knit, giving the impression of strength without heaviness. Chest deep; not so wide as to interfere with action of forelegs, nor so narrow as to allow the front to appear narrow or pinched. Forechest well developed, prosternum projecting moderately beyond shoulder points. Brisket reaches to the elbow and slopes gradually to a moderate tuck-up. Ribs well sprung and springing gradually to mid-body, tapering to back ribs which are of good depth and extend well back. Back short and strong. Loin short, broad and very slightly arched, but not enough to affect the topline appreciably. Croup gently rounded, without any tendency to fall away sharply. Tail--Docked. Set on to conform to croup. Ideally, the tail is carried horizontally and is in constant motion while the dog is in action. Under excitement, the dog may carry his tail somewhat higher, but not cocked up.

The English Cocker is moderately angulated. Shoulders are sloping, the blade flat and smoothly fitting. Shoulder blade and upper arm are approximately equal in length. Upper arm set well back, joining the shoulder with sufficient angulation to place the elbow beneath the highest point of the shoulder blade when the dog is standing naturally. Forelegs--Straight, with bone nearly uniform in size from elbow to heel; elbows set close to the body; pasterns nearly straight, with some flexibility. Feet-- Proportionate in size to the legs, firm, round and catlike; toes arched and tight; pads thick.

Angulation moderate and, most importantly, in balance with that of the forequarters. Hips relatively broad and well rounded. Upper thighs broad, thick and muscular, providing plenty of propelling power. Second thighs well muscled and approximately equal in length to the upper. Stifle strong and well bent. Hock to pad short. Feet as in front.

On head, short and fine; of medium length on body; flat or slightly wavy; silky in texture. The English Cocker is well-feathered, but not so profusely as to interfere with field work. Trimming is permitted to remove overabundant hair and to enhance the dog\'s true lines. It should be done so as to appear as natural as possible.

Various. Parti-colors are either clearly marked, ticked or roaned, the white appearing in combination with black, liver or shades of red. In parti-colors it is preferable that solid markings be broken on the body and more or less evenly distributed; absence of body markings is acceptable. Solid colors are black, liver or shades of red. White feet on a solid are undesirable; a little white on throat is acceptable; but in neither case do these white markings make the dog a parti-color. Tan markings, clearly defined and of rich shade, may appear in conjunction with black, livers and parti-color combinations of those colors. Black and tans and liver and tans are considered solid colors.

The English Cocker is capable of hunting in dense cover and upland terrain. His gait is accordingly characterized more by drive and the appearance of power than by great speed. He covers ground effortlessly and with extension both in front and in rear, appropriate to his angulation. In the ring, he carries his head proudly and is able to keep much the same topline while in action as when standing for examination. Going and coming, he moves in a straight line without crabbing or rolling, and with width between both front and rear legs appropriate to his build and gait.

The English Cocker is merry and affectionate, of equable disposition, neither sluggish nor hyperactive, a willing worker and a faithful and engaging companion.

Approved October 11, 1988
Effective November 30, 1988


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