陶都论坛

 找回密码
 注册会员

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

查看: 80112|回复: 162

[亲宠交流] 名犬品种(纯种狗介绍)

[复制链接]

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

发表于 2007-6-10 10:39:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
运动犬组与生俱来的活泼警惕的天性,使得运动犬组中的犬只受到欢迎和喜爱。本犬组的成员包括了巡回犬、指示犬、雪达犬(塞特犬)和猎鹬犬。由于它们在水中和丛林中的出众能力,本犬组中的很多犬种都能够参与狩猎



刚毛指示格里芬犬(Wirehaired Pointing Griffon)



[简介]
中等体型,拥有高贵的,正方形的头部,四肢结实,培养的目的是用于在各种地形条件下的步行猎犬。动作轻松,象猫一样优美。在原野上胜过指示犬,在水中能胜过寻回犬。被毛坚硬而粗糙,决不能卷曲或呈羊毛质,厚实的底毛由细腻的毛发组成,外貌显得乱蓬蓬的。他非常容易调教,热爱家庭,而且气质友善,使他得到了所有人的钟爱。因此为自己挣来了“最好的枪猎犬”的外号。

[体型]
尺寸:雄性肩高22~24英寸;雌性肩高20~22英寸。正确的尺寸非常重要。体型太大属于严重缺陷。比例:体长略大于肩高,比例大约为10:9。肩高是指从肩胛骨最高处到地面的垂直距离,体长是指从肩胛骨最前端到臀部最后端的距离。硬毛指示格里芬犬不应该发展成正方形结构。体质:适中,显示出他是一种适应所有地形的猎犬。

[头部]
头部:必须与整体的比例协调。中等宽度,从鼻尖到止部的距离与从止部到后枕骨的距离大致相等。脑袋的顶端略微圆拱。口吻和头部的侧面呈正方形。止部和后枕骨轻微突起。必须有充足的眉毛和胡须产生一种友好的表情。眼睛大而张开,略显的圆,而不是椭圆。眼神显得警惕、友善、而且聪明。眼睛的颜色是不同深浅的黄色和褐色。瞬膜不可见,且眼睛不突出。耳朵为中等大小,平坦地下垂,且贴着头部。位置略高,与眼睛齐平。鼻镜:首先是鼻孔开阔。鼻镜颜色总是褐色的。任何其他颜色都属于失格。咬和:剪状咬和,上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和属于严重缺陷。

[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部:稍长,略微圆拱,无赘肉。背线:背部结实而稳固,从马肩隆向尾根处逐渐向下倾斜。身躯-胸部:胸部必须延伸到肘部,肋骨适度撑起。胸部既不能太宽,也不能太窄,宽度适中,允许前肢自由的运动。腰部:腰部结实且非常发达,中等长度。臀部健壮,有足够的长度,能提供理想的速度。尾巴:尾巴是背线的自然延伸,姿势保持笔直或略微凸起。断尾,保留1/3或一半长度。


[前躯]
肩胛:长,有足够的角度,向后倾斜。前肢笔直,从前面观察,垂直于地面,在肩胛下正确的位置。骹骨略微倾斜。狼爪需要切除。足爪:圆,稳固,脚趾紧凑,有蹼。脚垫厚实。

[后躯]
大腿长而肌肉发达。角度与前躯相称。后肢垂直于地面,飞节既不向内弯,也不向外翻。膝关节和飞节结实且角度恰当。足爪与前肢相同。

[被毛]
被毛是这个品种的独特特征之一。他拥有双层被毛。外层披毛中等长度,直或略呈波浪状,决不能卷曲或呈羊毛质。粗糙的质地能在灌木丛中提供保护。底毛必须细腻、厚实、提供防水能力。底毛的丰厚程度根据季节变化、气候变化及荷尔蒙周期变化而有所不同。颜色通常比较浅。头部拥有丰富的胡须和眉毛,外貌必须有延伸出来的底毛共同组成,所以硬毛指示格里芬犬的外貌显得非常凌乱。耳朵上的毛发相当短而柔软。混合了长而粗糙的被毛。足爪的刚毛要比身躯略少。腿部,包括前肢和后肢,覆盖着浓密、短、粗糙的被毛。尾巴上的毛发与身躯上的相同,任何形式的羽状饰毛都必须严格禁止。这个品种必须显示出丰满的被毛,不能以任何方式剥除被毛。只允许剥除和修剪耳朵、头顶、面颊和足爪的毛发。

[颜色]
兰灰色带褐色斑纹比较理想。通常是栗褐色,或杂色,白色带褐色或白色带橘色也可以接受。全部是褐色、全白色、白色带橘色则不理想。黑色被毛属于失格。


[步态]
虽然不用工作,但硬毛指示格里芬犬必须能有效而轻松地覆盖地面。他是一种中等速度的狗,前肢和后肢完全协调。小跑时,由于重力作用,前肢和后肢趋向于向身躯中心线收拢。前后肢能充分伸展。从侧面观察,背线稳固且与运动方向一致。可以看到平顺、有力的地面覆盖能力。

[气质]
硬毛指示格里芬犬敏捷,且头脑聪明,容易训练。他喜欢外出,非常热衷于取悦主人,而且可信赖。他是一个非常卓越的家庭犬,同样也是一个小心翼翼的搜索同伴。

[失格]
鼻镜为褐色以外的任何颜色
黑色被毛。

[以下为硬毛指示格里芬犬(Wirehaired Pointing Griffon)AKC标准英文原版]

Wirehaired Pointing Griffon Breed Standard

General Appearance
Medium sized, with a noble, square-shaped head, strong of limb, bred to cover all terrain encountered by the walking hunter. Movement showing an easy catlike gracefulness. Excels equally as a pointer in the field, or a retriever in the water. Coat is hard and coarse, never curly or woolly, with a thick undercoat of fine hair, giving an unkempt appearance. His easy trainability, devotion to family, and friendly temperament endear him to all. The nickname of "supreme gundog" is well earned.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--22 to 24 inches for males, 20 to 22 inches for females. Correct size is important. Oversize to be severely penalized. Proportion--Slightly longer than tall, in a ratio of 10 to 9. Height from withers to ground; length from point of shoulder to point of buttocks. The Griffon must not evolve towards a square conformation. Substance medium, reflecting his work as an all-terrain hunting dog.

Head
The head is to be in proportion to the overall dog. The skull is of medium width with equal length from nose to stop and from stop to occiput. The skull is slightly rounded on top, but from the side the muzzle and head are square. The stop and occiput are only slightly pronounced. The required abundant mustache and eyebrows contribute to the friendly expression. The eyes are large and well open, more rounded than elliptical. They have an alert, friendly, and intelligent expression. Eye color ranges in all shades of yellow and brown. Haws should not show nor should there be protruding eyes. The ears should be of medium size, lying flat and close to the head, set high, at the height of the eye line. Nose--Well open nostrils are essential. Nose color is always brown. Any other color is a disqualification. Bite scissors. Overshot or undershot bite is a serious fault.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck-- rather long, slightly arched, no dewlap. Topline-- The back is strong and firm, descending in a gentle slope from the slightly higher withers to the base of the tail. Body-Chest-- The chest must descend to the level of the elbow, with a moderate spring of rib. The chest must neither be too wide nor too narrow, but of medium width to allow freedom of movement. The loin is strong and well developed, being of medium length. The croup and rump are stoutly made with adequate length to favor speed. The tail extends from the back in a continuation of the topline. It may be carried straight or raised slightly. It is docked by one-third to one-half length.

Forequarters
Shoulders are long, with good angulation, and well laid back. The forelegs are straight and vertical from the front and set well under the shoulder from the side. Pasterns are slightly sloping. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet are round, firm, with tightly closed webbed toes. Pads are thick.

Hindquarters
The thighs are long and well muscled. Angulation in balance with the front. The legs are vertical with the hocks turning neither in nor out. The stifle and hock joints are strong and well angulated. Feet as in front.

Coat
The coat is one of the distinguishing features of the breed. It is a double coat. The outer coat is medium length, straight and wiry, never curly or woolly. The harsh texture provides protection in rough cover. The obligatory undercoat consists of a fine, thick down, which provides insulation as well as water resistance. The undercoat is more or less abundant, depending upon the season, climate, and hormone cycle of the dog. It is usually lighter in color. The head is furnished with a prominent mustache and eyebrows. These required features are extensions of the undercoat, which gives the Griffon a somewhat untidy appearance. The hair covering the ears is fairly short and soft, mixed with longer harsh hair from the coat. The overall feel is much less wiry than the body. The legs, both front and rear, are covered with denser, shorter, and less coarse hair. The coat on the tail is the same as the body; any type of plume is prohibited. The breed should be exhibited in full body coat, not stripped short in pattern. Trimming and stripping are only allowed around the ears, top of head, cheeks and feet.

Color
Preferably steel gray with brown markings, frequently chestnut brown, or roan, white and brown; white and orange also acceptable. A uniformly brown coat, all white coat, or white and orange are less desirable. A black coat disqualifies.

Gait
Although close working, the Griffon should cover ground in an efficient, tireless manner. He is a medium-speed dog with perfect coordination between front and rear legs. At a trot, both front and rear legs tend to converge toward the center line of gravity. He shows good extension both front and rear. Viewed from the side, the topline is firm and parallel to the line of motion. A smooth, powerful ground-covering ability can be seen.

Temperament
The Griffon has a quick and intelligent mind and is easily trained. He is outgoing, shows a tremendous willingness to please and is trustworthy. He makes an excellent family dog as well as a meticulous hunting companion.

Disqualifications
Nose any color other than brown.
Black coat.

[ 本帖最后由 薄荷清香 于 2007-6-10 15:58 编辑 ]

评分

参与人数 2成长值 +233 收起 理由
xiaolee + 30 为我清香妹子的辛劳加分。赞一个。。
phoenix + 203 楼主发此帖很辛苦,感谢!

查看全部评分

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:39:29 | 显示全部楼层


威尔士跳猎犬、威尔斯激飞猎犬(Welsh Springer Spaniel)AKC标准及介绍
[威尔斯激飞猎犬简介]
威尔斯激飞猎犬是一种独特而古老的品种,他的得名是因为他的捕猎本领,而不是与其他有什么关联。他是一种有魅力的狗,身材灵便,显得壮实而不粗糙。他的身材紧凑,腿不是很长,其结构明确显示出能完成艰苦的工作,且耐力持久。威尔斯激飞猎犬显得比较长,是因为倾斜的前躯角度和发达的后躯的关系。作为一种猎犬,他应该显示出在工作条件下的发达的肌肉。他的被毛不应该太夸张,而妨碍他作为一个积极、有冲劲的猎鹬犬进行工作,但应该有足够的厚度,使他在繁重的工作中和恶劣的气候条件下能得到足够的保护。

[体型]
雄性的理想肩高大约为18~19英寸(46-48cm);而雌性的理想肩高大约为17~18英寸(43-46cm)。超过或不足这一肩高范围都将受到相应的处罚。体重应该与肩高相称,且整体显得匀称。从马肩隆到尾根处的距离(体长)略大于肩高。体长也许与肩高相等,但绝对不能小于肩高,因此,威尔斯激飞猎犬能保持矩形轮廓。

[头部]
威尔斯激飞猎犬的头部非常独特,与其他猎鹬犬品种的头部完全不同。其整体平衡最为重要。
头部与身躯的比例协调,决不能太宽,而显得粗糙;也不能太窄,而象赛跑狗。脑袋的长度适中,略微圆拱,止部清晰整洁。眼睛下方轮廓分明。脑袋的轮廓与口吻的轮廓略微有点不平行,但是不很向下倾斜,造成“下斜脸”的倾向。短而圆胖的头部是非常讨厌的。
眼睛:呈卵形,颜色从深褐色到中等褐色,眼神温和。尽管浅褐色的眼睛也可以接受,但深褐色更好一些。黄色或看起来不舒服的眼睛属于严重缺陷。眼睛中等大小,既不突出,也不凹陷,瞬膜不可见。眼睑紧密,深颜色比较理想。
耳朵:位置大约与眼睛在同一水平线,悬挂在面颊两侧。相对较小,耳廓无法延伸到鼻尖。形状有点象葡萄叶子,有轻盈的羽状饰毛。
口吻:长度大致与脑袋相等,但决不能比脑袋长。笔直,相当正直,没有过分下垂的嘴唇。鼻孔开阔,鼻镜为黑色或不同深浅的褐色。粉红色的鼻镜属于严重缺陷。咬和:为剪状咬和。下颚突出式咬和属于严重缺陷。

[颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部:长而略微圆拱,喉咙处整洁,融入长而倾斜的肩胛。
背线:水平,腰部略微圆拱,肌肉发达,结合紧凑。臀部呈轻微的圆弧形,不能显得陡峭或直接下坠。背线在纵向呈正确的角度,使侧轮廓显示出矩形。胸部:非常发达,肌肉发达且前胸明显突出。肋骨支撑良好且延伸到肘部。尾巴:背线的延伸,姿势几乎是水平的,兴奋时略微翘地高一些。通常需要断尾,尾巴的动作显得欢快。

[前躯]
肩胛骨与上臂骨的长度大致相等。上臂骨与肩胛骨的连接处有足够的角度,使他在站立时,肘部正好在肩胛骨正下方。
前臂长度适中,直且略有羽状饰毛。前肢骨量充足,但不会因为太过分,而显得粗糙。威尔斯激飞猎犬的肘部贴近身躯,骹骨短而略微倾斜。从地面到肘部的距离与从肘部到肩胛骨最上端的距离大致相等。狼爪通常切除。足爪圆,紧凑而圆拱,脚垫厚实。

[后躯]
后躯必须非常强健,肌肉发达,骨量充足,但不粗糙。从轮廓上观察,大腿非常宽,且第二节大腿非常发达。骨盆与大腿骨的角度同肩胛骨与上臂骨的角度协调。膝关节角度适中。从飞节到足爪的骨骼短,飞节角度恰当。从侧面或后面观察,它们完全垂直于地面。后肢狼爪需要切除,足爪与前躯相同。

[被毛]
被毛天生就直而平坦,触摸的感觉柔软,绝不能是刚毛质的或呈波浪状。相当浓密,能防水、防荆棘、且能抵御恶劣的气候。前肢后面、后肢飞节以上部位、胸部和下腹部有适量羽状饰毛。耳朵和尾巴上有轻盈的羽状饰毛。被毛太夸张而妨碍他在野外工作的话,是不合需要的。明显的修剪痕迹也需要避免。

[颜色]
颜色只能是丰富的红色和白色。任何图案样式都可以,有时,在红色部位会有白色斑点。


[步态]
威尔斯激飞猎犬的动作平顺、有力,覆盖地面时,显得后躯驱动力强大。从侧面观察,向前的伸展动作非常强健,没有任何浪费精力的动作。从前面观察,腿部以轻松的动作向前迈出,足爪没有交错或相互干涉的迹象。从后面观察,飞节与前肢在同一直线上运动,距离既不太宽,也不太靠近。随着速度增加,足爪逐渐向身体中心线聚拢。

[气质]
威尔斯激飞猎犬是一种活泼的狗,显得忠诚而挚爱。虽然对陌生人有所保留,但不胆小、羞怯、或不友好。他深爱家庭中的成员,也喜欢外出狩猎。
[以下为威尔士跳猎犬、威尔斯激飞猎犬(Welsh Springer Spaniel)AKC标准英文原版]

Welsh Springer Spaniel Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Welsh Springer Spaniel is a dog of distinct variety and ancient origin, who derives his name from his hunting style and not his relationship to other breeds. He is an attractive dog of handy size, exhibiting substance without coarseness. He is compact, not leggy, obviously built for hard work and endurance. The Welsh Springer Spaniel gives the impression of length due to obliquely angled forequarters and well developed hindquarters. Being a hunting dog, he should be shown in hard muscled working condition. His coat should not be so excessive as to hinder his work as an active flushing spaniel, but should be thick enough to protect him from heavy cover and weather.

Size, Proportion, Substance
A dog is ideally 18-19 inches in height at the withers and a bitch is 17-18 inches at the withers. Any animal above or below the ideal to be proportionately penalized. Weight should be in proportion to height and overall balance. Length of body from the withers to the base of the tail is very slightly greater than the distance from the withers to the ground. This body length may be the same as the height but never shorter, thus preserving the rectangular silhouette of the Welsh Springer Spaniel.

Head
The Welsh Springer Spaniel head is unique and should in no way approximate that of other spaniel breeds. Its overall balance is of primary importance. Head is in proportion to body, never so broad as to appear coarse nor so narrow as to appear racy. The skull is of medium length, slightly domed, with a clearly defined stop. It is well chiseled below the eyes. The top plane of the skull is very slightly divergent from that of the muzzle, but with no tendency toward a down-faced appearance. A short chubby head is most objectionable.

Eyes should be oval in shape, dark to medium brown in color with a soft expression. Preference is for a darker eye though lighter shades of brown are acceptable. Yellow or mean-looking eyes are to be heavily penalized. Medium in size, they are neither prominent, nor sunken, nor do they show haw. Eye rims are tight and dark pigmentation is preferred.

Ears are set on approximately at eye level and hang close to the cheeks. Comparatively small, the leather does not reach to the nose. Gradually narrowing toward the tip, they are shaped somewhat like a vine leaf and are lightly feathered.

The length of the muzzle is approximately equal to, but never longer than that of the skull. It is straight, fairly square, and free from excessive flew. Nostrils are well developed and black or any shade of brown in color. A pink nose is to be severely penalized. A scissors bite is preferred. An undershot jaw is to be severely penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is long and slightly arched, clean in throat, and set into long, sloping shoulders. Topline is level. The loin is slightly arched, muscular, and close-coupled. The croup is very slightly rounded, never steep nor falling off. The topline in combination with proper angulation fore and aft presents a silhouette that appears rectangular. The chest is well developed and muscular with a prominent forechest, the ribs well sprung and the brisket reaching to the elbows. The tail is an extension of the topline. Carriage is nearly horizontal or slightly elevated when the dog is excited. The tail is generally docked and displays a lively action.

Forequarters
The shoulder blade and upper arm are approximately equal in length. The upper arm is set well back, joining the shoulder blade with sufficient angulation to place the elbow beneath the highest point of the shoulder blade when standing. The forearms are of medium length, straight and moderately feathered. The legs are well boned but not to the extent of coarseness. The Welsh Springer Spaniel\'s elbows should be close to the body and its pasterns short and slightly sloping. Height to the elbows is approximately equal to the distance from the elbows to the top of the shoulder blades. Dewclaws are generally removed. Feet should be round, tight and well arched with thick pads.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters must be strong, muscular, and well boned, but not coarse. When viewed in profile the thighs should be wide and the second thighs well developed. The angulation of the pelvis and femur corresponds to that of the shoulder and upper arm. Bend of stifle is moderate. The bones from the hocks to the pads are short with a well angulated hock joint. When viewed from the side or rear they are perpendicular to the ground. Rear dewclaws are removed. Feet as in front.

Coat
The coat is naturally straight flat and soft to the touch, never wiry or wavy. It is sufficiently dense to be waterproof, thornproof, and weatherproof. The back of the forelegs, the hind legs above the hocks, chest and underside of the body are moderately feathered. The ears and tail are lightly feathered. Coat so excessive as to be a hindrance in the field is to be discouraged. Obvious barbering is to be avoided as well.

Color
The color is rich red and white only. Any pattern is acceptable and any white area may be flecked with red ticking.

Gait
The Welsh Springer moves with a smooth, powerful, ground covering action that displays drive from the rear. Viewed from the side, he exhibits a strong forward stride with a reach that does not waste energy. When viewed from the front, the legs should appear to move forward in an effortless manner with no tendency for the feet to cross over or interfere with each other. Viewed from the rear, the hocks should follow on a line with the forelegs, neither too widely nor too closely spaced. As the speed increases the feet tend to converge towards a center line.

Temperament
The Welsh Springer Spaniel is an active dog displaying a loyal and affectionate disposition. Although reserved with strangers, he is not timid, shy nor unfriendly. To this day he remains a devoted family member and hunting companion.

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:39:46 | 显示全部楼层


威玛猎犬(Weimaraner)AKC标准
[威玛猎犬简介]
威玛猎犬是一种中等体型灰色的狗。具有漂亮的、贵族化的外貌。他显得非常优雅,迅速、有毅力、机敏且匀称。他的整体结构指示出,他有能力在野外以很高的速度、长时间工作(耐力持久)。

[威玛猎犬的高度]
肩高标准:雄性肩高25~27英寸;雌性肩高23~25英寸。两种性别都允许1英寸内的误差,但属于小缺陷。雄性低于24英寸或高于28英寸;雌性低于22英寸或高于26英寸属于失格。

[威玛猎犬的头部]
中等长度,且显得贵族化,止部适中,有中心线向后延伸,越过前额。后枕骨突出,且呈喇叭形向后发展,从眼窝后面开始。从鼻尖到止部的距离与从止部到后枕骨的距离大致相等。上唇直,鼻孔精巧。皮肤紧凑。颈部轮廓整洁且长度适中。表情和蔼、敏锐、且聪明。耳朵:长而呈叶片状,略微折叠且位置高。如果将耳朵沿着颌部向前拉伸,距离鼻尖约2英寸。眼睛:不同深度的浅琥珀色、灰色或兰灰色,彼此间的距离足够宽,显得布局良好,且聪明。在兴奋情况之下,差不多是黑色的。牙齿:布局良好,结实而均匀;非常发达,与颌部相称,正确的剪状咬和。上颚的牙齿略微向外,相对下颚的牙齿不应该超出1/16英寸。齿系完整最为理想。鼻镜:灰色。嘴唇和牙龈:粉红色或肉色。

[威玛猎犬的身躯]
背部长度适中,呈笔直的直线,结实,从马肩隆向后略微倾斜。胸部非常发达,且深,肩胛向后倾斜。肋骨支撑良好且长。腹部稳固;腰窝适度上提。胸底延伸到肘部。

[威玛猎犬的被毛和颜色]
短、平顺、且光滑,纯色,从鼠灰色到银灰色,通常头部和耳朵的颜色比较浅。胸部有小的白色斑纹是允许的,但身躯其他部位出现白色则属于缺陷。由于伤痕而造成的白色斑块不属于缺陷。明显很长的被毛属于失格。明显的兰色或黑色被毛属于失格。

[威玛猎犬的前肢]
直而结实,从肘部到地面的距离与从肘部到马肩隆最高点的距离大致相等。

[威玛猎犬的后躯]
角度恰当的后膝关节和笔直的飞节。肌肉非常发达。

[威玛猎犬的足爪]
稳固而紧凑,有蹼,脚趾圆拱,脚垫紧凑而厚实,趾甲短,灰色或琥珀色。狼爪:需要切除。

[威玛猎犬的尾巴]
断尾。成年威玛猎犬的尾巴长度约为6英寸,显得轻盈而不是沉重。尾巴的姿势明确表现出自信而健康的气质。未断尾属于缺陷。

[威玛猎犬的步态]
步态应该是轻松而平滑的,显得协调。从后面观察,后足爪与前足爪相互平行。从侧面观察,背线保持稳固而水平。

[威玛猎犬的气质]
气质应该显得友善、勇敢、警惕、且服从。

[威玛猎犬的缺陷]
次要缺陷:尾巴太短或太长。粉红色鼻镜。
主要缺陷:象雄性一样的雌性;象雌性一样的雄性。不恰当的肌肉组织。非常不恰当的牙齿。缺齿4颗或更多。后背太长或太短。背毛有缺陷。颈部太短、太粗或有赘肉。尾巴位置低。肘部向内弯或向外翻。足爪向东或向西。做作的步态。错误的足爪。牛肢,不完美的后背,拱起或摇摆。严重的上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和。尖细的口吻。短耳朵。
严重缺陷:在胸部以外的部位出现白色。眼睛不是灰色、蓝灰色或琥珀色。黑色班驳的嘴。未曾断尾。显得非常害怕、羞怯或极度神经紧张。

[失格的威玛猎犬]
与标准所允许的肩高范围误差超过1英寸。
明显过长的被毛。明显为兰色或黑色的被毛。

标准通过日期:1971年12月14日

[以下为威玛猎犬(Weimaraner)AKC标准英文原版]




Weimaraner Breed Standard
General Appearance
A medium-sized gray dog, with fine aristocratic features. He should present a picture of grace, speed, stamina, alertness and balance. Above all, the dog\'s conformation must indicate the ability to work with great speed and endurance in the field.

Height
Height at the withers: dogs, 25 to 27 inches; bitches, 23 to 25 inches. One inch over or under the specified height of each sex is allowable but should be penalized. Dogs measuring less than 24 inches or more than 28 inches and bitches measuring less than 22 inches or more than 26 inches shall be disqualified.

Head
Moderately long and aristocratic, with moderate stop and slight median line extending back over the forehead. Rather prominent occipital bone and trumpets well set back, beginning at the back of the eye sockets. Measurement from tip of nose to stop equals that from stop to occipital bone. The flews should be straight, delicate at the nostrils. Skin drawn tightly. Neck clean-cut and moderately long. Expression kind, keen and intelligent. Ears--Long and lobular, slightly folded and set high. The ear when drawn snugly alongside the jaw should end approximately 2 inches from the point of the nose. Eyes--In shades of light amber, gray or blue-gray, set well enough apart to indicate good disposition and intelligence. When dilated under excitement the eyes may appear almost black. Teeth--Well set, strong and even; well-developed and proportionate to jaw with correct scissors bite, the upper teeth protruding slightly over the lower teeth but not more than 1/16 of an inch. Complete dentition is greatly to be desired. Nose--Gray. Lips and Gums--Pinkish flesh shades.

Body
The back should be moderate in length, set in a straight line, strong, and should slope slightly from the withers. The chest should be well developed and deep with shoulders well laid back. Ribs well sprung and long. Abdomen firmly held; moderately tucked-up flank. The brisket should extend to the elbow.

Coat and Color
Short, smooth and sleek, solid color, in shades of mouse-gray to silver-gray, usually blending to lighter shades on the head and ears. A small white marking on the chest is permitted, but should be penalized on any other portion of the body. White spots resulting from injury should not be penalized. A distinctly long coat is a disqualification. A distinctly blue or black coat is a disqualification.

Forelegs
Straight and strong, with the measurement from the elbow to the ground approximately equaling the distance from the elbow to the top of the withers.

Hindquarters
Well-angulated stifles and straight hocks. Musculation well developed.

Feet
Firm and compact, webbed, toes well arched, pads closed and thick, nails short and gray or amber in color. Dewclaws--Should be removed.

Tail
Docked. At maturity it should measure approximately 6 inches with a tendency to be light rather than heavy and should be carried in a manner expressing confidence and sound temperament. A non-docked tail shall be penalized.

Gait
The gait should be effortless and should indicate smooth coordination. When seen from the rear, the hind feet should be parallel to the front feet. When viewed from the side, the topline should remain strong and level.

Temperament
The temperament should be friendly, fearless, alert and obedient.

Faults
Minor Faults--Tail too short or too long. Pink nose.

Major Faults--Doggy bitches. Bitchy dogs. Improper muscular condition. Badly affected teeth. More than four teeth missing. Back too long or too short. Faulty coat. Neck too short, thick or throaty. Low-set tail. Elbows in or out. Feet east and west. Poor gait. Poor feet. Cowhocks. Faulty backs, either roached or sway. Badly overshot, or undershot bite. Snipy muzzle. Short ears.

Very Serious Faults--White, other than a spot on the chest. Eyes other than gray, blue-gray or light amber. Black mottled mouth. Non-docked tail. Dogs exhibiting strong fear, shyness or extreme nervousness.

Disqualifications
Deviation in height of more than one inch from standard either way.
A distinctly long coat. A distinctly blue or black coat.

Approved December 14, 1971

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:40:08 | 显示全部楼层


维兹拉犬(Vizsla)AKC标准及简介

[维兹拉犬简介]
维兹拉犬是一种中等体型的短毛猎犬,相貌和姿势高贵。精力充沛且结构轻盈一些比较好;被毛是有魅力的金锈色。这种狗在野外显得非常有力且驱动力强大,但在家庭中,却是容易调教的、挚爱的伴侣犬。需要重点强调的是能适应野外工作的被毛,尽可能强健而发达的肌肉,伤疤是工作犬及猎犬光荣的象征,不属于缺陷。其品质使他成为“双重”狗,这是值得赞赏的,不能作为缺陷。


[维兹拉犬的体型]
雄性的理想肩高为22~24英寸(56-61cm);雌性的理想肩高为21~23英寸(53-58cm)。由于维兹拉犬是一种中等体型的猎犬,所以误差超过1.5英寸(3.8cm)以上都属于失格。

[维兹拉犬的气质]
一种自然的猎犬,有良好的嗅觉,且接受训练的能力高于一般水平。活泼、温和而守规矩,明确显示出挚爱和敏感,而且非常勇敢,具有保护的本能。羞怯、胆小或神经质都属于缺陷。

[维兹拉犬的头部]
倾斜而肌肉发达。脑袋:在耳朵之间略宽,中心线向前延伸到前额。前脸与脑袋之间的止部适中,不深。从轮廓上观察,前脸或口吻:长度与脑袋的长度大致相同,或略短,口吻呈锥形,从止部到鼻尖方向逐渐变窄。口吻呈四方形,且深。既不向上翘,而形成所谓的“盘子”脸,也不向下倾斜。胡须具有一定的功能,可以去处,但不是首选。鼻孔:略微张开。鼻镜为褐色。其他任何颜色都属于缺陷。完全为黑色的鼻镜属于失格。耳朵:薄,柔滑而长(符合比例),耳廓末端圆,位置低,且贴近面颊。颌部:结实而非常发达的白牙齿,剪状咬和。眼睛:中等大小,位置较深,周围围绕着薄薄的白色。眼睛的颜色与被毛颜色相称。黄色或其他任何颜色都属于缺陷。突出的眼睛属于失格。下眼睑既不向内翻,也不向外翻,因为这样会使草籽或灰尘落进眼睛。嘴唇:完全覆盖下颌,但既不松弛,也不下垂。

[维兹拉犬的颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部:结实、平顺且肌肉发达,中等长度,圆拱且没有赘肉,向适度向后倾斜的肩胛方向逐渐变宽。这是必须的,与有棱角的后躯保持平衡。身躯:结实且非常匀称。背部短。马肩隆是背线上最高的,背线略微圆拱,越过腰部,在尾根处结束。胸部宽度适中,深,延伸到肘部。肋骨支撑良好;下腹曲线在腰部下方适度上提。尾巴:位于臀部水平线下,根部粗,断尾,切除1/3。理想的长度能延伸到膝关节后方,姿势接近水平。未曾断尾属于缺陷。

[维兹拉犬的前躯]
肩胛骨相当长(按比例)且宽,适度向后倾斜,顶端非常靠近。前肢直而肌肉发达,肘部贴近身躯。足爪类似猫足,圆而紧凑,脚趾紧密。趾甲褐色,且短。脚垫厚实而坚硬。如果有狼爪,必须切除(前肢和后肢)。兔足属于缺陷。

[维兹拉犬的后躯]
后肢:大腿非常发达,膝关节角度适中,飞节与适度向后倾斜的肩胛骨相互平衡。从后面观察,他们必须非常直。飞节角度太大或角度太小都属于缺陷。飞节位置低,且彼此平行。

[维兹拉犬的被毛]
短、平顺、浓密且平贴着,没有羊毛质的底毛。明显很长的被毛属于失格。

[维兹拉犬的颜色]
不同深浅的纯金锈色。纯深桃木红色或苍白色黄属于缺陷。胸部出现的白色越小越好,脚趾出现白色是允许的。白色延伸到脚趾以上,或除了前胸以外的其他任何地方出现白色都属于失格。当他自然站立时,从前面观察,前胸的白色必须被限制在胸骨上端到肘部之间的范围内。白色延伸到肩胛或颈部属于失格。由于年老而出现的白色毛发不属于缺陷。被毛上任何可察觉的黑色区域都属于严重缺陷。

[维兹拉犬的步态]
伸展充分,脚步轻盈,平顺而优美。当他快速奔跑时,结构正确的狗会趋向于单一轨迹。

[维兹拉犬的失格]
完全为黑色的鼻镜。
白色延伸到脚趾以上,或除了前胸以外的其他任何地方出现白色。
白色延伸到肩胛或颈部
显很长的被毛
雄性肩高超过25.5英寸(65cm)或低于20.5英寸(52cm);雌性肩高超过24.5英寸(62cm)或低于19.5英寸(50cm)。

Vizsla Breed Standard

General Appearance
That of a medium-sized short-coated hunting dog of distinguished appearance and bearing. Robust but rather lightly built; the coat is an attractive solid golden rust. This is a dog of power and drive in the field yet a tractable and affectionate companion in the home. It is strongly emphasized that field conditioned coats, as well as brawny or sinewy muscular condition and honorable scars indicating a working and hunting dog are never to be penalized in this dog. The qualities that make a \"dual dog\" are always to be appreciated, not deprecated.

Head
Lean and muscular. Skull moderately wide between the ears with a median line down the forehead. Stop between skull and foreface is moderate, not deep. Foreface or muzzle is of equal length or slightly shorter than skull when viewed in profile, should taper gradually from stop to tip of nose. Muzzle square and deep. It must not turn up as in a \"dish\" face nor should it turn down. Whiskers serve a functional purpose; their removal is permitted but not preferred. Nostrils slightly open. Nose brown. Any other color is faulty. A totally black nose is a disqualification. Ears, thin, silky and proportionately long, with rounded-leather ends, set fairly low and hanging close to cheeks. Jaws are strong with well developed white teeth meeting in a scissors bite. Eyes medium in size and depth of setting, their surrounding tissue covering the whites. Color of the iris should blend with the color of the coat. Yellow or any other color is faulty. Prominent pop-eyes are faulty. Lower eyelids should neither turn in nor out since both conditions allow seeds and dust to irritate the eye. Lips cover the jaws completely but are neither loose nor pendulous.

Neck and Body
Neck strong, smooth and muscular, moderately long, arched and devoid of dewlap, broadening nicely into shoulders which are moderately laid back. This is mandatory to maintain balance with the moderately angulated hindquarters. Body is strong and well proportioned. Back short. Withers high and the topline slightly rounded over the loin to the set on of the tail. Chest moderately broad and deep reaching down to the elbows. Ribs well-sprung; underline exhibiting a slight tuck-up beneath the loin. Tail set just below the level of the croup, thicker at the root and docked one-third off. Ideally, it should reach to the back of the stifle joint and be carried at or near the horizontal. An undocked tail is faulty.

Forequarters
Shoulder blades proportionately long and wide sloping moderately back and fairly close at the top. Forelegs straight and muscular with elbows close. Feet cat-like, round and compact with toes close. Nails brown and short. Pads thick and tough. Dewclaws, if any, to be removed on front and rear feet. Hare feet are faulty.

Hindquarters
Hind legs have well developed thighs with moderately angulated stifles and hocks in balance with the moderately laid back shoulders. They must be straight as viewed from behind. Too much angulation at the hocks is as faulty as too little. The hocks are let down and parallel to each other.

Coat
Short, smooth, dense and close-lying, without woolly undercoat. A distinctly long coat is a disqualification.

Color
Solid golden rust in different shadings. Solid dark mahogany red and pale yellow are faulty. White on the forechest, preferably as small as possible, and white on the toes are permissible. Solid white extending above the toes or white anywhere else on the dog except the forechest is a disqualification. When viewing the dog from the front, white markings on the forechest must be confined to an area from the top of the sternum to a point between the elbows when the dog is standing naturally. White extending on the shoulders or neck is a disqualification. White due to aging shall not be faulted. Any noticable area of black in the coat is a serious fault.

Gait
Far reaching, light footed, graceful and smooth. When moving at a fast trot, a properly built dog single tracks.

Size
The ideal male is 22 to 24 inches at the highest point over the shoulder blades. The ideal female is 21 to 23 inches. Because the Vizsla is meant to be a medium-sized hunter, any dog measuring more than 1½ inches over or under these limits must be disqualified.

Temperament
A natural hunter endowed with a good nose and above-average ability to take training. Lively, gentle-mannered, demonstrably affectionate and sensitive though fearless with a well developed protective instinct. Shyness, timidity or nervousness should be penalized.

Disqualifications
Completely black nose.
Solid white extending above the toes or white anywhere else on the dog except the forechest.
White extending on the shoulders or neck.
A distinctly long coat.
Any male over 25½ inches, or under 20½ inches and any female over 24½ inches or under 19½ inches at the highest point over the shoulder blades.

Approved December 11, 1995
Effective January 31, 1996

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:49:27 | 显示全部楼层


苏塞克斯猎犬(Sussex Spaniel)

苏塞克斯猎犬是AKC在1884年出版的品种手册中最先得到承认的10个品种之一,但作为一种独特的品种,它出现的时间更早。就象它的名字所指出的那样,它起源于英格兰的塞式郡,从18世纪开始,在野外使用的一种犬。1800年后期,苏塞克斯猎犬作为一种卓越的猎犬和伴侣犬,在塞式郡周围已经相当出名了。短腿、结构厚重、身躯长、嗅到气味时习惯于叫喊,非常适合在浓密的灌木丛中,在猎枪射程内利用尖锐的吠声工作。有力、灵活、热爱是这个对品种的基本要求。虽然,在数量上不可能得到普及,但从19世纪的运动犬延续到今天,在特征和面貌上几乎没有什么变化。

苏塞克斯猎犬显得长而矮,呈矩形且结构厚重,结合了舒展的步态和漂亮的尾巴动作。它拥有忧郁而严肃的表情。丰富的金肝色是这个品种的特殊之处。

[历史]

苏塞克斯猎犬的名字来自于英格兰的苏塞克斯,在那儿第一窝最重要的犬出自福勒先生的犬舍,正是福勒培育出了永久区别这种犬的鲜艳的金红褐色。因田野猎犬而闻名的菲尼斯布洛克也为进一步提高苏塞克斯猎犬的利益而做了显著的工作,该犬在不列颠的竞赛可追寻到1862年在克瑞斯托宫的犬展。

    苏塞克斯猎犬发展的早期,它在英国被用于复杂地区特定类型的狩猎。那时人们习惯于步行狩猎,而此犬成为满意的狩猎伙伴。然而,此犬并没有被除英国之外的其他国家所引进,这可能由于它在国内所面对的待猎状况远远不同于外国,因此在那里它没有达到猎犬应具有的狩猎速度。

    尽管苏塞克斯缺少史宾格犬和可卡犬的速度,但它有非常出色的鼻子和狩猎的恒心,对各种高地狩猎很有价值。它有嗅到异味时发声的习惯。在性情上它是完全普通的犬,训练它并不困难,而且经正确训练可成为优秀的寻猎犬。

[体型]

尺寸:苏塞克斯猎犬的肩高为33.0~38.1厘米。任何背离这个尺寸范围的情况都属于次要缺陷。苏塞克斯猎犬的体重范围在15.88~20.56千克之间。比例:苏塞克斯猎犬的外形轮廓呈矩形,身躯的长度大于肩高。体质:苏塞克斯猎犬肌肉发达且显得厚重。

[头部]

正确的头部和表情是该品种非常重要的特征。眼睛:眼睛的颜色是榛色,相当大,温和而忧郁,但瞬膜不能过度外露。表情:苏塞克斯猎犬的外貌显得忧郁而严肃,而且,浓重的眉毛显示出皱着眉头的表情。耳朵:耳朵厚,相当大,叶瓣状,位置略低,略微高于眼睛的外眼角。脑袋和口吻:脑袋略长,且同样宽,中间有凹痕,止部完美。眉毛相当厚重,后枕骨丰满而不尖。整体给人的印象是沉重但不迟钝。口吻大致有7.6厘米长,宽阔,正方形轮廓。脑袋的长度(从止部到后枕骨的距离)比口吻长。鼻孔开阔,肝色。嘴唇略微下垂。牙齿:剪状咬合,任何背离剪状咬合的现象都属于次要缺陷。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:颈部短,结实,略微圆拱,但不应该将头部昂地太高(高出背部太远)。皮肤不应该有过多的赘肉。背线和身躯:整个身躯很有特色,长而矮,背线水平。胸部圆,尤其是在肩胛之间。胸部深而宽,周长很大。背部和腰部长而肌肉发达(不论是宽度上还是在深度上)。由于上述原因,后面的肋骨相当深。尾巴:需要断尾,保留7.6~17.8厘米,位置低。在行走时,塞式猎犬展示出漂亮的尾巴动作,但尾巴的姿势不能高过后背水平。

[前躯]

肩胛向后倾斜,且肌肉发达。上臂骨有足够的长度和角度,能折回来,使腿部位于身躯下恰当的位置。前肢非常短,结实,骨骼沉重。可能显得略微呈弓形。笔直的前肢和略呈弓形的前肢都是正确的,可以接受。?f骨非常短,且骨骼沉重。足爪大而圆,在脚趾间有短毛发。

[后躯]

后躯丰满而圆润,结实且骨骼沉重。大腿彼此平行,位置分的较开,与肩胛之间的距离一样宽。后腿从飞节到地面的距离短,骨骼沉重,看上去既不比前肢短,且飞节也不过分弯曲。后躯的角度必须与前躯相互协调,飞节既不向内弯,也不向外翻。后足爪与前足爪相同。

[被毛]

身躯的被毛丰厚,平坦或略呈波浪状,没有卷曲的倾向。腿部有适量的羽状饰毛,但在飞节以下部位整洁。耳朵上有柔软而呈波浪状的毛发。颈部有明显的装饰性毛发。尾巴上有浓厚的中等长度的羽状饰毛。毛发不应该修剪,除了足爪的羽状饰毛需要修整,或去除脚垫间的毛发及从飞节到足爪间的羽状饰毛。脚趾间的毛发需要保留,使其有足够的长度能保护趾甲。

[颜色]

丰富的金肝色是唯一允许的颜色,而且这个品种要求明确的颜色纯度。深肝色或深褐色属于主要缺陷。胸部出现白色属于次要缺陷。身体其他部位出现白色属于严重缺陷。

[步态]

苏塞克斯猎犬的圆、深而宽的胸部,结合了短短的腿和长长的身躯,构成了它的滚动步态。它的整个动作都是慎重的。苏塞克斯猎犬不能让人感到笨拙。步态有力而准确,前后躯完美而协调。腿不能出现划桨姿势、起伏或交迭。行走时,头部保持较低的位置。牵这个品种时应该放松牵引绳,使它显露出自然的步态。

[性格]

尽管表情忧郁而严肃,其实,这个品种非常友善,快乐,且容易调教。

[失格]

这个品种的面貌分为三个标准等级:最重要的是颜色和整体外观。第二位重要的是头部、耳朵、背部和后腰,腿和足爪。重要程度最低的是眼睛、鼻镜、颈部、胸部、肩胛、尾巴和被毛。同样的,缺陷也分为三个等级:最主要的缺陷是颜色过深或过浅、胸部以外的任何部位出现白色、卷曲的被毛。严重缺陷是头部窄、口吻软弱、有顶髻、整体外观迂腐而萎缩。次要缺陷包括了浅色眼睛、胸部有白斑、背离正确的肩高范围、骨量不足、身躯太短或身躯侧面平坦、非剪状咬合。在苏塞克斯猎犬的标准中没有失格的现象。

标准通过日期:1992年4月 7日

标准执行日期:1992年5月27日

General Appearance
The Sussex Spaniel was among the first ten breeds to be recognized and admitted to the Stud Book when the American Kennel Club was formed in 1884, but it has existed as a distinct breed for much longer. As its name implies, it derives its origin from the county of Sussex, England, and it was used there since the eighteenth century as a field dog. During the late 1800\'s the reputation of the Sussex Spaniel as an excellent hunting companion was well known among the estates surrounding Sussex County. Its short legs, massive build, long body, and habit of giving tongue when on scent made the breed ideally suited to penetrating the dense undergrowth and flushing game within range of the gun. Strength, maneuverability, and desire were essential for this purpose. Although it has never gained great popularity in numbers, the Sussex Spaniel continues today essentially unchanged in character and general appearance from those 19th century sporting dogs.

The Sussex Spaniel presents a long and low, rectangular and rather massive appearance coupled with free movements and nice tail action. The breed has a somber and serious expression. The rich golden liver color is unique to the breed.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--The height of the Sussex Spaniel as measured at the withers ranges from 13 to 15 inches. Any deviation from these measurements is a minor fault. The weight of the Sussex Spaniel ranges between 35 and 45 pounds. Proportion--The Sussex Spaniel presents a rectangular outline as the breed is longer in body than it is tall. Substance--The Sussex Spaniel is muscular and rather massive.

Head
Correct head and expression are important features of the breed. Eyes--The eyes are hazel in color, fairly large, soft and languishing, but do not show the haw overmuch. Expression--The Sussex Spaniel has a somber and serious appearance, and its fairly heavy brows produce a frowning expression. Ears--The ears are thick, fairly large, and lobe-shaped and are set moderately low, slightly above the outside corner of the eye. Skull and Muzzle--The skull is moderately long and also wide with an indentation in the middle and with a full stop. The brows are fairly heavy, the occiput is full but not pointed, the whole giving an appearance of heaviness without dullness. The muzzle should be approximately three inches long, broad, and square in profile. The skull as measured from the stop to the occiput is longer than the muzzle. The nostrils are well-developed and liver colored. The lips are somewhat pendulous. Bite-- A scissors bite is preferred. Any deviation from a scissors bite is a minor fault.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--The neck is rather short, strong, and slightly arched, but does not carry the head much above the level of the back. There should not be much throatiness about the skin. Topline and Body-- he whole body is characterized as low and long with a level topline. The chest is round, especially behind the shoulders, and is deep and wide which gives a good girth. The back and loin are long and very muscular both in width and depth. For this development, the back ribs must be deep. Tail-- The tail is docked from 5 to 7 inches and set low. When gaiting the Sussex Spaniel exhibits nice tail action, but does not carry the tail above the level of the back.

Forequarters
The shoulders are well laid back and muscular. The upper arm should correspond in length and angle of return to the shoulder blade so that the legs are set well under the dog. The forelegs should be very short, strong, and heavily boned. They may show a slight bow. Both straight and slightly bowed constructions are proper and correct. The pasterns are very short and heavily boned. The feet are large and round with short hair between the toes.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters are full and well-rounded, strong, and heavily boned. They should be parallel with each other and also set wide apart--about as wide as the dog at the shoulders. The hind legs are short from the hock to the ground, heavily boned, and should seem neither shorter than the forelegs nor much bent at the hocks. The hindquarters must correspond in angulation to the forequarters. The hocks should turn neither in nor out. The rear feet are like the front feet.

Coat
The body coat is abundant, flat or slightly waved, with no tendency to curl. The legs are moderately well-feathered, but clean below the hocks. The ears are furnished with soft, wavy hair. The neck has a well-marked frill in the coat. The tail is thickly covered with moderately long feather. No trimming is acceptable except to shape foot feather, or to remove feather between the pads or between the hock and the feet. The feather between the toes must be left in sufficient length to cover the nails.

Color
Rich golden liver is the only acceptable color and is a certain sign of the purity of the breed. Dark liver or puce is a major fault. White on the chest is a minor fault. White on any other part of the body is a major fault.

Gait
The round, deep and wide chest of the Sussex Spaniel coupled with its short legs and long body produce a rolling gait. While its movement is deliberate, the Sussex Spaniel is in no sense clumsy. Gait is powerful and true with perfect coordination between the front and hind legs. The front legs do not paddle, wave, or overlap. The head is held low when gaiting. The breed should be shown on a loose lead so that its natural gait is evident.

Temperament
Despite its somber and serious expression, the breed is friendly and has a cheerful and tractable disposition.

Faults
The standard ranks features of the breed into three categories. The most important features of the breed are color and general appearance. The features of secondary importance are the head, ears, back and back ribs, legs, and feet. The features of lesser importance are the eyes, nose, neck, chest and shoulders, tail, and coat. Faults also fall into three categories. Major faults are color that is too light or too dark, white on any part of the body other than the chest, and a curled coat. Serious faults are a narrow head, weak muzzle, the presence of a topknot, and a general appearance that is sour and crouching. Minor faults are light eyes, white on chest, the deviation from proper height ranges, lightness of bone, shortness of body or a body that is flat-sided, and a bite other than scissors. There are no disqualifications in the Sussex Spaniel standard.

Approved April 7, 1992
Effective May 27, 1992

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:50:12 | 显示全部楼层


史毕诺犬(Spinone Italiano)AKC标准及介绍
[史毕诺犬简介]

肌肉发达且骨骼强健的狗。精力旺盛且充沛,他无疑是一种能辛苦工作的枪猎犬。天生喜欢交际,听话而耐心的史毕诺犬能吃苦耐劳,在任何地形条件下,都是一条有经验的猎犬。他质地坚硬的被毛能抵御恶劣的气候条件。史毕诺犬刚毛质的、浓密的被毛,及粗厚的皮肤,使他能穿越灌木丛,并使他能够忍耐冰冷的雨水,缺乏天然 \"盔甲\"的狗将受到严厉处罚。他另一种与众不同的特点是步幅很大,且速度很快的步态。因此,史毕诺犬天生就是一种非常卓越的寻回犬。

[史毕诺犬的体型]

高度:雄性肩高约为 23~27英寸;雌性肩高约为22~25英寸。体重:与他的大小及体质成正比。比例:他的结构趋向于正方形。身躯长度,从胸骨到臀部的距离,近似等于肩高,体长比肩高略长,但不超过1英寸是可以接受的。体质:史毕诺犬是一种结构坚固的狗,精力充沛且骨量充足。

[史毕诺犬的头部]

史毕诺犬的头部轮廓是非常独特的。表情对这个品种极为重要。应该显示出聪明和温顺。脑袋呈卵形,侧面略微倾斜。后枕骨明显突出,前额的凹槽十分明显。口吻:从前面观察,呈四方形。口吻的长度与后脑的长度相同。口吻的轮廓与脑袋的轮廓相互不平行,脸部向下。口吻中间位置的宽度大约为长度的 1/3。止部勉强可以察觉。鼻梁略呈罗马鼻更好,但笔直的鼻梁也可以接受,不属于缺陷。嘴唇:紧密地包裹着下巴。嘴唇集中到脑袋和口吻所在面或形成盘子脸都属于严重缺陷,并需要严格排除在比赛之外。眼睛:必须带有柔和甜蜜的表情,赭石色(略带微黄的褐色),深色狗的眼睛颜色深,浅色狗的眼睛颜色浅。眼睛大,张开,位置分地较远,眼睛差不多是圆形的。眼睑紧密贴合眼睛,在狩猎中,能保护眼睛不受到泥沙碎屑的伤害,眼睑松懈属于缺陷。眼睛既不突出,也不深陷。眼圈明显可见,颜色随被毛不同而不同,从肉色到褐色都有。眼内有色环属于失格。鼻镜:外观呈球状、海绵状,上边缘显得圆。鼻孔大而张开。从轮廓上看,鼻镜突出部分比唇线更向前一点。白色狗的鼻镜色素为肉色;白色和橘色狗的鼻镜颜色深一些;褐色或褐色杂毛狗的鼻镜颜色为褐色。鼻镜为标准允许颜色以外的任何颜色,或色素缺乏都属于失格。牙齿:颌部强健有力,牙齿为剪状咬和或钳状咬和。上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和属于失格。耳朵:实际上是三角形的。位置与眼睛齐平或略低,向下垂,胆略有向上抬起的力量。耳廓细腻,覆盖着短而浓密的毛发,混合着长而稀疏的毛发,形成厚实的边缘。耳朵的长度,沿着头部向前延伸,可以达到鼻子的部位,不会短于鼻尖后1英寸。前侧边缘贴着面颊,无折叠,但略向外翻,耳尖略圆。

[史毕诺犬的颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:结实,粗且肌肉发达。颈背整洁清晰,以和谐的线条融入肩胛。喉咙处皮肤适度松弛,形成双层赘肉。

胸部:宽,深,肌肉发达且相当圆;深度达到肘部。肋骨支撑良好,从地面到肘部的距离约为肩高的 1/2。背部:背线由两部分组成。第一部分略微向下倾斜,几乎是笔直的线条,从马肩隆开始到第十一节胸椎为止;大约到马肩隆后6英寸处。第二部分逐渐上升,延伸到坚固而圆拱的腰部。下腹曲线坚固,非常轻微地上提。

臀部:肌肉发达,长。髋骨倾斜,与脊椎呈大约 30度角,形成轻巧的圆弧形,丰满的臀部。尾巴:臀部曲线的延伸,根部粗,姿势为水平或向下,走动时左右摇摆是最好的。尾巴上没有刘海,断尾,保留5.5~8英寸。尾巴习惯于高过后背或在工作中笔直向上都属于缺陷。

[史毕诺犬的前躯]

肩胛:有力而长,马肩隆不过分突出;肩胛骨与上臂骨成大约 105度角。肌肉发达且非常清晰,肩胛骨上端不十分靠近。肩胛骨上端的理想距离为2英寸或更多。肩胛骨的角度与后躯的角度相互平衡。前肢:从前面观察,前肢非常直,骨骼强健,肌肉发达而清晰;肘部位于马肩隆下方,且贴近身躯。骹骨长、倾斜、柔韧,连接垂直的前臂。从轮廓上看,略微倾斜。足爪:大而紧凑,圆形,脚趾圆拱且紧密,覆盖着短而浓密的毛发,包括脚趾间也有。脚垫倾斜而坚硬,趾甲结实,向地面弯曲,趾甲色素充足,但决不是黑色。狼爪可以切除。

[史毕诺犬的后躯]

大腿结实,肌肉发达,膝关节显示出来的角度恰当,第二节大腿非常发达,肌肉强健且宽度良好。飞节位于臀部到足爪距离的 1/3处比较理想,结实,精干且完全垂直于地面。缺陷:牛肢。足爪:与前肢足爪的特征基本一致,但更接近卵形。狼爪可以切除。

[史毕诺犬的皮肤]

皮肤必须非常厚,紧贴身躯。在头部、喉咙、腹股沟、腿下面及肘关节折叠处的皮肤略松,触摸的感觉柔软。色素沉积与上面的被毛颜色相称。失格:任何黑色。

[史毕诺犬的被毛]

史毕诺犬必须有正确的被毛和正确的样式。身躯的被毛长度约为 1.5~2.5英寸,允许的误差为0.5英寸。头部、耳朵、口吻、腿部前面及足爪覆盖着短短的毛发,腿部后面的毛发形成粗糙的刷子状,但没有任何刘海。眼睛和嘴唇周围有硬硬的毛发,构成眉毛、髭须及虬髯,在石楠和灌木丛中保护脸部。被毛浓密、硬、平坦或略有波纹,决不卷曲。没有底毛。史毕诺犬必须体现出自然的外貌,他的外貌不允许改变。他应该体现出一个在野外工作的狗的自然相貌。被毛长、柔软、丝质、有底毛、或其他背离标准所描述的地方,也包括了过度修饰被毛,例如:修剪毛发、刨除毛发、及装饰都属于严重缺陷,并将他们严格排除在比赛之外。

[史毕诺犬的颜色]

承认的颜色包括:纯白色;白色和橘色;橘色杂毛,带或不带橘色斑纹;白色和褐色;褐色杂毛带或不带褐色斑纹。最希望得到的褐色斑纹是栗子色的, \"修道士长袍\"色,但是不同深度的褐色都是允许的。失格:被毛出现黑色;棕色、三色斑纹以任何方式组合,及承认的颜色以外的其他任何颜色。

[史毕诺犬的步态]

史毕诺犬首要的定位和功能是枪猎犬。培育地目的是需要一种多功能的猎犬,这一点必须重点考虑。轻松而松弛的小跑能提供持久的耐力。以最小的努力,能覆盖最大面积的地面,这是对一个多用途枪猎犬的要求。在小跑步态中,背线轮廓完全受控,在此品种中,成熟雌性出现轻微的身躯滚动是允许的。在狩猎时,在飞速奔驰时,间歇性的出现缓步行走是允许的,这样可以更快,更彻底地覆盖地面。任何妨碍他完成使命的地方都属于严重缺陷。

[史毕诺犬的缺陷]

所有背离前面所描述的特征的地方都属于缺陷,并需要根据背离的程度进行扣分。

[失格]

眼睛内有色环。

鼻镜为标准允许色素以外的任何色素,或色素缺乏。

上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和。

任何黑色的色素沉积。

被毛出现黑色;棕色、三色斑纹以任何方式组合,及承认的颜色以外的其他任何颜色。

标准通过日期:2000年2月11日

标准修正日期: 2000年9月28日

Spinone Italiano Breed Standard

General Appearance
Muscular dog with powerful bone. Vigorous and robust, his purpose as hardworking gun dog is evident. Naturally sociable, the docile and patient Spinone is resistant to fatigue and is an experienced hunter on any terrain. His hard textured coat is weather resistant. His wiry, dense coat and thick skin enable the Spinone to negotiate underbrush and endure cold water that would severely punish any dog not so naturally armored. He has a remarkable tendency for an extended and fast trotting gait. The Spinone is an excellent retriever by nature.

Size, Proportion, Substance:
Height: The height at the withers is 23 to 27 inches for males and 22 to 25 inches for females. Weight: In direct proportion to size and structure of dog. Proportion: His build tends to fit into a square. The length of the body, measured from sternum to point of buttocks, is approximately equal to the height at the withers with tolerance of no more than 1 inch in length compared to height. Substance: The Spinone is a solidly built dog, robust with powerful bone.

Head:
Long. The profile of the Spinone is unique to this breed. Expression is of paramount importance to the breed. It should denote intelligence and gentleness. Skull of oval shape, with sides gently sloping. With occipital protuberance well developed, medial-frontal furrow is very pronounced. Muzzle: Square when viewed from the front. Muzzle length is equal to that of backskull. The planes of the skull and muzzle are diverging, downfaced. Its width measured at its midpoint is a third of its length. Stop is barely perceptible. Bridge of the muzzle is preferably slightly Roman, however, straight is not to be faulted. Lips fitting tightly to the jawline. Convergence of planes of the skull and muzzle or a dish-faced muzzle is to be faulted so severely as to eliminate from further competition. Eyes: Must have a soft sweet expression. Ochre (yellowish brown) in color, darker eyes with darker colored dogs, lighter eyes with lighter colored dogs. Large, well opened, set well apart, the eye is almost round, the lids closely fitting the eye, to protect the eye from gathering debris while the dog is hunting, loose eye lids must be faulted. Which is neither protruding nor deep set. Eye rim clearly visible, color will vary with coat color from flesh colored to brown.Disqualification: Walleye. Nose: Bulbous and spongy in appearance with upper edge rounded. Nostrils are large and well opened. In profile, the nose protrudes past the forward line of the lips. (Pigment is flesh colored in white dogs, darker in white and orange dogs, brown in brown or brown roan dogs.) Disqualification: Any pigment other than described or incomplete pigment of the nose is to be disqualified. Teeth: Jaw is powerful. Teeth are positioned in a scissors or level bite. Disqualification: Overshot or undershot bite. Ears: Practically triangular shape. Set on a level just below the eye, carried low, with little erectile power. The leather is fine, covered with short, thick hair mixed with a longer sparser hair, which becomes thicker along edges. Length, if measured along the head would extend to tip of nose and no more than 1 inch beyond the tip. The forward edge is adherent to the cheek, not folded, but turned outward; the tip of the ear is slightly rounded.

Neck, Topline, Body:
Neck: Strong, thick, and muscular. Clearly defined from the nape, blending in to the shoulders in a harmonious line. The throat is moderate in skin with a double dewlap. Chest: Broad, deep, well muscled and well rounded; extending at least to the elbow. The ribs are well sprung. The distance from ground to the elbow is equal to 1/2 the height at the withers. Back: The topline consists of two segments. The first slopes slightly downward in a nearly straight line from the withers to the 11th thoracic vertebrae, approximately 6 inches behind the withers. The second rises gradually and continues into a solid and well-arched loin. The underline is solid and should have minimal tuck up. Croup: Well muscled, long. The hipbones fall away from the spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees, producing a lightly rounded, well filled-out croup. Tail: Follows the line of the croup, thick at the base, carried horizontally or down; flicking from side to side while moving is preferred. The tail should lack fringes. It is docked to a length of 5 1/2 to 8 inches. Tail habitually carried above the level of the back or straight up when working is to be penalized.

Forequarters:
Shoulders: Powerful and long, withers not too prominent; forming an angle with the upper arm of approximately angle 105. With well-developed muscles, the points of the shoulder blades are not close together. The ideal distance between the shoulder blades is approximately two inches or more. Angulation of shoulder is in balance with angulation in the rear. Forelegs: The forelegs are straight when viewed from the front angle with strong bone and well-developed muscles; elbows set under the withers and close to the body. Pasterns are long, lean and flexible following the vertical line of the forearm. In profile, they are slightly slanted. Feet: Large compact, rounded with well-arched toes, which are close together, covered with short, dense hair, including between the toes. Pads are lean and hard with strong nails curving toward the ground, well pigmented, but never black. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters:
Thighs are strong and well muscled, stifles show good function angulation, lower thigh to be well developed and muscled with good breadth. The hock, with proportion of 1/3 the distance from the hip joint to foot being ideal, is strong, lean and perpendicular to the ground. Fault: Cowhocks. Feet: Slightly more oval than the forefoot with the same characteristics. Dewclaws may be removed.

Skin:
The skin must be very thick, closely fitting the body. The skin is thinner on the head, throat, groin, under the legs and in the folds of the elbows is soft to the touch. Pigmentation is dependent upon the color or markings of the coat. Disqualification: Any black pigmentation.

Coat:
A Spinone must have a correct coat to be of correct type. The ideal coat length is 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches on the body, with a tolerance of 1/2 inch over or under the ideal length. Head, ears, muzzle and front sides of legs and feet are covered by shorter hair. The hair on the backsides of the legs forms a rough brush, but there are never any fringes. The eyes and lips are framed by stiff hair forming eyebrows, mustache and tufted beard, which combine to save fore face from laceration by briar and bush. The coat is dense, stiff and flat or slightly crimped, but not curly, with an absence of undercoat. The Spinone is exhibited in a natural state. The appearance of the Spinone may not be altered. The dog must present the natural appearance of a functional field dog. Dogs with a long, soft or silky coat, the presence of undercoat, or any deviation of the coat is defined in this as well as excessive grooming, i.e., scissoring, clipping, or setting of pattern shall be severely penalized as to eliminate them from further competition.

Color:
The accepted colors are: Solid white, white and orange; orange roan with or without orange markings; white with brown markings, brown roan with or without brown markings. The most desired color of brown is chestnut brown, \"monks habit\", however, varying colors of brown are acceptable. Disqualification: Any black in the coat, tan, tri-color, in any combination, or any color other than accepted colors.

Gait: The Spinone is first and foremost a functional working gun dog. Its purpose as a versatile hunting dog must be given the utmost consideration. Easy and loose trot geared for endurance. Maximum ground is covered with least amount of effort, which his purpose as a versatile working gun dog demands. Profile of the topline kept throughout the trotting gait, light body roll in mature bitches is characteristic of the breed. While hunting, an extended fast trot with intermittent paces of a gallop allows the Spinone to cover ground quickly and thoroughly. Any characteristics that interfere with the accomplishment of the function of the Spinone shall be considered as a serious fault.

Faults: Any departure from the foregoing points constitutes a fault which when judging must be penalized according to its seriousness and extension.

Disqualification
Wall Eye
Any pigment other than described or incomplete pigment of the nose.
Overshot or undershot bite.
Any black pigmentation.
Any black in the coat; tan, tri-color markings in any combination, or any color other than accepted colors.

Approved: February 11, 2000
Effective: September 28, 2000

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:50:42 | 显示全部楼层


波音达猎犬(Pointer)akc标准

波音达猎犬简介
波音达猎犬原先是培养了用于在原野运动的;波音达猎犬看起来无疑应该是运动型的狗。理想的波音达猎犬应该立刻给人以紧凑、有力、敏捷、优美的感觉;头部高贵,骄傲地昂起;表情聪明而警惕;肌肉发达的身躯,包括了耐力和爆发力。波音达猎犬的每个动作都显示出精明,具有毅力、勇气、渴望行动的、驱动力强大的猎犬。在他的表情中透露出忠诚和对真正的人类朋友的热爱。

波音达猎犬气质
波音达猎犬的平静气质和警惕、敏锐的感觉,使他既适合作为家庭伴侣,也适合在野外活动。他应该表现出威严,对人或狗都没有羞怯的表现。

波音达猎犬头部
波音达猎犬脑袋宽度中等,宽度与口吻的长度大致一样,给人的印象是长度大于宽度。两眼间略有凹痕,面颊轮廓鲜明,整洁。有明显的止部。从这一点开始向口吻方向有足够的长度,由于鼻梁骨的关系,使鼻镜比口吻在止部略高。脑袋与口吻相互平行也是可以接受的。口吻深,没有下垂的上唇。口的末端呈正方形而平。咬和为钳状咬和或剪状咬和。鼻孔非常发达且开阔。耳朵:与眼睛在同一水平线。自然的下垂,能够达到下颚的位置,贴近头部,略微折叠或不折叠。末端有点尖,不圆。质地柔软而薄。眼睛:足够大,圆而热烈。眼睛颜色与身体颜色和斑纹相比,显得深,越深越好。

波音达猎犬颈部
长,干燥,肌肉发达,略微圆拱,整洁的与肩部接合。

波音达猎犬肩胛
长,薄,且倾斜。肩胛顶端*在一起。

波音达猎犬前躯
肘部位置低,在马肩隆正下方,且与身体方向平行,整洁。前腿直,骨骼呈卵形。关节决不突出。胶骨中等长度,可以察觉到骨骼比腿部细腻一些,略微倾斜。胸部深,而不宽,不能妨碍前腿的自由活动。胸骨明显,但没有夸张的突出。肋骨扩张良好,延伸到肘部。

波音达猎犬背部
强壮而结实,从臀部到肩胛略微上升。腰部长度中等,有力而轻微的圆拱。臀部轻微的向尾根处下垂。腹部上提明显,但不夸张。

波音达猎犬尾巴
根部粗壮,尖端细而精致。长度不超过飞节。尾巴太长或断尾都属于缺陷。举起但不卷曲,且与背线不能超过20度角,也不能夹在腿中间。

波音达猎犬后躯
肌肉发达而有力,能产生巨大的推动力。大腿长而发达。膝关节角度恰当。飞节整洁;从后面观察,腿直。明确的角度是产生力量和耐力的关键。

波音达猎犬足爪
卵形,长,紧凑,足爪圆拱,脚垫厚实且深。猫足属于缺陷。前肢的狼爪可以切除。

波音达猎犬被毛
短,浓密,平滑而闪光。

波音达猎犬颜色
肝色、柠檬色、黑色、橘色;上述任何一种颜色与白色结合或纯色。一个好的波音达不应该出现错误的颜色。如果是深色的狗,鼻镜应该是黑色或褐色;如果是浅色的狗,鼻镜应该是浅色或肉色。

波音达猎犬步态
平顺,滑动,后躯驱动力强大。头部高高昂起,鼻孔张开,尾巴随着步伐有节奏的左右摆动,给人的印象是非常协调,结构强健的猎犬,是高速度和耐力持久的完美结合。马步(抬腿太高)属于缺陷。

波音达猎犬比例和尺寸
对波音达猎犬来说,比例的平衡、协调比尺寸更重要。一个平顺、协调的波音达比一个优点和缺陷同样突出的波音达要理想的多。猎犬或梗类犬的特征都很不理想。因为是一种运动犬,所以力量和耐力都需要,尺寸差异太大也不理想。理想的高度和体重如下:雄性 高度:25~28英寸
体重:55~75磅
雌性 高度:23~26英寸
体重:44~65磅

Pointer Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Pointer is bred primarily for sport afield; he should unmistakably look and act the part. The ideal specimen gives the immediate impression of compact power and agile grace; the head noble, proudly carried; the expression intelligent and alert; the muscular body bespeaking both staying power and dash. Here is an animal whose every movement shows him to be a wide-awake, hard-driving hunting dog possessing stamina, courage, and the desire to go. And in his expression are the loyalty and devotion of a true friend of man.

Temperament
The Pointer\'s even temperament and alert good sense make him a congenial companion both in the field and in the home. He should be dignified and should never show timidity toward man or dog.

Head
The skull of medium width, approximately as wide as the length of the muzzle, resulting in an impression of length rather than width. Slight furrow between the eyes, cheeks cleanly chiseled. There should be a pronounced stop. From this point forward the muzzle is of good length, with the nasal bone so formed that the nose is slightly higher at the tip than the muzzle at the stop. Parallel planes of the skull and muzzle are equally acceptable. The muzzle should be deep without pendulous flews. Jaws ending square and level, should bite evenly or as scissors. Nostrils well developed and wide open. Ears--Set on at eye level. When hanging naturally, they should reach just below the lower jaw, close to the head, with little or no folding. They should be somewhat pointed at the tip--never round--and soft and thin in leather. Eyes--Of ample size, rounded and intense. The eye color should be dark in contrast with the color of the markings, the darker the better.

Neck
Long, dry, muscular, and slightly arched, springing cleanly from the shoulders.

Shoulders
Long, thin, and sloping. The top of blades close together.

Front
Elbows well let down, directly under the withers and truly parallel so as to work just clear of the body. Forelegs straight and with oval bone. Knee joint never to knuckle over. Pasterns of moderate length, perceptibly finer in bone than the leg, and slightly slanting. Chest, deep rather than wide, must not hinder free action of forelegs. The breastbone bold, without being unduly prominent. The ribs well sprung, descending as low as the elbow-point.

Back
Strong and solid with only a slight rise from croup to top of shoulders. Loin of moderate length, powerful and slightly arched. Croup falling only slightly to base of tail. Tuck-up should be apparent, but not exaggerated.

Tail
Heavier at the root, tapering to a fine point. Length no greater than to hock. A tail longer than this or docked must be penalized. Carried without curl, and not more than 20 degrees above the line of the back; never carried between the legs.

Hindquarters
Muscular and powerful with great propelling leverage. Thighs long and well developed. Stifles well bent. The hocks clean; the legs straight as viewed from behind. Decided angulation is the mark of power and endurance.

Feet
Oval, with long, closely-set, arched toes, well-padded, and deep. Catfoot is a fault. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed.

Coat
Short, dense, smooth with a sheen.

Color
Liver, lemon, black, orange; either in combination with white or solid-colored. A good Pointer cannot be a bad color. In the darker colors, the nose should be black or brown; in the lighter shades it may be lighter or flesh-colored.

Gait
Smooth, frictionless, with a powerful hindquarters\' drive. The head should be carried high, the nostrils wide, the tail moving from side to side rhythmically with the pace, giving the impression of a well-balanced, strongly-built hunting dog capable of top speed combined with great stamina. Hackney gait must be faulted.

Balance and Size
Balance and over-all symmetry are more important in the Pointer than size. A smooth, balanced dog is to be more desired than a dog with strongly contrasting good points and faults. Hound or terrier characteristics are most undesirable. Because a sporting dog must have both endurance and power, great variations in size are undesirable, the desirable height and weight being within the following limits:


Dogs: Height -- 25-28 inches
  Weight -- 55-75 pounds
Bitches: Height -- 23-26 inches
  Weight -- 44-65 pounds


Approved November 11, 1975

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:51:06 | 显示全部楼层


新斯科舍诱鸭寻回犬(Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever)

  新斯科舍水鸭引诱寻回犬(特勒尔)是在 19世纪早期培育的,用来引诱、吸引和寻找水禽的一个品种。特勒尔犬沿着岸边玩一个木棒或小球,作些有趣的动作来引起远离岸边的鸭子的好奇心。鸭子被引诱到射程范围内,开枪后,犬被放出叼回打死的或受伤的猎物。

  这是一种中型犬,有力,紧凑,均衡,是寻回犬中最小的一种。特勒尔犬的姿势和承受力显示了高度的力量和敏捷性。它警惕、坚定,迅速,有强烈的工作和取悦的愿望。

  许多特勒尔犬在没有工作时会有轻微的忧伤或忧郁的表情。一给出最轻微的需要寻回的指示,它们就能让自己进入轻快的行动,同时带有强烈的专心和兴奋的表情。工作时它的沉重的羽状尾巴持续高举着。

大小、比例和体型

  大小:马肩隆高-雄性 18-21英寸,理想为19英寸;雌性17-20英寸,理想为18英寸。

  骨量:中等

  重量:于犬的高度和骨量成比例。犬的长度应当略大于高度,比例约为 10比9,但是不能有背长的感觉。

头部

  脑袋:头部轮廓鲜明,略呈楔形。脑袋宽,但只是略圆,从外观上看,当耳朵警立时,呈扁形。后脑勺不突出,面颊平。脑袋的长度,从后脑勺到止部,略长于从止部到鼻子尖的长度。头部要与身体的大小成比例。

  表情:警惕,友好,机灵。许多特勒尔犬在没有工作时有忧郁的表情,工作时则显得高度集中和热情。

  眼睛:眼睛位置分得很开,略倾斜,呈杏仁形。眼睛颜色与被毛颜色相混,或更深。眼框必须是单色或黑色,与鼻子和嘴唇的颜色相匹配。

  缺陷:又大又圆的眼睛。眼框或眼睛不是规定的颜色。

  耳朵:耳朵位置高,三角形,尖是圆的,在脑袋上位置靠后,形成脸型,其基部有些直立。耳朵的长度应该大约能到内眼角。耳朵应当向下耷拉着。耳朵上的被毛很短,只在折叠处的后面有丰富的绒毛。

  止部:适中

  口部:从止部到鼻子以干净的线条逐渐变细,下巴不过于突出。它的颌骨大到足以叼住相当大的鸟,重要的是嘴要柔韧。嘴的下线要强壮且干净。

  缺陷:鱼形脸。

  鼻子:鼻子相当宽,鼻孔很大,在尖部逐渐变细。颜色应当与被毛相仿,或是黑色。

  缺陷:亮粉色鼻子

  失格:蝴蝶鼻

  嘴唇和垂唇:嘴唇闭得很紧,在外观上形成一个柔和的曲线,没有特别重的垂唇。

  咬合:正确的咬合为很紧的剪状。要有完整的齿系。

  失格:下颚突出,歪嘴,上颚突出多于 1/8英寸

颈部,背线和身体

  颈部:颈部肌肉强健,位置合适,长度适中,看不出喉节。

  背线:水平。缺陷:拱形或摇晃的背部。

  身体:胸部深,肋骨弹力好,胸部到达肘部。肋骨既不是桶状也不是扁平的。背部强壮,短直。腰强壮,肌肉强健,有适量的折起。

  尾部:尾巴顺着臀部有自然的轻微的坡形,在根部粗,非常华丽,有羽状毛,最后一根尾椎骨至少要到跗骨。除了警惕的时候,尾巴也可以举起在背部水平之上,举起是以曲线的形态,但是不能碰到身体。

  缺陷:尾巴太短,扭结,或曲线状但是碰到了背部。当犬走路时,尾巴举在背部之下。

前半部

  肩膀应当肌肉强健,强壮,角度适合,肩胛骨在长度上大略等于上臂。肘应当紧随身体运动,利索且均匀。从前面看,前腿外观上是一组平行线。骹骨强壮,略有坡形。

  缺陷:下降的骹骨。

  脚:脚有结实的蹼,略呈椭圆形,大小适中,紧密的弓形的脚趾,脚垫厚。前面的狼爪可以切除

  缺陷:张开的或纸一样的脚。

后半部

  后半部有肌肉,宽,呈方形。

  臀部有很小的坡度。后部分的角度要与前部分相协调。后腿的上半部分和下半部分都是非常的肌肉强健,并且长度相等。膝关节有适度的倾斜。跗骨有很好的下降性,不能外弯或内弯。不能有后部狼爪

  失格:后部狼爪。

被毛

  特勒尔犬是用来从冰水中取回猎物的,必须有可防水的双层被毛,一层是长度和柔软度都适中的防水被毛,一层是柔软细密的底毛。背部的被毛可以有轻微的波形,但是其它的都要是直的。口部的毛短,纤细。会有季节性的脱落。外套一样的被毛并不适合工作犬,应当被视为缺陷。虽然在比赛中对脚,耳朵和跗骨的毛进行清理是可以的,但是特勒尔犬应当显得自然,没有被理毛的形象。必须有胡须。

  缺陷:被毛过长。松散的被毛。

颜色

  颜色为任何暗红色,从金红色到深红铜色,在尾巴下侧,马裤和身体下侧带浅色的的羽状毛。既使是金红色的浅色羽状毛在颜色中也深厚的颜色。

  失格:棕色被毛,,在被毛上有黑色区域,或浅黄色。浅黄色是指脱色状、漂白状或银状颜色。浅黄色也可能是看起来像褪色的棕色,带或不带银色的毛尖。

  标记:特勒尔犬通常至少有一个白色标记在下列位置:尾巴尖,脚(不能扩展到骹骨以上),胸前,并且是星状斑点。犬如果在其它方面具有高质量,将不会因为缺少白色斑点而扣分。

  失格:在肩膀上,耳朵附近,颈的后面或腰侧面有白色。

步态

  特勒尔犬的步态中组合了力量和轻松,显示出很好的前伸和强壮的后部驱动力。脚不能向外撇或向内撇,腿在运动时应当在一条线上。当以自然步态加速时,犬的脚会汇聚到一个中心线上,背线保持水平。

性情

  特勒尔犬非常聪明,警惕,外向,随时准备着行动,但是不能到过于紧张或过于活跃的程度。它对家庭成员非常友好,对小孩子有耐性。有的会在新的环境中表现出拘谨,但是不能害羞。成年犬级别中的害羞应当扣分。特勒尔犬有强烈的寻回愿望,也很喜欢水,耐力强,对鸟有强烈的欲望,这对它作为一个引诱寻回犬的角色来说是很重要的。

失格

  蝴蝶鼻。

  下颚突出的咬合,歪嘴,上鄂突出超过 1/8英寸

  后部狼爪

  棕色被毛,在被毛上有黑色区域,或浅黄色。浅黄色是指脱色状、漂白状或银状颜色。浅黄色也可能是看起来像褪色的棕色,带或不带银色的毛尖。

  在肩膀上,耳朵附近,颈的后面或腰侧面有白色。

通过: 2001年6月11日
生效:2001年9月1日



Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (Toller) was developed in the early 19th century to toll, lure, and retrieve waterfowl. The playful action of the Toller retrieving a stick or ball along the shoreline arouses the curiosity of the ducks offshore. They are lured within gunshot range, and the dog is sent out to retrieve the dead or wounded birds.

This medium sized, powerful, compact, balanced dog is the smallest of the retrievers. The Toller\'s attitude and bearing suggest strength with a high degree of agility. He is alert, determined, and quick, with a keen desire to work and please.

Many Tollers have a slightly sad or worried expression when they are not working. The moment the slightest indication is given that retrieving is required, they set themselves for springy action with an expression of intense concentration and excitement. The heavily feathered tail is held high in constant motion while working.

The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever Club (USA) feels strongly that all Tollers should have these innate abilities, and encourages all Tollers to prove them by passing an approved Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever Club (USA) field test.

Size, Proportion and Substance
Size: Height at the withers - males, 18-21 inches. The ideal is 19 inches. Females, 17-20 inches. The ideal is 18 inches. Bone: is medium. Weight is in proportion to height and bone of the dog. The dog\'s length should be slightly longer than height, in a ratio of 10 to 9, but should not give the impression of a long back.

Head
Skull: The head is clean-cut and slightly wedge shaped. The broad skull is only slightly rounded, giving the appearance of being flat when the ears are alert. The occiput is not prominent. The cheeks are flat. The length of the skull from the occiput to the stop is slightly longer than the length of the muzzle from the stop to the tip of the nose. The head must be in proportion to body size. Expression: The expression is alert, friendly, and intelligent. Many Tollers have a slightly sad expression until they go to work, when their aspect changes to intense concentration and desire. Eyes: The eyes are set well apart, slightly oblique and almond in shape. Eye color blends with the coat or is darker. Eye rims must be self-colored or black, matching the nose and lips. Faults: large round eyes. Eye rims and/or eyes not of prescribed color. Ears: The high set ears are triangular in shape with rounded tips, set well back on the skull, framing the face, with the base held slightly erect. Ear length should reach approximately to the inside corners of the eyes. Ears should be carried in a drop fashion. Ears are short-coated, and well feathered only on the back of the fold. Stop: The stop is moderate. Muzzle: The muzzle tapers in a clean line from stop to nose, with the lower jaw not overly prominent. The jaws are strong enough to carry a sizeable bird, and softness in the mouth is essential. The underline of the muzzle is strong and clean. Fault: dish face. Nose: The nose is fairly broad with the nostrils well open, tapering at the tip. The color should blend with that of the coat, or be black. Fault: bright pink nose. Disqualification: butterfly nose. Lips and flews: Lips fit fairly tightly, forming a gentle curve in profile, with no heaviness in the flews. Bite: The correct bite is tight scissors. Full dentition is required. Disqualifications: Undershot bite. Wry mouth. Overshot by more then 1/8 inch.

Neck, Backline, Body
Neck: The neck is strongly muscled and well set on, of medium length, with no indication of throatiness. Backline: Level. Faults: roached or sway back. Body: The body is deep in chest, with good spring of rib, the brisket reaching to the elbow. Ribs are neither barrel shaped nor flat. The back is strong, short and straight. The loins are strong and muscular, with moderate tuck-up. Fault: slack loins. Tail: The tail follows the natural very slight slope of the croup, is broad at the base, and is luxuriant and well feathered, with the last vertebra reaching at least to the hock. The tail may be carried below the level of the back except when the dog is alert, when it is held high in a curve, though never touching the body. Faults: tail too short, kinked, or curled over touching the back. Tail carried below the level of the back when the dog is gaiting.

Forequarters
The shoulder should be muscular, strong, and well angulated, with the blade roughly equal in length to the upper arm. The elbows should work close to the body, cleanly and evenly. When seen from the front, the foreleg\'s appearance is that of parallel columns. The pasterns are strong and slightly sloping. Fault: down in the pasterns. Feet: The feet are strongly webbed, slightly oval medium in size, and tight, with well-arched toes and thick pads. Front dewclaws may be removed. Faults: splayed or paper feet.

Hindquarters
The hindquarters are muscular, broad, and square in appearance. The croup is very slightly sloped. The rear and front angulation should be in balance. The upper and lower thighs are very muscular and equal in length. The stifles are well bent. The hocks are well let down, turning neither in nor out. Rear Dewclaws must not be present. Disqualification: rear dewclaws.

Coat
The Toller was bred to retrieve from icy waters and must have a water-repellent double coat of medium length and softness, and a soft dense undercoat. The coat may have a slight wave on the back, but is otherwise straight. Some winter coats may form a long loose curl at the throat. Featherings are soft and moderate in length. The hair on the muzzle is short and fine. Seasonal shedding is to be expected. Overcoated specimens are not appropriate for a working dog and should be faulted. While neatening of the feet, ears, and hocks for the show ring is permitted, the Toller should always appear natural, never barbered. Whiskers must be present. Faults: coat longer than medium length. Open coat.

Color
Color is any shade of red, ranging from a golden red through dark coppery red, with lighter featherings on the underside of the tail, pantaloons, and body. Even the lighter shades of golden red are deeply pigmented and rich in color. Disqualifications: brown coat, black areas in coat, or buff. Buff is bleached, faded, or silvery. Buff may also appear as faded brown with or without silver tips. Markings: the Toller has usually at least one of the following white markings - tip of tail, feet (not extending above the pasterns) chest and blaze. A dog of otherwise high quality is not to be penalized for lack of white. Disqualifications: white on the shoulders, around the ears, back of neck, or across the flanks.

Gait
The Toller combines an impression of power with a springy gait, showing good reach in front and a strong driving rear. Feet should turn neither in nor out, and legs travel in a straight line. In its natural gait at increased speeds, the dog\'s feet tend to converge towards a center line, with the backline remaining level.

Temperament
The Toller is highly intelligent, alert, outgoing, and ready for action, though not to the point of nervousness or hyperactivity. He is affectionate and loving with family members and is good with children, showing patience. Some individuals may display reserved behavior in new situations, but this is not to be confused with shyness. Shyness in adult classes should be penalized. The Toller\'s strong retrieving desire coupled with his love of water, endurance and intense birdiness, is essential for his role as a tolling retriever.

Disqualifications
Butterfly nose.
Undershot bite, wry mouth, overshot by more than 1/8 inch.
Rear dewclaws.
Brown coat, black areas in coat, or buff. Buff is bleached, faded or silvery. Buff may also appear as faded brown, with or without silver tips.
White on the shoulders, around the ears, back of the neck, or across the flanks.

Approved: June 11, 2001
Effective: September 1, 2001

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:51:40 | 显示全部楼层


拉布拉多猎犬(Labrador Retriever)AKC标准及简介

拉布拉多图片集 | 拉布拉多猎犬视频

  拉布拉多猎犬并不像它的名字那样来自拉布拉多地区,而是来自纽芬兰,虽然它并没有表示出它后来到达的地方,但是在1822年该地区的一个旅行者报道了一定数目的“小水犬”,报道中说:“这些犬作为猎犬受过极好的训练,用于搜捕野禽,除此之外还有其他用途。这种平毛或短毛犬得到人们的普遍喜欢,是因为在严寒的天气,当长毛犬种从水中出来时,浑身会结满冰。”

  早在19世纪,Malmesbury伯爵普遍了解了被渔民带到英国的该种犬并直接安排进口了一些这样的犬。1830年著名的英国运动员 Colonel Hawker查看了普通的纽芬兰犬和St.John种的水犬,对前者作了这样的描述:“体格大,肢体强健,毛发硬,尾巴高抬。”他所描述的就是现在的拉布拉多犬。他评价说:“到目前为止,这种犬是所有不同种猎犬中最好的一种,它一般是黑色,不比指示猎犬大,四肢较细,短而平的毛发以及尾巴不像其他犬种有卷曲,奔跑、游水非常迅速,好斗,嗅觉非常灵敏。”

  在英国,这种犬作为拉布拉多犬最初一般不为人知。事实上,这个名字来源出现在Malmesbury伯爵缩写的一封信中,他说:“我总是叫我的犬为拉布拉多犬,从一开始我就注意做好这一犬种的保存工作,这种犬最初是来自Poole,在那个时期,与纽芬兰进行活跃的商贸往来。这一犬种可能因为它紧密的、从水中出来时像涂了油的被毛和一头似水獭的尾巴而闻名。”

  在纽芬兰因为沉重的犬税,拉布拉多犬逐渐消失。根据英国的限制法,这沉重的犬税实际上停止了向英国进口犬。此后,许多拉布拉多犬和其他种类的猎犬互相交配繁殖,但幸运的是拉布拉多犬的独有特性占优势。最后,育种者希望停止这种相互的交配繁殖,制定出一个标准,以便阻止这种犬与其他猎犬杂交。

  Bucdleuch公爵的拉布拉多犬有一本血统书,这本书使查出繁殖现代拉布拉多犬的两头犬的出身成为可能。这两头犬是A.C.Butter先生的“Peter of Faskally犬”和Portal少校的“Flapper犬”,这一世系可追溯到1878年。

  拉布拉多猎犬作为一单独的犬种是在1903年首先由英国养犬俱乐部承认的。第一个被美国养犬俱乐部注册登记的拉布拉多犬是在1917年的“Brocklehirst Nell犬”——一头从苏格兰进口的母犬。从1920年末到1930年,随着英国犬的大量涌进(包括苏格兰猎犬训练者),在这个国家形成了该犬种的优势。

  在英国,没有拉布拉多犬能成为一个展示比赛的冠军,因为它没有参赛资格,除非它有工作执照能明确证明它在这一领域也有资格。在美国,拉布拉多犬成为主要的受训犬和猎犬,因为这种具有良好的外貌和风格的猎犬以及真实的血统类型的双重概念,早已被建立起来。1930开始,狩猎和育种者们于1931年成立了拉布拉多猎犬俱乐部,同时在展示比赛中展示他们繁育的犬并取得了明显的成功。

  拉布拉多猎犬的能力、良好的性情和可靠性,已经奠定了作为主要犬种之一的地位,并被广泛应用为导盲犬、搜索犬和营救犬等。

拉布拉多猎犬AKC品种标准

拉布拉多猎犬整体外貌
  拉布拉多猎犬体格强健,中等大小,短躯干,是功能全面的猎犬;良好的骨骼和健康的身体使它在困难的环境中能长时间进行狩猎水禽或陆上猎物的活动;具有的特性和品质使它们能在展示比赛中获胜;良好的性情适合成为家庭伴侣犬;身体特征和精神品质使这一犬种适合成为一种高效率的猎犬;它稳定的性情适合在各种狩猎环境中对各种猎物的搜捕。

  拉布拉多猎犬最明显的特征是:短、致密、防水的被毛;一个水獭似的尾巴;一个轮廓鲜明的后头骨;额段宽阔适中的头部;强健的领部和友好、善意的眼睛。

  总之,拉布拉多猎犬具有良好的协调性,使它能在展示比赛中充分表现自己,使它不费力地适应自己的工作领域。典型的拉布拉多猎犬拥有文雅的风度和品质以及无笨重感的骨骼组织。拉布拉多犬主要作为一种实用性猎犬被培育繁殖,所以其机体结构和健康状况是非常重要的。

拉布拉多猎犬的大小,比例和结构
  大小——对一头公犬来说,体高一般为57.2 ~ 62.2厘米;母犬一般为54.6 ~ 59.7厘米。凡是高于或低于这一范围1.3厘米的犬都是不符合标准的。在工作条件下,公犬和母犬的近似重量为:公犬为29.48 ~ 36.29千克;母犬为24.95 ~ 31.75千克。最低限度的体高范围不适用于小于12个月龄的公犬或母犬。

  比例——短躯干;体长(从肩部最高点到臀部最后点之间距离)等于或稍长于它的身高(肩胛上缘到地面的垂直距离),从肘部到地面的垂直距离等于1 / 2身高,胸部一般延展到肘部,但不太深。躯干必须有足够的长度,允许有一个直的、流畅的和充分的大步伐。但这种犬一般不表现出过低和过长的体形。

  结构——骨骼与整个犬体都是相称的。偏轻、显得瘦弱的犬是明显不符合要求的。同样,笨重的体形是令人不喜欢的。拉布拉多猎犬在工作条件下表现的应是肌肉发达和不过于肥胖。

拉布拉多猎犬的头部
  头骨——宽阔、发育良好,但不过大。头骨和前脸在一个水平面并且近似等长。额段适中,额头稍明显,以便头骨和鼻子不会绝对在一平面上。头部轮廓明显,面颊无多肉,口鼻部似凿过,但面颊不突出。头骨显示出一中线。对于一头成犬,其枕骨部不明显。

  嘴唇——不呈方形或下垂,但朝颈部方向形成曲线。一个楔子形的头部或者头部在口鼻部长而窄。后头骨大而重是不符合要求的,颌部强健有力非剪刀形。

  口鼻部——长短、宽窄适中。

  鼻部——鼻子宽大,鼻孔发育良好。对于黑色或黄色犬来说,鼻子应是黑色的;而对于巧克力色的犬来说,鼻子应是褐色的。鼻子颜色渐褪成一个浅颜色并不是缺陷,一个完全粉色的鼻子或缺乏色素沉积的鼻子是不符合标准的。

  牙齿——牙齿应强健、规则,呈剪式咬合。下牙齿接触上门牙内侧。一个水平式咬合是可以接受的,但是不理想。“地包天”、“天包地”或牙齿不成一线都是严重的缺陷。

  耳朵——紧贴头部垂挂,较向后,稍低于头骨。位置略高于眼水平线上。双耳不大不重,但与头骨成比例,当向前拉时,能到达眼部。

  眼睛——和善、本好的眼睛传达出良好的性情、聪明和机警,这是该犬种的一个特征。眼睛中等大小,适合分开,既不向外突出,也不向内深陷。对于黑色和黄色拉布拉多犬来说,眼睛是褐色;对于巧克力色的犬来说,呈褐色或淡褐色。黑色或黄色的眼睛给人一种严厉的表情,是不符合要求的。眼睛小、两眼之间的距离较近或圆形明显的眼睛,都不是典型的犬种。眼边缘对黑色或黄色拉布拉多犬是黑颜色;对巧克力色犬是褐色,无色素沉积的眼边缘是不符合标准的。

拉布拉多猎犬的颈部,背中线和躯干
  颈部——适当的长度允许犬较轻易地搜捕猎物,肌肉发达,颈前部活动灵活。颈部从双肩强劲升起,呈一适合的拱形。一个短而粗的脖颈或一个母羊式的脖颈是一种缺陷。

  背中线——背部强壮,无论犬是站立不动,还是运动,背中线从双肩隆起处到臀部是水平的。但是,腰部显示出了适应运动的灵活性。

  躯干——拉布拉多犬躯干短,富有弹性的肋骨逐渐变细形成适合宽度的胸部。拉布拉多犬的胸部没有一个宽阔的延展,像斗牛犬的胸部,但不是窄胸,以至于在两前肢之间给人一种凹陷的外观。适合的胸部构造是在前肢之间逐渐变尖,以充分允许前肢的活动。不适合犬高效率的运动和持久性的胸宽是一种缺陷。厚板样胸部的拉布拉多犬不是典型的犬种。同样,圆状或桶状的胸部是不受欢迎的。下腹中线几乎是直的,成年犬有少许或无褶皱。

  腰部——短宽而健壮,延伸到发育良好、强有力的后躯。当从旁边观察时,拉布拉多犬显示出良好的发育,但无过大的前胸。

  尾部——拉布拉多犬的尾巴是这一种犬区别其他犬种的一个特征。它的根部非常粗,朝着尖端逐渐变细,中等长度,伸展不超过跗关节。整个尾部被覆短而致密的被毛,形成特有的、似水獭的圆形外貌,无论静止或是运动,尾巴始终沿与背中线保持直线,直立,但从不弯过背部。短尾或是细长的尾巴都是严重的缺陷。靠给尾部一个从头到尾尖的一个线形摆动力量来平衡犬体。剪短或是用别的方法改变尾巴长度或天生就有不适合的尾巴都是不符合标准的。

拉布拉多猎犬的前躯
  肌肉发达与后躯形成完好的协调性和平衡性。

  肩部—— 双肩长且适当后倾,与上肢形成一个近似90°角,允许犬以一个容易的方式移动它的前肢,坚定地迈向前方。肩胛骨的长度等于上肢的长度,以形成完美的结构。垂直的肩胛骨、短上肢、不灵活的肌肉或负重的双肩等所有妨碍自由活动的状态都是一种缺陷。

  前肢——当从前面观察时,两肢因发育良好的强壮骨骼而呈垂直状态。太粗的骨骼与太细的骨骼都是不受欢迎的。短腿、重骨的拉布拉多犬都不是典型的犬种。从旁边观察,肘部正好在肩胛上缘之下,从而使前肢与地面成直角。肘部紧贴肋骨,无缝隙。肘部朝外或朝内而影响犬的自由活动都是严重的缺陷。

  系部——短而强健,稍倾斜于腿部的垂直线。

  脚部——强健而紧凑,脚趾适当拱起并具有发育良好的肉垫。狼爪可以被去掉。脚部张开或呈野兔脚、趾节过长或脚部朝内或朝外都将是严重的缺陷。

拉布拉多猎犬的后躯
  拉布拉多猎犬的后躯宽阔、肌肉发达,从臀部到跗关节发育良好。适合转向的膝关节和短而强健的关节。从后部观察,后肢垂直地面并相互平行。后肢骨骼强健,肌肉发达,在膝关节处形成恰当的角度。大腿部强壮有力,轮廓分明。当运动或站立时,膝盖骨不倾斜。强健的跗关节适当向下,无论是运动还是站立都不倾斜或过于伸展。膝关节和跗关节的角度是为了达到最理想的伸展和收缩平衡。当站立时,后脚趾稍处于臀部后点之后。具有倾斜背中线的,不是典型的犬种。

  脚部——强健紧凑,脚趾适当拱起,肉垫发育良好。母牛似的、展开的、镰刀似的和角度过大的附关节都是严重的结构缺陷,是不符合要求的。

拉布拉多猎犬的被毛
  被毛是拉布拉多猎犬的一个重要特征。它短而直并且非常致密,手感粗硬。拉布拉多猎犬具有柔软、抵抗恶劣天气的下层被毛,这层被毛可以防水、防冷和抵挡地面各种类型的荆棘等破坏物。背部有轻微波纹的向下被毛是允许的。被毛似羊毛状,软绸样被毛和平滑被毛都是非典型犬种,在展示比赛当中将会处于极其不利的地位。

拉布拉多猎犬的颜色
  拉布拉多猎犬的被毛颜色是黑色、黄色和巧克力色。任何其他颜色或混合色都是不符合标准的。在胸部有一个小白点是允许的,但是不受欢迎。因年龄出现的白毛发或有伤疤但不会被误解为有斑纹的是允许的。黑色必须是单一黑色。一个带有斑纹的黑色或一个带有黄褐色斑的黑色都是不符合标准的;黄颜色可以有一个颜色范围,从淡红到淡奶油色。颜色变化部分一般在犬的双耳、背部和体下部。巧克力颜色变化可以从浅巧克力色到深巧克力色。带有斑纹或黄褐色的巧克力色是不符合标准的。

拉布拉多猎犬的运动
  拉布拉多猎犬的运动是自由的和不费力气的。正面观察犬向前运动时,应没有肘部外展的迹象。在一定程度上。肘部抬起几乎碰到犬体,而两肢不能紧贴在一起。直线向前移动时,如无速度或不迂回行进,四肢形成直线,所有部分在同一平面移动。从后面观察犬,你会有这样一种感觉,后肢移动与前肢尽可能在一平行线上。附关节在运动时参与每一个步骤,屈曲灵活,给人一种充满力量的感觉。当从旁边观察犬的运动时,双肩呈现自由和不费力的移动,前肢向前伸展接触地面。一个短的、向前急冲的运动或一个高抬膝的活动都暗示出一个直肩;涉水样运动暗示长的、软弱的系部;一个短的、踏台阶式的步态暗示一个直的后部结构,所有这些都是严重的缺陷。运动缺陷与展示表演相冲突,包括迂回前进、半边迂回前进、过度交叉;高抬膝动作,涉水样运动和短的、踏台阶式运动,都将在展示比赛中处于极不利的地位。

拉布拉多猎犬的性情
  纯种拉布拉多猎犬的性情就像它的“水獭”似的尾巴一样具有特征。理想的性情表现出和善、友好、驯良的本性。渴望赞赏或对人或动物不会无缘无故的攻击。拉布拉多猎犬对人有许多吸引力,它的文雅行为、聪明和适应力使它成为理想的犬种。对人或其他动物无故攻击或出现任何害羞的表现,都将会在展示比赛中处于不利的地位。

失格条件:
  1.任何偏离标准要求的高度。
  2.完全粉红的鼻子或缺乏色素沉着的鼻子。
  3.眼边缘无色素沉着。
  4.剪短或其他方法改变尾巴的长度或自然不符合标准的尾巴。
  5.除了作为标准要求的黑色、黄色和巧克力色以外的任何其他颜色或混合颜色。


1994年2月12日批准
1994年3月31日生效

Labrador Retriever Breed Standard
General Appearance
The Labrador Retriever is a strongly built, medium-sized, short-coupled, dog possessing a sound, athletic, well-balanced conformation that enables it to function as a retrieving gun dog; the substance and soundness to hunt waterfowl or upland game for long hours under difficult conditions; the character and quality to win in the show ring; and the temperament to be a family companion. Physical features and mental characteristics should denote a dog bred to perform as an efficient Retriever of game with a stable temperament suitable for a variety of pursuits beyond the hunting environment.

The most distinguishing characteristics of the Labrador Retriever are its short, dense, weather resistant coat; an \"otter\" tail; a clean-cut head with broad back skull and moderate stop; powerful jaws; and its \"kind,\" friendly eyes, expressing character, intelligence and good temperament.

Above all, a Labrador Retriever must be well balanced, enabling it to move in the show ring or work in the field with little or no effort. The typical Labrador possesses style and quality without over refinement, and substance without lumber or cloddiness. The Labrador is bred primarily as a working gun dog; structure and soundness are of great importance.

Size, Proportion and Substance
Size--The height at the withers for a dog is 22½ to 24½ inches; for a bitch is 21½ to 23½ inches. Any variance greater than ½ inch above or below these heights is a disqualification. Approximate weight of dogs and bitches in working condition: dogs 65 to 80 pounds; bitches 55 to 70 pounds.

The minimum height ranges set forth in the paragraph above shall not apply to dogs or bitches under twelve months of age.

Proportion--Short-coupled; length from the point of the shoulder to the point of the rump is equal to or slightly longer than the distance from the withers to the ground. Distance from the elbow to the ground should be equal to one half of the height at the withers. The brisket should extend to the elbows, but not perceptibly deeper. The body must be of sufficient length to permit a straight, free and efficient stride; but the dog should never appear low and long or tall and leggy in outline. Substance--Substance and bone proportionate to the overall dog. Light, \"weedy\" individuals are definitely incorrect; equally objectionable are cloddy lumbering specimens. Labrador Retrievers shall be shown in working condition well-muscled and without excess fat.

Head
Skull--The skull should be wide; well developed but without exaggeration. The skull and foreface should be on parallel planes and of approximately equal length. There should be a moderate stop--the brow slightly pronounced so that the skull is not absolutely in a straight line with the nose. The brow ridges aid in defining the stop. The head should be clean-cut and free from fleshy cheeks; the bony structure of the skull chiseled beneath the eye with no prominence in the cheek. The skull may show some median line; the occipital bone is not conspicuous in mature dogs. Lips should not be squared off or pendulous, but fall away in a curve toward the throat. A wedge-shape head, or a head long and narrow in muzzle and back skull is incorrect as are massive, cheeky heads. The jaws are powerful and free from snippiness-- the muzzle neither long and narrow nor short and stubby. Nose-- The nose should be wide and the nostrils well-developed. The nose should be black on black or yellow dogs, and brown on chocolates. Nose color fading to a lighter shade is not a fault. A thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment is a disqualification. Teeth--The teeth should be strong and regular with a scissors bite; the lower teeth just behind, but touching the inner side of the upper incisors. A level bite is acceptable, but not desirable. Undershot, overshot, or misaligned teeth are serious faults. Full dentition is preferred. Missing molars or pre-molars are serious faults. Ears--The ears should hang moderately close to the head, set rather far back, and somewhat low on the skull; slightly above eye level. Ears should not be large and heavy, but in proportion with the skull and reach to the inside of the eye when pulled forward. Eyes--Kind, friendly eyes imparting good temperament, intelligence and alertness are a hallmark of the breed. They should be of medium size, set well apart, and neither protruding nor deep set. Eye color should be brown in black and yellow Labradors, and brown or hazel in chocolates. Black, or yellow eyes give a harsh expression and are undesirable. Small eyes, set close together or round prominent eyes are not typical of the breed. Eye rims are black in black and yellow Labradors; and brown in chocolates. Eye rims without pigmentation is a disqualification.

Neck, Topline and Body
Neck--The neck should be of proper length to allow the dog to retrieve game easily. It should be muscular and free from throatiness. The neck should rise strongly from the shoulders with a moderate arch. A short, thick neck or a \"ewe\" neck is incorrect. Topline--The back is strong and the topline is level from the withers to the croup when standing or moving. However, the loin should show evidence of flexibility for athletic endeavor. Body--The Labrador should be short-coupled, with good spring of ribs tapering to a moderately wide chest. The Labrador should not be narrow chested; giving the appearance of hollowness between the front legs, nor should it have a wide spreading, bulldog-like front. Correct chest conformation will result in tapering between the front legs that allows unrestricted forelimb movement. Chest breadth that is either too wide or too narrow for efficient movement and stamina is incorrect. Slab-sided individuals are not typical of the breed; equally objectionable are rotund or barrel chested specimens. The underline is almost straight, with little or no tuck-up in mature animals. Loins should be short, wide and strong; extending to well developed, powerful hindquarters. When viewed from the side, the Labrador Retriever shows a well-developed, but not exaggerated forechest. Tail--The tail is a distinguishing feature of the breed. It should be very thick at the base, gradually tapering toward the tip, of medium length, and extending no longer than to the hock. The tail should be free from feathering and clothed thickly all around with the Labrador\'s short, dense coat, thus having that peculiar rounded appearance that has been described as the \"otter\" tail. The tail should follow the topline in repose or when in motion. It may be carried gaily, but should not curl over the back. Extremely short tails or long thin tails are serious faults. The tail completes the balance of the Labrador by giving it a flowing line from the top of the head to the tip of the tail. Docking or otherwise altering the length or natural carriage of the tail is a disqualification.

Forequarters
Forequarters should be muscular, well coordinated and balanced with the hindquarters. Shoulders--The shoulders are well laid-back, long and sloping, forming an angle with the upper arm of approximately 90 degrees that permits the dog to move his forelegs in an easy manner with strong forward reach. Ideally, the length of the shoulder blade should equal the length of the upper arm. Straight shoulder blades, short upper arms or heavily muscled or loaded shoulders, all restricting free movement, are incorrect. Front Legs--When viewed from the front, the legs should be straight with good strong bone. Too much bone is as undesirable as too little bone, and short legged, heavy boned individuals are not typical of the breed. Viewed from the side, the elbows should be directly under the withers, and the front legs should be perpendicular to the ground and well under the body. The elbows should be close to the ribs without looseness. Tied-in elbows or being \"out at the elbows\" interfere with free movement and are serious faults. Pasterns should be strong and short and should slope slightly from the perpendicular line of the leg. Feet are strong and compact, with well-arched toes and well-developed pads. Dew claws may be removed. Splayed feet, hare feet, knuckling over, or feet turning in or out are serious faults.

Hindquarters
The Labrador\'s hindquarters are broad, muscular and well-developed from the hip to the hock with well-turned stifles and strong short hocks. Viewed from the rear, the hind legs are straight and parallel. Viewed from the side, the angulation of the rear legs is in balance with the front. The hind legs are strongly boned, muscled with moderate angulation at the stifle, and powerful, clearly defined thighs. The stifle is strong and there is no slippage of the patellae while in motion or when standing. The hock joints are strong, well let down and do not slip or hyper-extend while in motion or when standing. Angulation of both stifle and hock joint is such as to achieve the optimal balance of drive and traction. When standing the rear toes are only slightly behind the point of the rump. Over angulation produces a sloping topline not typical of the breed. Feet are strong and compact, with well-arched toes and well-developed pads. Cow-hocks, spread hocks, sickle hocks and over-angulation are serious structural defects and are to be faulted.

Coat
The coat is a distinctive feature of the Labrador Retriever. It should be short, straight and very dense, giving a fairly hard feeling to the hand. The Labrador should have a soft, weather-resistant undercoat that provides protection from water, cold and all types of ground cover. A slight wave down the back is permissible. Woolly coats, soft silky coats, and sparse slick coats are not typical of the breed, and should be severely penalized.

Color
The Labrador Retriever coat colors are black, yellow and chocolate. Any other color or a combination of colors is a disqualification. A small white spot on the chest is permissible, but not desirable. White hairs from aging or scarring are not to be misinterpreted as brindling. Black--Blacks are all black. A black with brindle markings or a black with tan markings is a disqualification. Yellow--Yellows may range in color from fox-red to light cream, with variations in shading on the ears, back, and underparts of the dog. Chocolate--Chocolates can vary in shade from light to dark chocolate. Chocolate with brindle or tan markings is a disqualification.

Movement
Movement of the Labrador Retriever should be free and effortless. When watching a dog move toward oneself, there should be no sign of elbows out. Rather, the elbows should be held neatly to the body with the legs not too close together. Moving straight forward without pacing or weaving, the legs should form straight lines, with all parts moving in the same plane. Upon viewing the dog from the rear, one should have the impression that the hind legs move as nearly as possible in a parallel line with the front legs. The hocks should do their full share of the work, flexing well, giving the appearance of power and strength. When viewed from the side, the shoulders should move freely and effortlessly, and the foreleg should reach forward close to the ground with extension. A short, choppy movement or high knee action indicates a straight shoulder; paddling indicates long, weak pasterns; and a short, stilted rear gait indicates a straight rear assembly; all are serious faults. Movement faults interfering with performance including weaving; side-winding; crossing over; high knee action; paddling; and short, choppy movement, should be severely penalized.

Temperament
True Labrador Retriever temperament is as much a hallmark of the breed as the \"otter\" tail. The ideal disposition is one of a kindly, outgoing, tractable nature; eager to please and non-aggressive towards man or animal. The Labrador has much that appeals to people; his gentle ways, intelligence and adaptability make him an ideal dog. Aggressiveness towards humans or other animals, or any evidence of shyness in an adult should be severely penalized.

Disqualifications
1. Any deviation from the height prescribed in the Standard.
2. A thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment.
3. Eye rims without pigment.
4. Docking or otherwise altering the length or natural carriage of the tail.
5. Any other color or a combination of colors other than black, yellow or chocolate as described in the Standard.

Approved February 12, 1994
Effective March 31, 1994

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:52:11 | 显示全部楼层


爱尔兰水猎犬(Irish Water Spaniel)AKC标准及简介
爱尔兰水猎犬历史:
原产地爱尔兰,起源于19世纪。

该品种是由查士丁麦卡锡主持培育的,因为他对该品种的来源严格保密,所以很难确切知道爱尔兰水猎犬的血统。有人认为可能是葡萄牙水狗或其他长卷毛品种比如贵妇犬等与爱尔兰本地狗杂交的结果。主要用来在河湖和沼泽地中猎捕野鸭、野鹅等水禽水鸟。游泳能力非常强,能够从深水中把像鹅这么大的猎物拖上岸来。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的简介]

爱尔兰水猎犬是一种漂亮的、结构坚固的运动犬,非常聪明,结合了耐力和胆大的性格,活跃、热情的气质。独特的特征在于顶髻上长而松散的卷毛,身躯上覆盖着浓密、清晰的肝色卷毛,与他平滑的脸部及平滑的 \"老鼠\"尾巴形成鲜明的对照。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的体型]

结构有力,骨量充足,爱尔兰水猎犬长度适中,略呈矩形外观。他非常匀称,不会显得腿很细长或很粗糙。雄性肩高约在 22~24英寸;雌性肩高约在21~23英寸。雄性体重约为55~65磅;雌性体重约为45~58磅。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的头部]

头部轮廓整洁,没有 \"厚脸皮\",也不显得很短,呈楔形。脑袋稍大,顶部圆拱,后枕骨突出,止部逐渐过渡。口吻呈四方形,且稍长。嘴巴开口较深,嘴唇质地细腻。鼻镜大,肝色。牙齿结实而整齐,剪状咬和或钳状咬和。脸部的毛发短而平顺。除了胡须是生长在下巴后面的一条窄线上。顶髻:这个品种独特的特征,长而下坠,松散的卷毛向下生长,在眼睛中间形成清晰的\"鸭舌\",并象披肩一样垂下来,围绕着耳朵上端及后枕骨。以夸张的方式修剪这各品种独特的特征是非常讨厌的。眼睛:中等大小,略呈杏仁形,眼睑紧密。眼睛颜色为榛色,越深越好。表情敏锐、警惕、聪明、直率而好奇。耳朵:长、叶子状,位置低,耳廓向前伸展的话,可以延伸到鼻尖,覆盖着长长的卷毛,能延伸到耳廓下1~2英寸。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部长,圆拱,结实而肌肉发达,平滑地融入整洁而倾斜的肩胛。背线:结实而水平,可能后端略高,决不能向下倾斜,也不能显得松弛或拱起。身躯:身躯长度适中,略有棱角。胸部深,胸底延伸到肘部。肋骨支撑良好,且向后。肩胛后面的肋骨立即变平,允许前肢能自由运动,随后逐渐变圆。腰部短、宽且肌肉发达,身躯没有明显的上提。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的前躯]

整个前躯给人的印象是非常有力,但不沉重。肩胛倾斜而整洁。前肢骨量充足,肌肉发达,中等长度;上臂有充分的长度,保证能有效的伸展。肘部位置贴近身躯。足爪大,厚实且略微张开,脚趾上和中间都覆盖有毛发。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的后躯]

健康的后躯是非常重要的,需要在游泳或行走中提供强大的驱动力。高于或略高于肩胛,强大而肌肉发达,第一节大腿和第二节大腿非常发达。臀部宽,膝关节适度弯曲,飞节位置低,且适度弯曲。后躯角度适中,前后躯角度平衡是至关重要的。后足爪大、厚实、略微张开;覆盖着毛发。尾巴位置低,足够使后躯形成圆形外观,位置举到与背部齐平的位置。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的尾巴]

尾巴是所谓的 \"老鼠尾\",是这个品种独特的特征。根部粗,隐藏着2~3英寸的短短的卷。尾巴呈锥形,尖端细腻。从根部出发,尾巴卷隐藏在短而平顺的毛发中,使他看起来象被剪短了。尾巴的长度不应该能延伸到飞节。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的被毛]

适当的双层被毛,在工作中能起到保护作用,是至关重要的。颈部、后背、两侧、及后面,都隐藏在浓厚、紧密而清晰的卷毛中,肋骨下的毛发稍长。前肢上覆盖着丰富的卷毛或波浪状的毛发。后腿上也覆盖着丰富的卷毛或波浪状的毛发,除了后腿飞节下方的前面,毛发短而平滑。喉咙处的毛发非常短,且平滑,形成 V字形区域。所有的卷毛区域都整洁而清晰,有足够的长度,与被毛平滑的脸部、喉咙、尾巴及后腿飞节以下部位形成鲜明的对比。前后足爪上都有毛发覆盖,脚趾间和脚趾上都有毛发。他可以显示其自然的被毛,也可以修剪过。无论如何,能不能将毛发过分修饰或修剪,使卷曲的被毛质地变的不明显。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的颜色]

纯肝色。除非是年老而产生的灰白色,白色毛发或斑纹属于缺陷。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的步态]

爱尔兰水猎犬的动作平顺、舒展。从侧面观察,伸展和驱动显得协调。能精确而准确的笔直过来或离去。不论是行走中还是站立时,腿部垂直于地面,脚趾既不向内弯,也不向外翻。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的气质]

非常警惕且好奇。爱尔兰水猎犬通常对陌生人有所保留。无论如何,好斗的行为或过分羞怯属于缺陷。气质稳定,对一个猎犬而言,是基本要求。

[爱尔兰水猎犬的缺陷]

前面所描述的爱尔兰水猎犬可以在艰苦的条件下工作。任何背离上面描述的地方都属于缺陷,并需要根据背离的长度进行扣分,保持该品种最初的基本用途所必须的外貌特征是非常重要的。

标准通过日期: 1990年6月12日
标准执行日期: 1990年8月1日

Irish Water Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Irish Water Spaniel presents a picture of a smart, upstanding strongly built sporting dog. Great intelligence is combined with rugged endurance and a bold, dashing eagerness of temperament. Distinguishing characteristics are a topknot of long, loose curls, a body covered with a dense, crisply curled liver colored coat, contrasted by a smooth face and a smooth \"rat\" tail.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Strongly built and well boned, the Irish Water Spaniel is a dog of medium length, slightly rectangular in appearance. He is well balanced and shows no legginess or coarseness. Dogs 22 to 24 inches, bitches 21 to 23 inches, measured at the highest point of the shoulder. Dogs 55 to 65 pounds, bitches 45 to 58 pounds.

Head
The head is cleanly chiseled, not cheeky, and should not present a short, wedge shaped appearance. The skull is rather large and high in the dome, with a prominent occiput and a gradual stop. The muzzle is square and rather long, with a deep mouth opening and lips fine in texture. The nose large and liver in color. Teeth strong and regular with a scissors or level bite. The hair on the face is short and smooth, except for a beard which grows in a narrow line at the back of the jaw. Topknot--A characteristic of the breed, consists of long, loose curls growing down into a well-defined peak between the eyes and falling like a shawl over the tops of the ears and occiput. Trimming of this breed characteristic in an exaggerated manner is highly objectionable. Eyes--Medium in size, slightly almond shaped with tight eyelids. Eyes are hazel in color, preferably of a dark shade. The expression is keenly alert, intelligent, direct and quizzical. Ears--Long, lobular, set low, with leathers reaching about to the end of the nose when extended forward, and abundantly covered with long curls, extending two or more inches below the tips of the leathers.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is long, arching, strong and muscular; smoothly set into cleanly sloping shoulders. Topline--Strong and level, or slightly higher in the rear; never descending, or showing sag or roach. Body--The body is of medium length, slightly rectangular. Chest deep, with brisket extending to the elbows. Ribs well sprung and carried well back. Immediately behind the shoulders ribs are flattened enough to allow free movement of the forelegs, becoming rounder behind. Loin short, wide and muscular. The body should not present a tucked-up appearance.

Forequarters
The entire front gives the impression of strength without heaviness. Shoulders are sloping and clean. Forelegs well boned, muscular, medium in length; with sufficient length of upper arm to ensure efficient reach. Elbows close set. Forefeet are large, thick and somewhat spreading; well clothed with hair both over and between the toes.

Hindquarters
Sound hindquarters are of great importance to provide swimming power and drive. They should be as high or slightly higher than the shoulders, powerful and muscular, with well developed upper and second thighs. Hips wide, stifles moderately bent, hocks low set and moderately bent. Rear angulation is moderate, and balance of front and rear angulation is of paramount importance. Rear feet are large, thick and somewhat spreading; well clothed with hair. Tail should be set on low enough to give a rather rounded appearance to the hindquarters and should be carried nearly level with the back.

Tail
The so-called \"rat tail\" is a striking characteristic of the breed. At the root it is thick and covered for two or three inches with short curls. It tapers to a fine point at the end; and from the root curls is covered with short, smooth hair so as to look as if it had been clipped. The tail should not be long enough to reach the hock joint.

Coat
Proper double coat is of vital importance to protect the dog while working. The neck, back, sides, and rear are densely covered with tight, crisp ringlets, with the hair longer underneath the ribs. Forelegs are well covered with abundant curls or waves. The hind legs should also be abundantly covered by hair falling in curls or waves, except that the hair should be short and smooth on the front of the legs below the hocks. The hair on the throat is very short and smooth, forming a V-shaped patch. All curled areas should be clearly defined by curls of sufficient length to form a sharp contrast with the smooth coat on face, throat, tail, and rear legs below the hocks. Fore and hind feet should be well clothed with hair both over and between the toes. Dogs may be shown in natural coat or trimmed. However, no dog should be groomed or trimmed so excessively as to obscure the curl or texture of the coat.

Color
Solid liver. With the exception of graying due to age, white hair or markings objectionable.

Gait
The Irish Water Spaniel moves with a smooth, free, ground covering action that, when viewed from the side, exhibits balanced reach and drive. True and precise coming and going. When walking or standing, the legs are perpendicular to the ground, toeing neither in nor out.

Temperament
Very alert and inquisitive, the Irish Water Spaniel is often reserved with strangers. However, aggressive behavior or excessive shyness should be penalized. A stable temperament is essential in a hunting dog.

Faults
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Irish Water Spaniel in hard working condition. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation, keeping in mind the importance of the various features toward the basic original purpose of the breed.

Approved June 12, 1990
Effective August 1, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:52:42 | 显示全部楼层


爱尔兰塞特犬(Irish Setter)AKC标准及介绍
[简介]

爱尔兰塞特犬是一种活跃的、贵族化的猎鸟犬,颜色是浓烈的红色,结构坚固,但很文雅。站立时,肩高超过 2英尺,他拥有直、细腻、且有光泽的被毛,耳朵、胸部、尾巴和腿后面的毛发略长。在野外,爱尔兰塞特犬是动作迅速的猎手,在家庭里,他又是性情甜蜜,容易调教的伴侣。
爱尔兰塞特犬中最优秀个体的线条如此完美、协调,被艺术家誉为所有犬种中最漂亮的。不论在站立时,还是在行走中,正确的爱尔兰塞特犬总是显得那么匀称。他身上的每一部分都流畅地、平顺地与边上的部分衔接,而不是只关注“自己”这一块。

[体型]

不会因为尺寸原因而取消资格。所有部分的结构都很正确,且非常平衡,对爱尔兰塞特犬来说,是最重要的。雄性最理想的尺寸是肩高 27英寸,体重大约70磅;而雌性最理想的尺寸是肩高25英寸,体重大约60磅。误差超过1英寸以上都不理想。比例:从前胸到大腿后面的距离(体长)与马肩隆到地面的距离(肩高)相比,体长略大于肩高。体质:腿部都非常强健,且骨量充足。雄性的结构反映出雄壮,但不粗糙;雌性的结构反映出柔美,但没有骨量不足的现象。

[头部]

长而倾斜,其长度至少是耳朵处宽度的 2倍。漂亮的头部强调的是沿着口吻一线及周围,眼睛下面,沿着面颊一线的轮廓和线条非常精致。表情:温和,但警惕。眼睛:有点呈杏仁状,中等大小,位置分的比较开,既不凹陷,也不突出。颜色是从深褐色到中褐色。耳朵:位置靠后且低,不能高过眼睛所在的水平线。耳廓薄,有优雅的折痕,悬挂着,贴近头部,长度几乎能够延伸到鼻尖。脑袋:从上面或前面观察,脑袋的形状为卵形;观察其轮廓,非常轻微的圆拱。眉毛凸起,在鼻尖与清晰的后枕骨(脑袋后面的尖端)的中途,止部非常清晰。因而,从后枕骨到眉毛的几乎是水平的线条略微靠上一些,从眼睛到鼻尖的线条与之平行、长度相等,且笔直。口吻:中等深度,颌部的长度大致与其相等。下颌的线条与口吻上轮廓的线条差不多完全平行。鼻镜:黑色或巧克力色,鼻孔宽阔,上嘴唇相当方正,但不下垂。牙齿:剪状咬和为首选,钳状咬和也可以接受。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:中等长度,结实,但不粗壮,且略微圆拱;没有赘肉且平顺地融入肩部。背线:从马肩隆到尾巴这一段身躯,稳固,且略微向下倾斜,但不是剧烈的向臀部下坠。尾巴:尾根位置与臀部相平,更象是背线的自然延伸。根部结实,尖端细,且精巧。长度差不多能够延伸到飞节。笔直地举着,或略微向上弯曲,差不多与背部在同一平面。身躯:有足够的长度,允许他迈出直而大的步伐。胸部:深,差不多能延伸到肘部,前胸适度突出,超过肩胛骨与上臂接合的关节。胸部宽度适中,不会干涉前肢的运动,向后延伸的肋骨扩张良好。腰部:稳固,肌肉发达且长度适中。

[前躯]

肩胛骨长,宽,向后倾斜,在马肩隆处非常靠近。上臂骨与肩胛骨长度大致相等,且有充分的角度,使肘部沿着胸底向后,并正好在马肩隆正下方。肘部动作舒展,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。前肢:直而强壮有力。结实,且几乎垂直的胶骨。足爪:相当小,非常稳固,脚趾圆拱且紧凑。

[后躯]

后躯宽阔而有力,大腿宽,且发达。后腿从臀部到飞节这部分,长而肌肉发达;从飞节到地面这部分短且几乎完全垂直于地面;膝关节褐飞节角度恰当,与肘部一样,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。足爪与前躯相同。前躯与后躯的角度非常和谐。

[被毛]

前肢的被毛短而细腻。其他部位的被毛平直,中等长度。耳朵、前腿和后腿后面的羽状丝质饰毛长而细腻,在腹部和胸底有合适的刘海,并延伸到胸部。尾巴上的刘海略长,末端逐渐变短。所有的被毛和羽状饰毛都很平直,尽可能没有卷曲或波浪状毛发。爱尔兰塞特犬在比赛前需要修剪,着重突出倾斜的头部和整洁的颈部。上 1/3的耳朵和喉咙靠近胸部的位置也需要修剪。过多的羽状饰毛需要修剪,使足爪的自然轮廓能够显示出来。所有的修剪都必须保留他自然的外貌特征。

[颜色]

桃木色或或浓艳的栗红色,没有黑色。胸部、喉咙、脚趾有少量的白色,脑袋有窄窄的中心条纹不属于缺陷。

[步态]

小跑步态非常重要,非常活泼、优美、有效。小跑中,头部略微向前伸,以保持平衡。前肢向前伸展时,好象是贴着地面的,决不能出现马步姿势(抬腿太高)。后躯驱动力平顺,而且非常强大。从前面或后面观察,前腿,也包括后腿飞节以下部位,运动时完全垂直于地面。当速度增加时,有单一轨迹的趋向。由于结构因素,而影响了整齐,准确的步伐,属于缺陷。

[气质]

爱尔兰塞特犬的性格喜欢玩闹。羞怯,恶意或胆小不是这个品种应该具有的特点。外向、稳定的气质是爱尔兰塞特犬的基本特征。  

标准通过日期: 1990年8月14日
标准修正日期:1990年9月30日

Irish Setter Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Irish Setter is an active, aristocratic bird dog, rich red in color, substantial yet elegant in build. Standing over two feet tall at the shoulder, the dog has a straight, fine, glossy coat, longer on ears, chest, tail and back of legs. Afield, the Irish Setter is a swift-moving hunter; at home, a sweet natured, trainable companion.
At their best, the lines of the Irish Setter so satisfy in overall balance that artists have termed it the most beautiful of all dogs. The correct specimen always exhibits balance, whether standing or in motion. Each part of the dog flows and fits smoothly into its neighboring parts without calling attention to itself.

Size, Proportion, Substance
There is no disqualification as to size. The make and fit of all parts and their overall balance in the animal are rated more important. 27 inches at the withers and a show weight of about 70 pounds is considered ideal for the dog; the bitch 25 inches, 60 pounds. Variance beyond an inch up or down is to be discouraged. Proportion --Measuring from the breastbone to rear of thigh and from the top of the withers to the ground, the Irish Setter is slightly longer than it is tall. Substance--All legs sturdy with plenty of bone. Structure in the male reflects masculinity without coarseness. Bitches appear feminine without being slight of bone.

Head
Long and lean, its length at least double the width between the ears. Beauty of head is emphasized by delicate chiseling along the muzzle, around and below the eyes, and along the cheeks. Expression soft, yet alert. Eyes somewhat almond shaped, of medium size, placed rather well apart, neither deep set nor bulging. Color, dark to medium brown. Ears set well back and low, not above level of eye. Leather thin, hanging in a neat fold close to the head, and nearly long enough to reach the nose. The skull is oval when viewed from above or front; very slightly domed when viewed in profile. The brow is raised, showing a distinct stop midway between the tip of the nose and the well-defined occiput (rear point of skull). Thus the nearly level line from occiput to brow is set a little above, and parallel to, the straight and equal line from eye to nose. Muzzle moderately deep, jaws of nearly equal length, the underline of the jaws being almost parallel with the top line of the muzzle. Nose black or chocolate; nostrils wide. Upper lips fairly square but not pendulous. The teeth meet in a scissors bite in which the upper incisors fit closely over the lower, or they may meet evenly.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck moderately long, strong but not thick, and slightly arched; free from throatiness and fitting smoothly into the shoulders. Topline of body from withers to tail should be firm and incline slightly downward without sharp drop at the croup. The tail is set on nearly level with the croup as a natural extension of the topline, strong at root, tapering to a fine point, nearly long enough to reach the hock. Carriage straight or curving slightly upward, nearly level with the back. Body sufficiently long to permit a straight and free stride. Chest deep, reaching approximately to the elbows with moderate forechest, extending beyond the point where the shoulder joins the upper arm. Chest is of moderate width so that it does not interfere with forward motion and extends rearwards to well sprung ribs. Loins firm, muscular and of moderate length.

Forequarters
Shoulder blades long, wide, sloping well back, fairly close together at the withers. Upper arm and shoulder blades are approximately the same length, and are joined at sufficient angle to bring the elbows rearward along the brisket in line with the top of the withers. The elbows moving freely, incline neither in nor out. Forelegs straight and sinewy. Strong, nearly straight pastern. Feet rather small, very firm, toes arched and close.

Hindquarters
Hindquarters should be wide and powerful with broad, well developed thighs. Hind legs long and muscular from hip to hock; short and perpendicular from hock to ground; well angulated at stifle and hock joints, which, like the elbows, incline neither in nor out. Feet as in front. Angulation of the forequarters and hindquarters should be balanced.

Coat
Short and fine on head and forelegs. On all other parts of moderate length and flat. Feathering long and silky on ears; on back of forelegs and thighs long and fine, with a pleasing fringe of hair on belly and brisket extending onto the chest. Fringe on tail moderately long and tapering. All coat and feathering as straight and free as possible from curl or wave. The Irish Setter is trimmed for the show ring to emphasize the lean head and clean neck. The top third of the ears and the throat nearly to the breastbone are trimmed. Excess feathering is removed to show the natural outline of the foot. All trimming is done to preserve the natural appearance of the dog.

Color
Mahogany or rich chestnut red with no black. A small amount of white on chest, throat or toes, or a narrow centered streak on skull is not to be penalized.

Gait
At the trot the gait is big, very lively, graceful and efficient. At an extended trot the head reaches slightly forward, keeping the dog in balance. The forelegs reach well ahead as if to pull in the ground without giving the appearance of a hackney gait. The hindquarters drive smoothly and with great power. Seen from front or rear, the forelegs, as well as the hind legs below the hock joint, move perpendicularly to the ground, with some tendency towards a single track as speed increases. Structural characteristics which interfere with a straight, true stride are to be penalized.

Temperament
The Irish Setter has a rollicking personality. Shyness, hostility or timidity are uncharacteristic of the breed. An outgoing, stable temperament is the essence of the Irish Setter.

Approved August 14, 1990
Effective September 30, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:53:13 | 显示全部楼层


戈登雪达犬、哥顿塞特犬、哥顿雪达(Gordon Setter)AKC标准及介绍

[哥顿塞特简介]
哥顿塞特犬是一种大小合适,结构坚固,黑色和棕色的狗,肌肉发达,骨量充足,但相当活跃,挺拔、且时髦,显示出有能力整天在野外工作。他拥有结实,且短的背部,支撑良好的肋骨,短尾巴。头部相当沉重,轮廓清晰、细腻。他的气质是聪明、高贵且威严,没有任何羞怯或恶意的迹象。颜色清晰,直或略呈波浪状的被毛是正确的。他显示出的力量和毅力,要比单纯的速度更重要。匀称和品质是非常重要的。一个狗在各个方面保持和谐,比一部分非常优秀,而另一部分很差要更可取。平顺、舒展的步态,头部高高昂起,是该品种的典型特征。

[哥顿塞特体型]
大小:雄性肩高约为24~27英寸;雌性肩高约为23~26英寸。雄性体重约为55~80磅;雌性体重约为45~70磅。判定他体重是否超过或不到标准范围就是以次为依据。如果他太瘦或太胖而妨碍了工作能力,属于缺陷。他的体重与身高的比例决定了他比其他塞特犬要重一些。比例:从前胸到大腿后面的距离与肩高大致相等。哥顿塞特犬的骨量非常充足。

[哥顿塞特头部]
头部深,但不很宽,有足够的大脑空间。眼睛:尺寸合适,既不太深陷、也不太突出,深褐色,明亮且睿智。形状为卵形而不是圆形。眼睑紧密。耳朵:在脑袋上的位置低,差不多在眼睛的水平线上。相当大,且薄,折叠着,并悬挂在头部两侧。脑袋:精致的圆形,尺寸恰当,耳朵间宽阔,眼睛上方和下方倾斜,且在头部允许的情况下,面颊尽可能窄。头部拥有整洁而明确的止部。口吻:不论从上面观察,还是从侧面观察,都相当长,且不尖。上唇不下垂。口吻长度与脑袋长度一致(从止部到后枕骨的距离),且口吻的轮廓与脑袋的轮廓相互平行。鼻镜:鼻镜宽阔,鼻孔张开,颜色为黑色。唇线,从鼻镜开始,向上唇延伸,形成一个明显的、非常清晰的四方形轮廓。牙齿:结实而白,剪状咬和,钳状咬和也可以接受。由于犬瘟热或其他疾病造成的牙齿凹痕不属于缺陷。

[哥顿塞特的颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部:长,圆拱,无赘肉。背线:略微倾斜。身躯:从肩胛到臀部距离短。胸部深,前胸不很宽;肋骨支撑良好;有足够的肺部空间。胸部深度延伸到肘部。前胸骨明显突出。腰部短而宽阔,不能圆拱。臀部几乎是平的,非常轻微地向尾巴方向倾斜。尾巴:短,不能延伸到飞节以下,水平或几乎水平地举着。不能断尾,尾根粗壮,末端尖细。尾巴的姿势对整体姿势来说,非常重要。当第一节尾骨弯曲的角度过于剧烈,尾巴就会举地太高或太低垂。尾巴的位置关系到对臀部结构的评判。

[哥顿塞特的前躯]
肩胛尖端细腻,向后倾斜。肩胛骨上端*在一起。从后面观察,颈部与肩胛结合非常平顺,从颈部开始,以一条非常平坦的线条延伸下来,逐渐向肩胛方向变宽。当他站立时,前肢垂直于地面,肩胛骨与上臂骨呈接近90度的角度。前肢骨骼粗壮,直而不弯,肘部自由,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。骹骨结实,短,几乎是垂直的,只有轻微的倾斜。狼爪可以切除。足爪的形状象猫足,脚趾紧凑,圆拱,脚趾间有毛发。脚趾的脚垫丰满,后跟的脚垫深。足爪既不向内弯,也不向外翻。

[哥顿塞特的后躯]
后腿从臀部到飞节这段距离长,平、且肌肉发达;从飞节到足爪这段距离短而结实。后膝关节和飞节适度弯曲,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。当他站立时,后骹骨垂直于地面。大腿骨向下悬挂着,与从飞节向上引出的虚线相互平行。足爪与前躯相同。

[哥顿塞特的被毛]
柔软而光亮,直或略有波浪,但不能卷曲。耳朵、腹部下面、胸部、背部、前后腿后面和尾巴上的毛发较长,羽状饰毛从接近尾根处开始,略呈波浪状或直,形成三角形外观,在发育时,全都比较短。

[哥顿塞特的颜色和斑纹]
黑色带棕色斑纹,也可以是栗色或桃木色。允许在脚趾上出现黑色铅笔纹。黑色和棕色之间的边界清晰整洁。没有任何棕色毛发混杂在黑色中。棕色毛发定位于下列位置:(1)眼睛上方有两个清晰的斑点,直径不超过3/4英寸。(2)口吻两侧。棕色不能延伸到口吻顶部,在口吻末端,有类似条纹状棕色斑纹围绕,从一侧到另一侧。(3)在喉咙的位置。(4)两个大而整洁的斑块位于胸部。(5)后腿内侧,向下扩展到膝关节前面,并继续加宽,从飞节到足爪这段距离,已经扩展到后腿外面。但在后腿后面不完全排除黑色。(6)前肢从腕骨或略高一些的地方,到足爪。(7)排泄孔周围。(8)胸部有白色斑点是允许的,但越小越好。
主要颜色是棕色、红色或浅黄色的狗,不能体现出哥顿塞特犬的典型斑纹,在比赛中是不合格的,属于失格。

[哥顿塞特的步态]
步态粗旷,有力,驱动力强大,且欢快。运动中,头部高昂,尾巴保持呈“旗子”状。从前面观察,前肢抬起或落下时,都在同一直线上运动,就是说,肩胛、肘部、骹骨都近似在一条直线内运动。从后面观察时,飞节、膝关节和臀关节都在同一直线上运动。所以他应该是笔直向前运动,足爪不会向内或向外踢。从侧面观察,前肢提起和伸展正好能配合后肢的驱动。后躯向前伸展充分,后蹬有力而远,使步幅大,且驱动有力。他整体动作给人的印象是一种平滑的流动,节奏稳定,动作令人愉快,轻松、有效、而且和谐。

[哥顿塞特的气质]
哥顿塞特犬是一种警惕、欢快、好奇而自信的狗。勇敢而反应迅速,聪明而有才干。他忠诚而挚爱,性格非常稳定,能接受严格的训练。

[失格]
主要颜色为棕色、红色或浅黄色。

作为裁判在评判一个哥顿塞特犬时使用
头部和颈部(包括耳朵和眼睛) 10
身躯 15
肩胛、前肢、前足爪 10
后肢和足爪 10
尾巴 5
被毛 8
颜色和斑纹 5
气质 10
大小和整体外观 15
步态 12
总计 100
标准通过日期:2002年10月 7日
标准执行日期:2002年11月27日

Gordon Setter Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Gordon Setter is a good-sized, sturdily built, black and tan dog, well muscled, with plenty of bone and substance, but active, upstanding and stylish, appearing capable of doing a full day\'s work in the field. He has a strong, rather short back, with well sprung ribs and a short tail. The head is fairly heavy and finely chiseled. His bearing is intelligent, noble, and dignified, showing no signs of shyness or viciousness. Clear colors and straight or slightly waved coat are correct. He suggests strength and stamina rather than extreme speed. Symmetry and quality are most essential. A dog well balanced in all points is preferable to one with outstanding good qualities and defects. A smooth, free movement, with high head carriage, is typical.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--Shoulder height for males, 24 to 27 inches; females, 23 to 26 inches. Weight for males, 55 to 80 pounds; females, 45 to 70 pounds. Animals that appear to be over or under the prescribed weight limits are to be judged on the basis of conformation and condition. Extremely thin or fat dogs are discouraged on the basis that under or overweight hampers the true working ability of the Gordon Setter. The weight-to-height ratio makes him heavier than other Setters. Proportion The distance from the forechest to the back of the thigh is approximately equal the height from the ground to the withers. The Gordon Setter has plenty of bone and substance.

Head
Head deep, rather than broad, with plenty of brain room. Eyes of fair size, neither too deep-set nor too bulging, dark brown, bright and wise. The shape is oval rather than round. The lids are tight. Ears set low on the head approximately on line with the eyes, fairly large and thin, well folded and carried close to the head. Skull nicely rounded, good-sized, broadest between the ears. Below and above the eyes is lean and the cheeks as narrow as the leanness of the head allows. The head should have a clearly indicated stop. Muzzle fairly long and not pointed, either as seen from above or from the side. The flews are not pendulous. The muzzle is the same length as the skull from occiput to stop and the top of the muzzle is parallel to the line of the skull extended. Nose broad, with open nostrils and black in color. The lip line from the nose to the flews shows a sharp, well-defined, square contour. Teeth strong and white, meeting in front in a scissors bite, with the upper incisors slightly forward of the lower incisors. A level bite is not a fault. Pitted teeth from distemper or allied infections are not penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck long, lean, arched to the head, and without throatiness. Topline moderately sloping. Body short from shoulder to hips. Chest deep and not too broad in front; the ribs well sprung, leaving plenty of lung room. The chest reaches to the elbows. A pronounced forechest is in evidence. Loins short and broad and not arched. Croup nearly flat, with only a slight slope to the tailhead. Tail short and not reaching below the hocks, carried horizontal or nearly so, not docked, thick at the root and finishing in a fine point. The placement of the tail is important for correct carriage. When the angle of the tail bends too sharply at the first coccygeal bone, the tail will be carried too gaily or will droop. The tail placement is judged in relationship to the structure of the croup.

Forequarters
Shoulders fine at the points, and laying well back. The tops of the shoulder blades are close together. When viewed from behind, the neck appears to fit into the shoulders in smooth, flat lines that gradually widen from neck to shoulder. The angle formed by the shoulder blade and upper arm bone is approximately 90 degrees when the dog is standing so that the foreleg is perpendicular to the ground. Forelegs big-boned, straight and not bowed, with elbows free and not turned in or out. Pasterns are strong, short and nearly vertical with a slight spring. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet catlike in shape, formed by close-knit, well arched toes with plenty of hair between; with full toe pads and deep heel cushions. Feet are not turned in or out.

Hindquarters
The hind legs from hip to hock are long, flat and muscular; from hock to heel, short and strong. The stifle and hock joints are well bent and not turned either in or out. When the dog is standing with the rear pastern perpendicular to the ground, the thighbone hangs downward parallel to an imaginary line drawn upward from the hock. Feet as in front.

Coat
Soft and shining, straight or slightly waved, but not curly, with long hair on ears, under stomach and on chest, on back of the fore and hind legs, and on the tail. The feather which starts near the root of the tail is slightly waved or straight, having a triangular appearance, growing shorter uniformly toward the end.

Color and Markings
Black with tan markings, either of rich chestnut or mahogany color. Black pencilling is allowed on the toes. The borderline between black and tan colors is clearly defined. There are not any tan hairs mixed in the black. The tan markings are located as follows: (1) Two clear spots over the eyes and not over three-quarters of an inch in diameter; (2) On the sides of the muzzle. The tan does not reach to the top of the muzzle, but resembles a stripe around the end of the muzzle from one side to the other; (3) On the throat; (4) Two large clear spots on the chest; (5) On the inside of the hind legs showing down the front of the stifle and broadening out to the outside of the hind legs from the hock to the toes. It must not completely eliminate the black on the back of the hind legs; (6) On the forelegs from the carpus, or a little above, downward to the toes; (7) Around the vent; (8) A white spot on the chest is allowed, but the smaller the better. Predominantly tan, red or buff dogs which do not have the typical pattern of markings of a Gordon Setter are ineligible for showing and undesirable for breeding. Predominantly tan, red or buff dogs are ineligible for showing and undesirable for breeding.

Gait
A bold, strong, driving free-swinging gait. The head is carried up and the tail \"flags\" constantly while the dog is in motion. When viewed from the front the forefeet move up and down in straight lines so that the shoulder, elbow and pastern joints are approximately in line. When viewed from the rear the hock, stifle and hip joints are approximately in line. Thus the dog moves in a straight pattern forward without throwing the feet in or out. When viewed from the side the forefeet are seen to lift up and reach forward to compensate for the driving hindquarters. The hindquarters reach well forward and stretch far back, enabling the stride to be long and the drive powerful. The overall appearance of the moving dog is one of smooth-flowing, well balanced rhythm, in which the action is pleasing to the eye, effortless, economical and harmonious.

Temperament
The Gordon Setter is alert, gay, interested, and confident. He is fearless and willing, intelligent and capable. He is loyal and affectionate, and strong-minded enough to stand the rigors of training.

Disqualification
Predominantly tan, red or buff dogs.

Scale of Points
To be used as a guide when judging the Gordon Setter:



Head and neck (include ears and eyes) 10
Body  15  
Shoulders, forelegs, forefeet 10
Hind legs and feet 10
Tail 5
Coat 8
Color and markings  5
Temperament 10
Size, general appearance  15
Gait 12
Total 100


Approved October 7, 2002
Effective November 27, 2002

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:55:00 | 显示全部楼层


金毛巡回猎犬、金毛寻回猎犬(Golden Retriever)AKC标准

金毛巡回猎犬总体外貌
金毛巡回猎犬是一个均称、有力、活泼的犬种,稳固、身体各部位配合合理,腿既不太长也不笨拙,表情友善,个性热情、机警、自信。因其是一种猎犬,在困苦的工作环境中才能表现出他的本质特点。他的总体外貌、平衡、步态和该犬种的用途应得到比身体任何一个单独部分更多的重视。缺陷:任何与该犬种的理想描述相背离均可视为缺陷,缺陷的严重程度根据其与该犬种的用途相矛盾或与该犬种的特质相悖的程度决定。

金毛巡回猎犬尺寸、比例和体格
金毛巡回猎犬公犬肩高23--24英寸;金毛巡回猎犬母犬21-22英寸。高度误差在一英寸以内的,视其背离标准身高的程度受罚。误差超过一英寸的,为失格。
从胸骨到臀部尖端的距离与肩高的比例为12:11。公犬65-75磅重,母犬55-65磅重。

金毛巡回猎犬头部
头骨宽,纵横两个方向均呈轻微拱形,但枕骨和前额均不突起。额段清晰不陡峭。前脸深而宽,与头骨差不多长。从侧面看,口鼻部直,与头骨接合流畅、稳固;从前面和侧面看,额段处均比尖端略深且宽。上唇下垂但不显得沉重。可以去除胡须但不提倡。
眼睛表情友善、聪慧,大但不能太大,眼缘色深,双眼间距大,适度凹陷。颜色为深棕较理想;中等棕色也可接受。倾眼、三角形且窄的眼与正确的表情背离,为缺陷。当犬直视前方时,无可见的白色或瞬膜。有眼皮和睫毛的功能性异常(比如,但不只限于:倒睫、眼睑内翻、眼睑外翻、双行睫)的,为失格。
耳朵短,前缘较靠后,在眼正上方,下垂,紧贴面颊。如果向前拉,耳尖刚好盖住眼睛。耳根低、猎犬似的耳朵为缺陷。
鼻子黑色或棕黑色,在寒冷的天气有可能会颜色变浅,但不应太明显。粉红色鼻或严重色素缺乏为缺陷。牙齿剪状咬合,上门牙的内侧与下门牙接触。上颚或下颚突出为失格。牙齿未对准(门牙位置不规则)或是水平咬合(门牙边缘对边缘相互接触)是不可取的,但不如上下颚突出严重。明显的牙间隙为缺陷。

金毛巡回猎犬颈部、背线、躯干
颈中等长,逐渐没入充分靠后的肩部,显得强健、肌肉发达。咽喉部皮肤不能过于松驰下垂。
背线强壮、从马肩隆至微倾的臀部,无论在静止或运动状态均保持水平。下倾、拱形、下凹的背部;平或过于陡峭的臀部均为缺陷。
身体平衡良好,腰短,胸深。双腿间的胸宽至少等于一个成年男人合拢的手的宽度(包括拇指),前胸发达。胸骨延伸至肘。肋骨长、曲率良好,但不成桶形,很好地延伸至后躯。腰短、强健,宽而深,侧面看,腰部收缩微小。侧面平坦、窄胸、胸深度不足、腰部收缩过度均为缺陷。
尾根高,尾底部厚、肌肉发达,自然地延伸臀部线长。尾骨延伸至(但不低于踵关节)。尾欢快地扬起,呈水平或适度的上扬曲线;不能卷曲至背上或夹在腿间。

金毛巡回猎犬前躯
强健、与后躯协调良好,动作自如。肩胛长、充分后靠,尖端在马肩隆处紧靠。上臂与肩胛长度差不多相同;肘部后端在肩胛尖端的正下方,紧贴肋骨,没有松懈。从前面看,腿直而骨量充足,但不能显得粗壮。掌部短而强健,略倾,没有支撑不稳的迹象。
伪趾去除,但通常保留。
足中等尺寸,圆、紧凑,指节良好,趾垫厚。如有过度的毛发,应修剪至显露自然的尺寸和轮廓线。脚趾张开或是野兔似的足(中趾长度明显大于其他趾,且弯曲不足,使整个足部显得长)为缺陷。

金毛巡回猎犬后躯
宽、肌肉十分发达。从侧面看,臀部略下斜;骨盆斜角略大(与水平约成30度)。自然站姿下,大腿骨与骨盆成约90度连接;膝关节充分弯曲;踵关节充分贴近地面,跖骨短、强壮。足类似前足。从后看,腿直。踵内翻、踵外翻、踵伸不直,均为缺陷。

金毛巡回猎犬被毛
浓密,底层被毛防水。外层被毛硬、有弹性,既不粗糙也不过分柔软,紧贴身体;毛直或波状。不修剪,自然的环状领,前腿后部和身体下有适度的羽状饰毛;颈前部、大腿后部和尾底侧有丰厚的羽状饰毛。头、足、腿前部的毛发短而均匀。过分长、开叉的毛和过分柔软的毛非常不可取。足部可以修剪,散发可以整理,但自然的毛发外形和轮廓不应被修剪破坏。

金毛巡回猎犬颜色
鲜艳、有光泽的各种色泽的金黄色。羽状饰毛可比其他部位色泽略淡。除了因年龄增大,在脸和身体部位的毛发渐渐灰白,其他的白色斑(除了胸部的少数白毛)根据其扩展的程度受罚。允许的浅色色泽变化与白色斑不能混淆。被毛的主色过分淡或过分深均不可取。有些幼犬的毛色偏淡,但其毛色显示,在成年时会加深,这样的幼犬在评审时应有一定的宽松度。任何显眼的黑色或其他颜色不佳的毛发均为严重缺陷。

金毛巡回猎犬步态
小跑时,步态自如、流畅、有力、协调,有充分的步幅。无论从何角度看,腿既不内转也不外转,足不相互牵绊,也不交叉。当速度增加时,足部趋向会聚于中央平衡线。建议牵引带放松,以显示自然的步态。

金毛巡回猎犬性格
友善、可靠、可信赖。在自然境况下,对其他犬或人表现出喜争斗或敌意;是无来由的胆怯、神经紧张,是与金毛的特质相悖的,根据其严重程度受罚。

失格
身高低于或高于标准身高超过一英寸
上颚或下颚突出

Golden Retriever Breed Standard



General Appearance
A symmetrical, powerful, active dog, sound and well put together, not clumsy nor long in the leg, displaying a kindly expression and possessing a personality that is eager, alert and self-confident. Primarily a hunting dog, he should be shown in hard working condition. Overall appearance, balance, gait and purpose to be given more emphasis than any of his component parts. Faults--Any departure from the described ideal shall be considered faulty to the degree to which it interferes with the breed\'s purpose or is contrary to breed character.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Males 23-24 inches in height at withers; females 21½-22½ inches. Dogs up to one inch above or below standard size should be proportionately penalized. Deviation in height of more than one inch from the standard shall disqualify. Length from breastbone to point of buttocks slightly greater than height at withers in ratio of 12:11. Weight for dogs 65-75 pounds; bitches 55-65 pounds.

Head
Broad in skull, slightly arched laterally and longitudinally without prominence of frontal bones (forehead) or occipital bones. Stop well defined but not abrupt. Foreface deep and wide, nearly as long as skull. Muzzle straight in profile, blending smooth and strongly into skull; when viewed in profile or from above, slightly deeper and wider at stop than at tip. No heaviness in flews. Removal of whiskers is permitted but not preferred. Eyes friendly and intelligent in expression, medium large with dark, close-fitting rims, set well apart and reasonably deep in sockets. Color preferably dark brown; medium brown acceptable. Slant eyes and narrow, triangular eyes detract from correct expression and are to be faulted. No white or haw visible when looking straight ahead. Dogs showing evidence of functional abnormality of eyelids or eyelashes (such as, but not limited to, trichiasis, entropion, ectropion, or distichiasis) are to be excused from the ring. Ears rather short with front edge attached well behind and just above the eye and falling close to cheek. When pulled forward, tip of ear should just cover the eye. Low, hound-like ear set to be faulted. Nose black or brownish black, though fading to a lighter shade in cold weather not serious. Pink nose or one seriously lacking in pigmentation to be faulted. Teeth scissors bite, in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors. Undershot or overshot bite is a disqualification. Misalignment of teeth (irregular placement of incisors) or a level bite (incisors meet each other edge to edge) is undesirable, but not to be confused with undershot or overshot. Full dentition. Obvious gaps are serious faults.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck medium long, merging gradually into well laid back shoulders, giving sturdy, muscular appearance. No throatiness. Backline strong and level from withers to slightly sloping croup, whether standing or moving. Sloping backline, roach or sway back, flat or steep croup to be faulted. Body well balanced, short coupled, deep through the chest. Chest between forelegs at least as wide as a man\'s closed hand including thumb, with well developed forechest. Brisket extends to elbow. Ribs long and well sprung but not barrel shaped, extending well towards hindquarters. Loin short, muscular, wide and deep, with very little tuck-up. Slab-sidedness, narrow chest, lack of depth in brisket, excessive tuck-up to be faulted. Tail well set on, thick and muscular at the base, following the natural line of the croup. Tail bones extend to, but not below, the point of hock. Carried with merry action, level or with some moderate upward curve; never curled over back nor between legs.

Forequarters
Muscular, well coordinated with hindquarters and capable of free movement. Shoulder blades long and well laid back with upper tips fairly close together at withers. Upper arms appear about the same length as the blades, setting the elbows back beneath the upper tip of the blades, close to the ribs without looseness. Legs, viewed from the front, straight with good bone, but not to the point of coarseness. Pasterns short and strong, sloping slightly with no suggestion of weakness. Dewclaws on forelegs may be removed, but are normally left on. Feet medium size, round, compact, and well knuckled, with thick pads. Excess hair may be trimmed to show natural size and contour. Splayed or hare feet to be faulted.

Hindquarters
Broad and strongly muscled. Profile of croup slopes slightly; the pelvic bone slopes at a slightly greater angle (approximately 30 degrees from horizontal). In a natural stance, the femur joins the pelvis at approximately a 90-degree angle; stifles well bent; hocks well let down with short, strong rear pasterns. Feet as in front. Legs straight when viewed from rear. Cow-hocks, spread hocks, and sickle hocks to be faulted.

Coat
Dense and water-repellent with good undercoat. Outer coat firm and resilient, neither coarse nor silky, lying close to body; may be straight or wavy. Untrimmed natural ruff; moderate feathering on back of forelegs and on underbody; heavier feathering on front of neck, back of thighs and underside of tail. Coat on head, paws, and front of legs is short and even. Excessive length, open coats, and limp, soft coats are very undesirable. Feet may be trimmed and stray hairs neatened, but the natural appearance of coat or outline should not be altered by cutting or clipping.

Color
Rich, lustrous golden of various shades. Feathering may be lighter than rest of coat. With the exception of graying or whitening of face or body due to age, any white marking, other than a few white hairs on the chest, should be penalized according to its extent. Allowable light shadings are not to be confused with white markings. Predominant body color which is either extremely pale or extremely dark is undesirable. Some latitude should be given to the light puppy whose coloring shows promise of deepening with maturity. Any noticeable area of black or other off-color hair is a serious fault.

Gait
When trotting, gait is free, smooth, powerful and well coordinated, showing good reach. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward center line of balance. It is recommended that dogs be shown on a loose lead to reflect true gait.

Temperament
Friendly, reliable, and trustworthy. Quarrelsomeness or hostility towards other dogs or people in normal situations, or an unwarranted show of timidity or nervousness, is not in keeping with Golden Retriever character. Such actions should be penalized according to their significance.

Disqualifications
Deviation in height of more than one inch from standard either way.
Undershot or overshot bite.

Approved October 13, 1981
Reformatted August 18, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:55:48 | 显示全部楼层


国刚毛指示犬(German Wirehaired Pointer)AKC标准及简介
[德国刚毛指示犬的起源]

德国刚毛指示犬(德国刚毛波音达犬)是 20世纪初育成的,由德国波音达猎犬、刚毛格林芬犬、波音达猎犬,血提和万能犬精心杂交产生的。为保持品种纯化,每窝只选最好的6头仔犬。


[简介]

德国刚毛指示犬是一种肌肉发达,中等体型的狗,外貌与众不同。大小和谐且结构稳固,这个品种最主要的特征在于能抵御恶劣气候的,刚毛状的被毛和面部装饰。典型的指示犬风格,德国刚毛指示犬是一种聪明,精力充沛且坚定的猎犬。

[体型]

雄性肩高大约 24~26英寸;雌性略小,但不低于22英寸。为了保证其工作能力得到很好的维持,肩高大于上限或低于下限都属于严重缺陷。身体长度略大于肩高,大约为 10比9的比例。德国刚毛指示犬在陆地上是一种多用途猎犬,敏捷而有耐力。恰当的尺寸和比例是得到好成绩的基本条件。

[头部]

头部长度适中。

眼睛:褐色,中等大小,卵形轮廓,明亮而整洁,下垂的、中等长度的眉毛。黄色眼睛不合需要。耳朵:圆,但不很宽,贴着脑袋下垂。

脑袋:宽,但后枕骨不很突出。

止部:中等。口吻:相当长,鼻梁骨直,宽,于脑袋相互平行。

鼻镜:深褐色,鼻孔开阔。有斑点的鼻镜或肉色鼻镜属于缺陷。

嘴唇:轻微下垂,紧贴颌部且有胡须。颌部:结实而丰满,牙齿位置匀称且相互啮合的很好。

咬合:剪状咬合。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:中等长度,略微圆拱且无赘肉。背线:可以察觉到从马肩隆向臀部方向,向下倾斜。明显上提。背部短,直而结实。

腰部:整洁而苗条。臀部:宽,且屁股呈精细的圆形。

尾巴:位置高,警惕时上举,超过水平线。断尾大约为整个长度的 2/5。

[前躯]

肩胛向后倾斜。前肢直,肘部贴近身躯。腿骨平而不圆,结实,但不过分沉重,或粗糙,而影响了它天生的敏捷。狼爪通常需要切除。足爪外形圆,有蹼,脚趾高度圆拱且紧密,脚垫厚实而坚硬,指甲结实且相当沉重。

[后躯]

后躯的角度与前躯平衡。大腿结实而肌肉发达。后腿在膝关节和飞节角度适中,且冲后面观察,彼此平行。狼爪通常需要切除。足爪与前躯相同。

[被毛]

功能丰富的刚毛质被毛是这个品种显著的特点。它必须具有正确的被毛和正确的类型。被毛能抵御恶劣的气候条件,在某种程度上,还可以防水。冬天底毛浓厚,可以抵御寒冷,而在夏天底毛薄的几乎看不见。与众不同的外层披毛笔直,粗硬,刚毛质地且平躺着,长度大约为 1~2英寸。被毛有足够的长度,能很好的保护身体不受伤害,但不能太长,而遮住它的轮廓曲线。在腿部下方的毛发略短,且脚趾之间的毛发质地柔软。脑袋上的毛发,天生就比较短,且紧贴着皮肤。肩胛周围和尾巴周围的毛发浓厚而沉重。尾巴上的毛发精致,下面更为独特,但没有羽状饰毛。眉毛是强健而直的毛发。胡须和络腮胡中等长度。肝色斑纹或肝色部分的毛发略短于白色毛发。短而平顺的被毛,柔软而羊毛质的被毛,过分长的被毛都属于严重缺陷。虽然短而刚毛质的被毛十分重要,但幼犬的毛发比成年犬的毛发短。被毛允许修饰整洁,体现出它的自然轮廓曲线。过度修饰,使它的外貌显得虚假,属于严重缺陷。

[颜色]

被毛颜色为肝色和白色,通常,肝色或白色斑点,肝色杂毛,肝色或白色斑点在纯肝色或肝色杂色上,都可以。头部通常是肝色的,有时会有白筋。耳朵为肝色。被毛任何位置出现黑色都属于严重缺陷。

[步态]

它需要在中等步态中接受评判。动作舒展而平顺,前躯伸展充分,而后躯驱动有力。背线保持稳固。

[气质]

健康,可靠的气质,德国刚毛指示犬有时会避开陌生人,但不会表现出不友好;一个忠诚而友爱德伴侣,渴望取悦于你,且热衷于学习。


标准通过日期: 1985年7月 9日
标准修正日期:1989年5月14日

German Wirehaired Pointer Breed Standard

General Appearance
The German Wirehaired Pointer is a well muscled, medium sized dog of distinctive appearance. Balanced in size and sturdily built, the breed\'s most distinguishing characteristics are its weather resistant, wire-like coat and its facial furnishings. Typically Pointer in character and style, the German Wirehaired Pointer is an intelligent, energetic and determined hunter.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The height of males should be from 24 to 26 inches at the withers. Bitches are smaller but not under 22 inches. To insure the working quality of the breed is maintained, dogs that are either over or under the specified height must be severely penalized. The body is a little longer than it is high, as ten is to nine. The German Wirehaired Pointer is a versatile hunter built for agility and endurance in the field. Correct size and balance are essential to high performance.

Head
The head is moderately long. Eyes are brown, medium in size, oval in contour, bright and clear and overhung with medium length eyebrows. Yellow eyes are not desirable. The ears are rounded but not too broad and hang close to the head. The skull broad and the occipital bone not too prominent. The stop is medium. The muzzle is fairly long with nasal bone straight, broad and parallel to the top of the skull. The nose is dark brown with nostrils wide open. A spotted or flesh colored nose is to be penalized. The lips are a trifle pendulous but close to the jaw and bearded. The jaws are strong with a full complement of evenly set and properly intermeshing teeth. The incisors meet in a true scissors bite.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is of medium length, slightly arched and devoid of dewlap. The entire back line showing a perceptible slope down from withers to croup. The skin throughout is notably tight to the body. The chest is deep and capacious with ribs well sprung. The tuck-up apparent. The back is short, straight and strong. Loins are taut and slender. Hips are broad with the croup nicely rounded. The tail is set high, carried at or above the horizontal when the dog is alert. The tail is docked to approximately two-fifths of its original length.

Forequarters
The shoulders are well laid back. The forelegs are straight with elbows close. Leg bones are flat rather than round, and strong, but not so heavy or coarse as to militate against the dog\'s natural agility. Dewclaws are generally removed. Round in outline, the feet are webbed, high arched with toes close, pads thick and hard, and nails strong and quite heavy.

Hindquarters
The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. The thighs are strong and muscular. The hind legs are moderately angulated at the stifle and hock and, as viewed from behind, parallel to each other. Dewclaws are generally removed. Feet as in front.

Coat
The functional wiry coat is the breed\'s most distinctive feature. A dog must have a correct coat to be of correct type. The coat is weather resistant and, to some extent, water-repellent. The undercoat is dense enough in winter to insulate against the cold but is so thin in summer as to be almost invisible. The distinctive outer coat is straight, harsh, wiry and flat lying, and is from one to two inches in length. The outer coat is long enough to protect against the punishment of rough cover, but not so long as to hide the outline of the dog. On the lower legs the coat is shorter and between the toes it is of softer texture. On the skull the coat is naturally short and close fitting. Over the shoulders and around the tail it is very dense and heavy. The tail is nicely coated, particularly on the underside, but devoid of feather. Eyebrows are of strong, straight hair. Beard and whiskers are medium length. The hairs in the liver patches of a liver and white dog may be shorter than the white hairs. A short smooth coat, a soft woolly coat, or an excessively long coat is to be severely penalized. While maintaining a harsh, wiry texture, the puppy coat may be shorter than that of an adult coat. Coats may be neatly groomed to present a dog natural in appearance. Extreme and excessive grooming to present a dog artificial in appearance should be severely penalized.

Color
The coat is liver and white, usually either liver and white spotted, liver roan, liver and white spotted with ticking and roaning or solid liver. The head is liver, sometimes with a white blaze. The ears are liver. Any black in the coat is to be severely penalized.

Gait
The dog should be evaluated at a moderate gait. The movement is free and smooth with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. The topline should remain firm.

Temperament
Of sound, reliable temperament, the German Wirehaired Pointer is at times aloof but not unfriendly toward strangers; a loyal and affectionate companion who is eager to please and enthusiastic to learn.

Approved July 9, 1985
Reformatted May 14, 1989

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:57:01 | 显示全部楼层


德国短毛指示犬(German Shorthaired Pointer)AKC标准及介绍
[简介]

德国短毛指示犬是一种万能猎犬,一种多用途的枪猎犬,能在水中和陆地执行各种困难的任务。在犬展中评判这德国短毛指示犬时,必须考虑他是否能反映出这种基本特征。在观察者眼睛中反映出来的应该是一个贵族化、非常平稳协调、匀称的动物,整体结构显示出力量、耐力、敏捷、且看起来非常聪明的动物。他既不小的夸张,也不大的离谱。给人的印象是中等身材,但很象严格意义上的猎犬, “背部短,但站立时,身躯有足够的长度”。

匀称性和野外适应力是根本。所以,在野外条件下,一个坚实但消瘦的狗不属于缺陷;但无论如何,过分肥胖或缺乏肌肉的狗都属于缺陷。一个平顺、协调的德国短毛指示犬比一个优点和缺陷同样突出的德国短毛指示犬要理想的多。优雅的轮廓,线条分明的头部,倾斜的肩胛,深深的胸部,有力的后背,结实的四肢,良好的骨骼,充足的肌肉,举在正确位置的尾巴和整洁的被毛,显示出高贵,并显示出继承了这个品种的古老传统。更明显地显示出传统的地方在于平稳、和谐而警惕的动作,同样的,没有任何多余的动作。

[体型]

尺寸:他的身高,雄性肩高约 23~25英寸;雌性肩高约21~23英寸。误差1英寸属于严重缺陷。雄性体重约55~70磅;雌性体重约45~60磅。

比例:体长(从胸骨到骨盆突出处的距离)与肩高的比例,德国短毛指示犬允许呈正方形比例,也允许体长略大于肩高。

体质:细巧而精致的骨骼不值得推荐,因为他必须拥有足够的力量,且有能力在各种地形条件下工作。最重要的特点是骨骼的尺寸不能太夸张,而是希望骨骼与身躯能形成正确的比例。骨骼太重或太轻都属于缺陷。高大或腿长的狗,意味着呆板,因为骨量太夸张了。象雄性一样的雌性或象雌性一样的雄性都属于缺陷。

[头部]

头部轮廓鲜明,既不太轻,也不太沉重,与身躯呈恰当的比例。

眼睛:中等大小,充满了智慧和表情,非常欢快但也放射出活力,既不突出,也不凹陷。眼睛的形状为杏仁形,不圆。首选的颜色是深褐色。浅黄色眼睛不理想,且处于缺陷。眼睛距离太接近属于缺陷。青灰色眼睛或眼睛内有色环属于失格。

耳朵:宽且位置相当高,平躺着,决不是挂在头上。它们的位置应该比眼睛的水平高一些,耳朵向前平躺时,没有受到任何力量的拉扯,自然的延伸到嘴角。如果是重一些的狗,耳朵也相应长一些。耳朵过分长或过分厚重属于缺陷。

脑袋:适度宽阔,侧面略拱,而顶部略微圆。不象指示犬(波音达犬),前额上,两眼睛之间的中心线不深,后枕骨也不显著。前脸从鼻镜向前额方向逐渐上升。这种上升在雄性身上,比在雌性身上更明显和突出。颌部结实有力且肌肉非常发达。向前额方向逐渐上升的线条上,没有象指示犬那样清晰的止部,但从侧面观察,有止部的效果,主要是由于眉毛造成的。

口吻:十分长,使他能够逮住猎物,并能长时间控制它。象指示犬那样的口吻不合要求。深度是与长度呈正确的比例,对口吻或脑袋来说都是这样。口吻的长度与脑袋的长度大致相等。盘子状的口吻属于缺陷。

鼻镜:褐色,越大越好,鼻孔宽阔,且开阔。有斑点的鼻镜不合需要。肉色鼻镜属于失格。有点突出的鼻镜突然终止。嘴唇丰满而深,但没有下垂的上唇。

牙齿:结实而沉重。臼齿结合良好。咬合是真正的剪状咬合,钳状咬合属于缺陷。上颚突出式咬合或下颚突出式咬合属于失格。

[颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部有足够的长度,使颌部能延伸出去,并捡回猎物,向下倾斜,形成漂亮的曲线。颈背肌肉发达,逐渐向肩部加粗。适度的赘肉是允许的。皮肤紧密而贴身。胸部给人的印象通常是深度胜于宽度;整个胸部,与身体的其他部分成正确的比例。胸部延伸到肘部,肋骨支撑起胸腔,肋骨支撑良好,不显得平坦或平板胸;但同时它们也不太圆拱或呈桶状胸。后面的肋骨也向下伸展。贴近肘部后面的胸腔要小于肘部一掌宽以后部分的胸腔,使上臂有足够的运动空间。上提很明显。

背部:短,强壮,且直,从尾根处到马肩隆略微上升。腰部结实,中等长度,轻微圆拱。过分长

、圆拱、摇摆的背部属于缺陷。臀部宽阔,臀窝距离宽,以优美的曲线略微向尾巴处下坠。陡峭的臀部属于缺陷。

尾巴:位置高且稳固,必须断尾,离开约总长度的 40%。当狗平静时,尾巴下垂,行走时,尾巴保持水平。当它运动时,尾巴决不能举过后背(向头部方向)。尾巴举向头部或向头部弯曲都属于严重缺陷。

[前躯]

肩胛:倾斜,灵活,肌肉发达。肩胛骨平躺着,向后倾斜约 45度角。上臂(在肩胛骨与肘关节之间的骨骼)尽可能长,站立时,有点接近躯干,所以腿直,靠近且肌肉发达,从前面观察,显得彼此平行。站立时,如果肘部接近身躯或太接近,会导致脚趾向内弯或向外翻,所以属于一种缺陷。胶骨结实、短、且非常轻微地倾斜,几乎是垂直的。松懈、肩胛骨短、或肩胛太直都属于缺陷。关节突出也属于缺陷。前肢的狼爪可以切除。

足爪:紧凑、紧密,形状从圆形到调羹形。脚趾圆拱,指甲沉重。脚垫结实,坚硬而厚实。

[后躯]

大腿结实且肌肉发达。膝关节适度弯曲。飞节关节角度良好,从飞节到脚垫的骨骼结实而直。膝关节和飞节的角度,能使驱动力和牵引力达到最佳平衡。飞节既不向内弯,也不向外翻。牛肢属于严重缺陷。

[被毛]

毛发短且浓厚,触摸感觉坚硬;在尾巴下面和臀部后面边缘的毛发有点长。头部和耳朵的毛发柔软、薄且略短。任何在身躯部位长有长长被毛的狗都属于严重缺陷。

[颜色]

被毛的颜色有可能是纯肝色或肝色与白色的结合,例如白色和肝色的点滴、肝色斑块和白色点滴、或肝色杂毛。任何区域带有黑色、红色、橘色、柠檬色、或棕色,或全白色的狗属于失格。

[步态]

平顺、柔软的步态十分关键。这是一种著名的从漫步逐渐加速到奔跑的步态,腿聚集在身体下方。趋向于单一轨迹是理想的现象。前腿向前伸展,靠近地面而没有马步(抬腿很高)姿态。后躯驱动力强大、平稳。

[气质]

德国短毛指示犬是一种友善、聪明且乐于助人德狗。给人的第一印象是热烈而渴望工作,没有任何神经不安或企图逃跑的迹象。

[失格]

青灰色眼睛或眼睛内有色环。肉色鼻镜。上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和。任何区域带有黑色、红色、橘色、柠檬色、或棕色,或全白色的狗。

标准通过日期: 1992年8月11日
标准修正日期:1992年9月30日

German Shorthaired Pointer Breed Standard

General Appearance
The German Shorthaired Pointer is a versatile hunter, an all-purpose gun dog capable of high performance in field and water. The judgement of Shorthairs in the show ring reflects this basic characteristic. The overall picture which is created in the observer\'s eye is that of an aristocratic, well balanced, symmetrical animal with conformation indicating power, endurance and agility and a look of intelligence and animation. The dog is neither unduly small nor conspicuously large. It gives the impression of medium size, but is like the proper hunter, \"with a short back, but standing over plenty of ground.\" Symmetry and field quality are most essential. A dog in hard and lean field condition is not to be penalized; however, overly fat or poorly muscled dogs are to be penalized. A dog well balanced in all points is preferable to one with outstanding good qualities and defects. Grace of outline, clean-cut head, sloping shoulders, deep chest, powerful back, strong quarters, good bone composition, adequate muscle, well carried tail and taut coat produce a look of nobility and indicate a heritage of purposefully conducted breeding. Further evidence of this heritage is movement which is balanced, alertly coordinated and without wasted motion.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--height of dogs, measured at the withers, 23 to 25 inches. Height of bitches, measured at the withers, 21 to 23 inches. Deviations of one inch above or below the described heights are to be severely penalized. Weight of dogs 55 to 70 pounds. Weight of bitches 45 to 60 pounds. Proportion--measuring from the forechest to the rearmost projection of the rump and from the withers to the ground, the Shorthair is permissibly either square or slightly longer than he is tall. Substance--thin and fine bones are by no means desirable in a dog which must possess strength and be able to work over any type of terrain. The main importance is not laid so much on the size of bone, but rather on the bone being in proper proportion to the body. Bone structure too heavy or too light is a fault. Tall and leggy dogs, dogs which are ponderous because of excess substance, doggy bitches, and bitchy dogs are to be faulted.

Head
The head is clean-cut, is neither too light nor too heavy, and is in proper proportion to the body. The eyes are of medium size, full of intelligence and expression, good-humored and yet radiating energy, neither protruding nor sunken. The eye is almond shaped, not circular. The preferred color is dark brown. Light yellow eyes are not desirable and are a fault. Closely set eyes are to be faulted. China or wall eyes are to be disqualified. The ears are broad and set fairly high, lie flat and never hang away from the head. Their placement is just above eye level. The ears when laid in front without being pulled, should extend to the corner of the mouth. In the case of heavier dogs, the ears are correspondingly longer. Ears too long or fleshy are to be faulted. The skull is reasonably broad, arched on the side and slightly round on top. Unlike the Pointer, the median line between the eyes at the forehead is not too deep and the occipital bone is not very conspicuous. The foreface rises gradually from nose to forehead. The rise is more strongly pronounced in the dog than in the bitch. The jaw is powerful and the muscles well developed. The line to the forehead rises gradually and never has a definite stop as that of the Pointer, but rather a stop-effect when viewed from the side, due to the position of the eyebrows. The muzzle is sufficiently long to enable the dog to seize game properly and be able to carry it for a long time. A pointed muzzle is not desirable. The depth is in the right proportion to the length, both in the muzzle and in the skull proper. The length of the muzzle should equal the length of skull. A dish-shaped muzzle is a fault. A definite Pointer stop is a serious fault. Too many wrinkles in the forehead is a fault. The nose is brown, the larger the better, and with nostrils well opened and broad. A spotted nose is not desirable. A flesh colored nose disqualifies. The chops fall away from the somewhat projecting nose. Lips are full and deep yet are never flewy. The teeth are strong and healthy. The molars intermesh properly. The bite is a true scissors bite. A perfect level bite is not desirable and must be penalized. Extreme overshot or undershot disqualifies.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is of proper length to permit the jaws reaching game to be retrieved, sloping downwards on beautifully curving lines. The nape is rather muscular, becoming gradually larger toward the shoulders. Moderate throatiness is permitted. The skin is close and tight. The chest in general gives the impression of depth rather than breadth; for all that, it is in correct proportion to the other parts of the body. The chest reaches down to the elbows, the ribs forming the thorax show a rib spring and are not flat or slabsided; they are not perfectly round or barrel-shaped. The back ribs reach well down. The circumference of the thorax immediately behind the elbows is smaller than that of the thorax about a hand\'s breadth behind elbows, so that the upper arm has room for movement. Tuck-up is apparent. The back is short, strong, and straight with a slight rise from the root of the tail to the withers. The loin is strong, is of moderate length, and is slightly arched. An excessively long, roached or swayed back must be penalized. The hips are broad with hip sockets wide apart and fall slightly toward the tail in a graceful curve. A steep croup is a fault. The tail is set high and firm, and must be docked, leaving approximately 40% of its length. The tail hangs down when the dog is quiet and is held horizontally when he is walking. The tail must never be curved over the back toward the head when the dog is moving. A tail curved or bent toward the head is to be severely penalized.

Forequarters
The shoulders are sloping, movable, and well covered with muscle. The shoulder blades lie flat and are well laid back nearing a 45 degree angle. The upper arm (the bones between the shoulder and elbow joint) is as long as possible, standing away somewhat from the trunk so that the straight and closely muscled legs, when viewed from the front, appear to be parallel. Elbows which stand away from the body or are too close result in toes turning inwards or outwards and must be faulted. Pasterns are strong, short and nearly vertical with a slight spring. Loose, short-bladed or straight shoulders must be faulted. Knuckling over is to be faulted. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. The feet are compact, close-knit and round to spoon-shaped. The toes are sufficiently arched and heavily nailed. The pads are strong, hard and thick.

Hindquarters
Thighs are strong and well muscled. Stifles are well bent. Hock joints are well angulated and strong with straight bone structure from hock to pad. Angulation of both stifle and hock joint is such as to achieve the optimal balance of drive and traction. Hocks turn neither in nor out. Cowhocked legs are a serious fault.

Coat
The hair is short and thick and feels tough to the hand; it is somewhat longer on the underside of the tail and the back edges of the haunches. The hair is softer, thinner and shorter on the ears and the head. Any dog with long hair in the body coat is to be severely penalized.

Color
The coat may be of solid liver or a combination of liver and white such as liver and white ticked, liver patched and white ticked, or liver roan. A dog with any area of black, red, orange, lemon or tan, or a dog solid white will be disqualified.

Gait
A smooth lithe gait is essential. It is to be noted that as gait increases from the walk to a faster speed, the legs converge beneath the body. The tendency to single track is desirable. The forelegs reach well ahead as if to pull in the ground without giving the appearance of a hackney gait. The hindquarters drive the back legs smoothly and with great power.

Temperament
The Shorthair is friendly, intelligent, and willing to please. The first impression is that of a keen enthusiasm for work without indication of nervous or flightly character.

Disqualifications
China or wall eyes.
Flesh colored nose.
Extreme overshot or undershot.
A dog with any area of black, red, orange, lemon, or tan, or a dog solid white.

Approved August 11, 1992
Effective September 30, 1992

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:57:58 | 显示全部楼层


平毛巡回猎犬(Flat-Coated Retriever)AKC标准及介绍
原产英国。起源于 19世纪。虽然是英国犬,却是由拉布拉多犬和纽芬兰犬两个美洲品种培育而来。

先天特性对一个饲养员评价一品种犬所表现出的重要性与这个犬种其他方面的标准相比没有什么两样。顺毛寻猎犬主要是一种家庭伴侣型猎犬。它在射击的范围内表现出敏捷、跃跃欲试和动作突然的特性以及无论在陆地还是在水中都表现出一个决意、机敏的捕猎能手。它对捕捉猎物表现出极大的渴望。自信和一种神秘的能力使它能适应不同的环境、能猎捕各种不同的陆上猎物和水禽。

  作为一种家庭伴侣犬,它敏感、机警和聪慧,并且富有充满情感。它能保持这些特性和年轻愉快的外貌一直到老。有缺陷的顺毛寻猎犬通常表现出过分惊慌而不时吠叫,但一个性情好、乐观的犬,基本上倾向于对所有的人都表现出友好的态度。

  平毛寻猎犬是一个快乐、忠诚的伙伴,它需要和羡慕作为一名家庭成员与人们生活在一起。为了努力达到这个心愿,它确实具有一个强烈的个人向往和一种令人喜欢的自我照顾能力。

一、 [简介]

平毛巡回犬是一种多用途犬,可以成为家庭伴侣犬、猎犬、寻回犬,他是一种快乐、活泼的狗,表情聪明,线条整洁。平毛寻回犬必须象传统中所描述的那样: \"有力而不笨重,活泼但不瘦弱\"。平毛巡回犬与众不同的、非常重要的特征是他的侧面轮廓(不论在运动中,还是站立着),平滑、轻松的动作,头部类型,被毛和特征,使平毛寻回犬的侧面轮廓都显示出长、结实、整洁、及\"片状\"的头部,这些都是该品种独特的特征。没有夸张的止部和面颊,头部位置恰当,安放在中等长度的颈部上面,颈部平滑地融入向后倾斜的肩胛。背线水平,胸腔(肋骨)深,且长,向后延伸,逐渐变细,并轻微上提,构成一个钝的三角形。胸骨非常清晰,前胸明显突出,这种有效的寻回犬非常和谐,结实,但文雅,不能象矮脚马的样子,褪太短或四肢细长。被毛浓厚,且平躺着,褪部和尾巴有羽状饰毛。自豪的,反映敏捷的姿势,波浪状的尾巴,整体感觉非常有力,品质,风格,及匀称构成了典型的平毛寻回犬的形象。

评判平毛寻回犬是,在放松牵引状态下的动作,自然站立时的姿态,比摆出来的姿势更重要。伤疤是光荣的象征,不作为缺陷处理。

二、 [体型]

尺寸:肩高误差(理想的肩高范围)超过 1英寸的个体,就不能作为典型的,作为工作用途的平毛寻回犬。雄性理想的肩高范围约在23~24.5英寸;雌性理想的肩高范围约在22~23.5英寸。由于平毛寻回犬是作为一种在艰苦环境下工作的、寻回猎犬,所以应该显得精干、没有多余的体重。

比例:平毛寻回犬的身体构造不能象矮脚马的样子。身体的长度(从肩关节到大腿突出位置的距离)略微大于肩高。雌性的体长略长一些更好,以便孕育幼犬。

体质:适中。骨量中等,骨骼扁平或呈卵形,而不是圆形;结实但不笨重,粗糙,虚弱或纤细。这一点适用于所有性别。

三、 [头部]

长,整洁,形状良好的头部应该拥有足够的尺寸和力量,可以轻松地叼回大个头的野鸡、野鸭、野兔等。脑袋和口吻:脑袋和口吻给人的印象是 \"铸造成一整块\",是由相当平坦的、中等宽度的脑袋,平坦、整洁的面颊,结合了长、结实、深的口吻(在眼睛下面、眼睛之间、眼睛后面都很丰满)所组成的。从上面观察,口吻的长度和宽度与脑袋一致。止部:逐渐过度的、轻微的、勉强可以察觉的止部,决不能向下或形成盘子脸。眉毛轻微突起,非常灵活,产生丰富的表情。必须在轮廓中正确评估止部,而不能受到突起的眉毛的影响。后枕骨不明显,脑袋应该形成一条优雅的曲线,与颈部接合。表情:警惕、聪明而友善。眼睛:位置分的较开,中等大小,杏仁形,深褐色或榛色,不能太大、圆或黄色。眼圈为相同的颜色,紧绷。耳朵:相对较小,位置恰当,悬挂着,贴近头部,有厚厚的羽状饰毛。位置不能太低(象猎犬或雪达犬)。鼻镜:大,鼻孔张开。黑色狗的鼻镜为黑色,肝色狗的鼻镜为褐色。嘴唇:相当紧,稳固、整洁而干燥,有极少量的羽状饰毛。颌部:长而有力,有能力叼回野兔或野鸡。咬和:剪状咬和为首选,钳状咬和也可以接受。牙齿折断不算缺陷。严重缺陷:扭曲的牙齿、上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和有明显的间隙属于严重缺陷。

四、 [颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:结实而略微圆拱,拥有寻回犬所需要的力量。考虑到需要能轻松地寻找痕迹,所以颈部长度适中。没有赘肉。颈部的被毛不能修剪。背线:结实而水平。身躯:胸部(胸底)深,延伸到肘部,宽度适中。前胸,向前突出,且非常明显。肋骨深,从前胸到最后一节肋骨有足够的长度(给予内部器官以足够的空间),宽度适中。前段肋骨相对平坦,向后逐渐撑起,身体中心位置圆拱,但靠近腰部的位置则细一些。下腹曲线:深,胸底窄,适度上提。腰部:结实,肌肉发达,有足够的长度,同时也考虑到灵活性、动作的舒展性、及足够长的步幅,但决不能软弱或连接松弛。臀部,非常轻微的倾斜,宽度适中且肌肉发达。尾巴:相当直,位置恰当,尾骨大约能延伸到飞节处。当他运动时,尾巴欢快地举起,但不能卷曲,而是象背线的平滑延伸,决不能高过后背。

五、 [前躯]

肩胛:长,向后倾斜,肩胛骨与上臂骨的长度大致相等,可以允许最大程度的伸展。肌肉组织细长而不是粗大。肘部:整洁,贴近身体,向后,位于马肩隆下方。前肢:直而结实,骨量中等但质地很好。骹骨:结实,且略微倾斜。狼爪:切除与否可选。足爪:卵形或圆形。中等大小,脚趾圆拱而紧凑,脚垫厚实。

六、 [后躯]

后躯有力,角度与前躯相称。第一节大腿:有力而肌肉发达。膝关节:膝关节能围绕健康、结实的关节良好旋转。第二节大腿(从膝关节到飞节):第二节大腿或下半部分大腿的长度略大于第一节大腿。飞节:飞节结实,位置低。狼爪:无后肢狼爪。足爪:卵形或圆形。中等大小,脚趾圆拱而紧凑,脚垫厚实。

七、 [被毛]

被毛长度、密度适中,适度丰满,非常有光泽。理想的被毛是直而平躺着的。略呈波浪状的被毛是允许的,但被毛决不能卷曲、羊毛状、短、丝状或蓬松。由于平毛寻回犬是一种工作用途的寻回犬,其被毛必须能在各种气候条件下、水中或不同植物覆盖的陆地上都能起到保护作用。这样就要求被毛有足够的密度、长度、丰满程度,从而能够充分保温。在毛发丰厚的部位,如耳朵、前面、前肢后面、大腿和尾巴下面,有浓厚的羽状饰毛,而不能浓密、粘连、或丝状。鬃毛或长而厚重的毛发覆盖在颈部,并延伸到整个马肩隆和肩胛是正确的,尤其是雄性更明显,使得颈部看起来显得粗,而马肩隆显得高,有时会导致马肩隆后面显得塌陷。由于平毛寻回犬是一种用于工作得寻回犬,所以羽状饰毛不宜过长。修剪:平毛寻回犬应该以尽可能自然得被毛参加比赛,只要被毛是整洁且密度合适得,就决不能因为被毛未曾修剪而受到惩罚。修整耳朵、足爪、下腹线和尾巴尖的毛发是允许的。胡须具有特殊功能,未修剪的胡须为首选。刨除或修剪头部、颈部、身躯的被毛属于严重缺陷。

八、 [颜色]

纯黑色或纯肝色。失格:黄色、奶酪色或其他非肝色和黑色的颜色。

九、 [步态]

正确、有效的动作是评判寻回猎犬的重要指标。从侧面观察,平毛寻回犬的步态是步伐有效、动作平稳,流畅且协调,决不起伏不定、做作或笨拙。前后肢能充分向前伸展和向后蹬,步幅长且整洁。背线保持水平,他在运动重显得结实而柔韧。

十、 [概括]

平毛寻回犬是一种结实但很优雅的、欢快的寻回猎犬。整体结构是所有部分都很平衡而协调,不论是站立时还是在运动中都是如此,这一点非常重要。所以,品种的天性、结构、条件和态度全都显示出适合艰苦的工作。

十一、 [气质]

特质是平毛寻回犬突出而根本价值所在。他是一种反应积极的、热爱家庭成员的、多用途的工作犬,多才多艺,聪明、欢快、且容易训练。在竞赛中,平毛寻回犬显得稳定、容易满足而自信、欢快、喜欢外出。摆动的尾巴显示出他的特质。神经质、过度亢奋、冷漠、羞怯、固执的行为不合需要。严重缺陷:无缘无故地对人或其他动物表现出好斗的倾向,属于严重缺陷。

十二、 [特征]

对繁殖者来说,特质是评价犬只血统最重要的特征,与品种标准中描述的外观特征一样重要。平毛寻回犬首先是一种家庭伴侣型的寻回猎犬。他敏锐,射击后,向鸟一样冲出去,同时非常坚决,聪明地在陆地上或水中找回猎物。他非常渴望外出狩猎,非常自信,且具有奇异的适应能力,能够在丘陵地区狩猎,也能够猎取水鸟。

作为一个家庭伴侣,他机灵、警惕、非常聪明,是一个快乐、友爱而可调教的伙伴。从年轻时开始,他就保持这些特征,并以幽默的态度面对生活,直到老年。成年的平毛寻回犬可以胜任一个警报犬的工作,必要时发出警报,但仍然是一个性情温顺、乐观的狗,基本上倾向于对所有事物都很友善。平毛寻回犬是一个愉快的、友善的伴侣,需要得到共同生活的家庭成员赏识,和相互交流。如果尽量发挥其潜力,他必定会成为坚定的个人伙伴,并现出全部爱心。

十二、 [失格]

黄色、奶酪色或其他任何黑色和肝色以外的颜色。

标准通过日期: 1990年 9月11日
标准执行日期:1990年10月30日

Flat-Coated Retriever Breed Standard

General Appearance

The Flat-Coated Retriever is a versatile family companion hunting retriever with a happy and active demeanor, intelligent expression, and clean lines. The Flat-Coat has been traditionally described as showing \"power without lumber and raciness without weediness.\"

The distinctive and most important features of the Flat-Coat are the silhouette (both moving and standing), smooth effortless movement, head type, coat and character. In silhouette the Flat-Coat has a long, strong, clean, \"one piece\" head, which is unique to the breed. Free from exaggeration of stop or cheek, the head is set well into a moderately long neck which flows smoothly into well laid back shoulders. A level topline combined with a deep, long rib cage tapering to a moderate tuck-up create the impression of a blunted triangle. The brisket is well developed and the forechest forms a prominent prow. This utilitarian retriever is well balanced, strong, but elegant; never cobby, short legged or rangy. The coat is thick and flat lying, and the legs and tail are well feathered. A proud carriage, responsive attitude, waving tail and overall look of functional strength, quality, style and symmetry complete the picture of the typical Flat-Coat.

Judging the Flat-Coat moving freely on a loose lead and standing naturally is more important than judging him posed. Honorable scars should not count against the dog.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size--Individuals varying more than an inch either way from the preferred height should be considered not practical for the types of work for which the Flat-Coat was developed. Preferred height is 23 to 24½; inches at the withers for dogs, 22 to 23½ inches for bitches. Since the Flat-Coat is a working hunting retriever he should be shown in lean, hard condition, free of excess weight.

Proportion--The Flat-Coat is not cobby in build. The length of the body from the point of the shoulder to the rearmost projection of the upper thigh is slightly more than the height at the withers. The female may be slightly longer to better accommodate the carrying of puppies. Substance-- Moderate. Medium bone is flat or oval rather than round; strong but never massive, coarse, weedy or fine. This applies throughout the dog.

Head
The long, clean, well molded head is adequate in size and strength to retrieve a large pheasant, duck or hare with ease. Skull and Muzzle--The impression of the skull and muzzle being \"cast in one piece\" is created by the fairly flat skull of moderate breadth and flat, clean cheeks, combined with the long, strong, deep muzzle which is well filled in before, between and beneath the eyes. Viewed from above, the muzzle is nearly equal in length and breadth to the skull. Stop--There is a gradual, slight, barely perceptible stop, avoiding a down or dish-faced appearance. Brows are slightly raised and mobile, giving life to the expression. Stop must be evaluated in profile so that it will not be confused with the raised brow. Occiput not accentuated, the skull forming a gentle curve where it fits well into the neck. Expression alert, intelligent and kind. Eyes are set widely apart. Medium sized, almond shaped, dark brown or hazel; not large, round or yellow. Eye rims are self-colored and tight. Ears relatively small, well set on, lying close to the side of the head and thickly feathered. Not low set (houndlike or setterish). Nose--Large open nostrils. Black on black dogs, brown on liver dogs. Lips fairly tight, firm, clean and dry to minimize the retention of feathers. Jaws long and strong, capable of carrying a hare or a pheasant. Bite-- Scissors bite preferred, level bite acceptable. Broken teeth should not count against the dog. Severe Faults Wry and undershot or overshot bites with a noticeable gap must be severely penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck strong and slightly arched for retrieving strength. Moderately long to allow for easy seeking of the trail. Free from throatiness. Coat on neck is untrimmed. Topline strong and level. Body--Chest (Brisket)--Deep, reaching to the elbow and only moderately broad. Forechest--Prow prominent and well developed. Rib cage deep, showing good length from forechest to last rib (to allow ample space for all body organs), and only moderately broad. The foreribs fairly flat showing a gradual spring, well arched in the center of the body but rather lighter towards the loin. Underline--Deep chest tapering to a moderate tuck-up. Loin strong, well muscled and long enough to allow for agility, freedom of movement and length of stride, but never weak or loosely coupled. Croup slopes very slightly; rump moderately broad and well muscled. Tail fairly straight, well set on, with bone reaching approximately to the hock joint. When the dog is in motion, the tail is carried happily but without curl as a smooth extension of the topline, never much above the level of the back.

Forequarters
Shoulders long, well laid back shoulder blade with upper arm of approximately equal length to allow for efficient reach. Musculature wiry rather than bulky. Elbows clean, close to the body and set well back under the withers. Forelegs straight and strong with medium bone of good quality. Pasterns slightly sloping and strong. Dewclaws--Removal of dewclaws is optional. Feet oval or round. Medium sized and tight with well arched toes and thick pads.

Hindquarters
Powerful with angulation in balance with the front assembly. Upper thighs powerful and well muscled. Stifle--Good turn of stifle with sound, strong joint. Second thighs (Stifle to hock joint)--Second or lower thigh as long as or only slightly longer than upper thight. Hock--Hock joint strong, well let down. Dewclaws There are no hind dewclaws. Feet oval or round. Medium sized and tight with well arched toes and thick pads.

Coat
Coat is of moderate length density and fullness, with a high lustre. The ideal coat is straight and flat lying. A slight waviness is permissible but the coat is not curly, wooly, short, silky or fluffy. The Flat-Coat is a working retriever and the coat must provide protection from all types of weather, water and ground cover. This requires a coat of sufficient texture, length and fullness to allow for adequate insulation. When the dog is in full coat the ears, front, chest, back of forelegs, thighs and underside of tail are thickly feathered without being bushy, stringy or silky. Mane of longer heavier coat on the neck extending over the withers and shoulders is considered typical, especially in the male dog, and can cause the neck to appear thicker and the withers higher, sometimes causing the appearance of a dip behind the withers. Since the Flat-Coat is a hunting retriever, the feathering is not excessively long. Trimming --The Flat-Coat is shown with as natural a coat as possible and must not be penalized for lack of trimming, as long as the coat is clean and well brushed. Tidying of ears, feet, underline and tip of tail is acceptable. Whiskers serve a specific function and it is preferred that they not be trimmed. Shaving or barbering of the head, neck or body coat must be severely penalized.

Color
Solid black or solid liver. Disqualification-- Yellow, cream or any color other than black or liver.

Gait
Sound, efficient movement is of critical importance to a hunting retriever. The Flat-Coat viewed from the side covers ground efficiently and movement appears balanced, free flowing and well coordinated, never choppy, mincing or ponderous. Front and rear legs reach well forward and extend well back, achieving long clean strides. Topline appears level, strong and supple while dog is in motion.

Summary
The Flat-Coat is a strong but elegant, cheerful hunting retriever. Quality of structure, balance and harmony of all parts both standing and in motion are essential. As a breed whose purpose is of a utilitarian nature, structure, condition and attitude should give every indication of being suited for hard work.

Temperament
Character is a primary and outstanding asset of the Flat-Coat. He is a responsive, loving member of the family, a versatile working dog, multi-talented, sensible, bright and tractable. In competition the Flat-Coat demonstrates stability and a desire to please with a confident, happy and outgoing attitude characterized by a wagging tail. Nervous, hyperactive, apathetic, shy or obstinate behavior is undesirable. Severe Fault--Unprovoked aggressive behavior toward people or animals is totally unacceptable.

Character
Character is as important to the evaluation of stock by a potential breeder as any other aspect of the breed standard. The Flat-Coat is primarily a family companion hunting retriever. He is keen and birdy, flushing within gun range, as well as a determined, resourceful retriever on land and water. He has a great desire to hunt with self-reliance and an uncanny ability to adapt to changing circumstances on a variety of upland game and waterfowl.

As a family companion he is sensible, alert and highly intelligent; a lighthearted, affectionate and adaptable friend. He retains these qualities as well as his youthfully good-humored outlook on life into old age. The adult Flat-Coat is usually an adequate alarm dog to give warning, but is a good-natured, optimistic dog, basically inclined to be friendly to all.

The Flat-Coat is a cheerful, devoted companion who requires and appreciates living with and interacting as a member of his family. To reach full potential in any endeavor he absolutely must have a strong personal bond and affectionate individual attention.

Disqualification
Yellow, cream or any color other than black or liver.

Approved September 11, 1990
Effective October 30, 1990

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:58:43 | 显示全部楼层


田野猎犬(Field Spaniel)AKC标准及简介
田野猎犬在庞大的猎犬家族中可能比其他任何品种具有更广的范围,由于它存在着体形上的夸张障碍,结果使这一品种经历了很多磨难。英格兰的菲尼斯布洛克犬是被认为具有长而矮的惊人体形,其骨骼非常夸张以致一度曾出现在奇异的猎犬漫画中。很明显,这一品种是威尔士可卡犬与萨塞克斯猎犬反复杂交而建立起来的,后来,通过摩提门·史密斯的努力,使这一品种得到改良——呈现出任何运动猎犬爱好者能真正赏识的类型。
  在美国,建立现代田野猎犬遇到了相当大的困难,这是由于必须引入史宾格犬和可卡犬血统以消除其身体上的夸张,结果,这使许多个体无资格在美国养犬俱乐部登记。实际上,从1880年可卡犬被引入美国一直到1901年,在犬展中其体形大小是区别可卡犬和田野猎犬的惟一标准(超过11.34千克的登记为田野猎犬,11.34千克或低于11.34千克的是可卡犬)。

田野猎犬实用、漂亮、健全,毛色为黑色,前腿直,身高几乎与体长平衡。经改良后,它有更好的忍耐力、适中的速度和更加敏捷等特点

[田野猎犬简介]

田野猎犬结合了美观和效用。是一种匀称、稳固的伴侣,中等体型,活跃而有耐力。姿势高贵;自豪,但态度乖巧;动作正确且舒展。匀称性、步态、姿势及用途,比任何一个单独的部位都重要的多。

[田野猎犬的体型]

各部分的匀称性是他的本质。尺寸:一个成熟的雄性肩高约为 18英寸;成熟雌性的肩高约为17英寸。误差在1英寸以内是可以接受的。比例:非常匀称的狗,体长略大于肩高,体长与肩高的比例大约为7:6(体长的测量是从肩胛骨最前面的一点到臀部最后一点的水平距离)。体质:结构坚固,骨量适中,肌肉平顺而稳固。

[田野猎犬的头部]

给人的印象是一种高贵的品种,有特点,而且很高雅,与整体尺寸的比例协调。表情:深沉、温和、而且聪明。眼睛:杏仁形,张开,中等大小;位置略宽,且深;颜色从深榛色到深褐色。眼睑紧,瞬膜不可见;眼圈颜色与鼻镜颜色一致。耳朵:略长(末端能延伸到口吻),且宽。位置略低于眼睛所在的水平线;下垂,贴着头部悬挂;滚圆且有大量羽状饰毛。耳轮廓略厚,柔软,且尖端略圆。脑袋:顶端(后面)略宽于眉毛所在的位置,侧面略微圆拱;脑袋两侧和面颊直而整洁。后枕骨明显,且圆。眉骨略微突起,止部适中,但眉毛非常清晰。脸部在眼睛下方显得有雕塑感。口吻:结实、长而倾斜,既不显得细长,也不呈四方形。鼻梁骨直,略微偏离与脑袋轮廓平行的线条,向鼻尖方向,略向下倾斜。从轮廓上看,下颚轮廓呈曲线状与喉咙结合。嘴显得水平。鼻镜:大,嫩且非常发达,鼻孔开阔。位置象是口吻的延伸。颜色:纯色,从浅褐色到深褐色或黑色,与被毛颜色相匹配。嘴唇:紧密、整洁、相当深,遮盖下颚,但不下垂。牙齿:剪状咬和或钳状咬和,齿系完整,剪状咬和为首选。

[田野猎犬的颈部、背线、身躯]

颈部:长,结实,肌肉发达,略微圆拱,整洁,与肩胛结合良好。背线:颈部倾斜而平顺地融入马肩隆;后背水平,肌肉发达,稳固而结实。臀部短而逐渐呈圆形。前胸突出且多肉,胸部的深度与前肢从肘部到地面的距离大致相等。肋骨长,且延伸到短短的腰部。肋骨呈卵形,支撑良好,呈曲线状向稳固的腰部延伸。

[田野猎犬的前躯]

肩胛骨倾斜。上臂位置紧凑;肘部正好位于马肩隆下方,既不向内弯,也不向外翻。骨骼平坦。前肢直,且骨量充足(到足爪为止)。骹骨适度倾斜,但很结实。狼爪可以切除。足爪面向前面,大、圆且有蹼。脚趾圆拱而紧凑,脚垫厚实。

[田野猎犬的后躯]

结实且驱动力强大;膝关节和飞节只有适度弯曲。飞节位置低;骹骨相对较短,结实,从后面观察显得彼此平行。臀部略宽,且肌肉发达;第一节大腿宽而有力;第二节大腿肌肉发达。骨骼与前肢协调。无狼爪。

[田野猎犬的被毛]

单层被毛;中等长度;平坦或略呈波浪状,丝质,且有光泽;浓密且能防水。适量的,象塞特犬那样的羽状饰毛,出现在胸部、下腹部、腿后面、臀部,或许在第二节大腿和尾巴下面也有。骹骨到地面这部分显得整洁。脚趾间的毛发短而柔软。多余的被毛,棉花一样的质地,总之,与野外工作不相称的地方都属于缺陷。有限的修剪可以改善他自然的外貌。被毛的总体缺陷或缺乏被毛不象结构缺陷那样严重。

[田野猎犬的颜色]

黑色、肝色、金黄的肝色或这些颜色的不同深度,任何强度(或深或浅)都可以;单一颜色或双色。双色必须夹杂一些白色点滴。上述颜色中出现棕色点可以接受,与其他拥有棕色点的品种一样。白色允许出现在喉咙,前胸,胸底,可能是整洁的色块,也可能是点滴或杂色,出现在纯色狗身上。

[田野猎犬的步态]

头部警惕地昂着,既不会太高,也不会太低(影响动作和步伐)。从肩胛开始,向前伸展良好,配合了后躯强大的驱动力,显示出特别轻松,长、低而庄严的步伐。从前面或后面观察,肘部和飞节的动作相互平行。腿部的动作直,随着速度增加,略微收拢。运动中,尾巴与背部齐平或略低,带有摇摆的动作。尾巴的姿势高于后背是错误的。从侧面观察,动作直而整洁,没有浪费精力的动作。过度伸展或单一轨迹是错误的。田野猎犬应该显示出其自然的速度,耐力非常好,更适合放松牵引带,以便更好地评估他的动作。

[田野猎犬的气质]

异乎寻常的乖巧、敏感、可爱、独立且聪明,与人类的友谊非常密切。初次见面,可能会有所保留。任何羞怯、胆小或攻击性的表现都属于严重缺陷。

标准通过日期:1998年 9月14日
标准执行日期:1998年10月30日

Field Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Field Spaniel is a combination of beauty and utility. It is a well balanced, substantial hunter-companion of medium size, built for activity and endurance in a heavy cover and water. It has a noble carriage; a proud but docile attitude; is sound and free moving. Symmetry, gait, attitude and purpose are more important than any one part.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Balance between these three components is essential. Size--Ideal height for mature adults at the withers is 18 inches for dogs and 17 inches for bitches. A one inch deviation either way is acceptable. Proportion--A well balanced dog, somewhat longer than tall. The ratio of length to height is approximately 7:6. (Length is measured on a level from the foremost point of the shoulder to the rearmost point of the buttocks.) Substance--Solidly built, with moderate bone, and firm smooth muscles.

Head
Conveys the impression of high breeding, character and nobility, and must be in proportion to the size of the dog. Expression--Grave, gentle and intelligent. Eyes--Almond in shape, open and of medium size; set moderately wide and deep. Color: dark hazel to dark brown. The lids are tight and show no haw; rims comparable to nose in color. Ears--Moderately long (reaching the end of the muzzle) and wide. Set on slightly below eye level: pendulous, hanging close to the head; rolled and well feathered. Leather is moderately heavy, supple, and rounded at the tip. Skull--The crown is slightly wider at the back than at the brow and lightly arched laterally; sides and cheeks are straight and clean. The occiput is distinct and rounded. Brows are slightly raised. The stop is moderate, but well defined by the brows. The face is chiselled beneath the eyes. Muzzle--Strong, long and lean, neither snipy nor squarely cut. The nasal bone is straight and slightly divergent from parallel, sloping downward toward the nose from the plane of the top skull. In profile, the lower plane curves gradually from the nose to the throat. Jaws are level. Nose--Large, flesh and well developed with open nostrils. Set on as an extension of the muzzle. Color: solid: light to dark brown or black as befits the color of the coat. Lips--Close fitting, clean, and sufficiently deep to cover the lower jaw without being pendulous. Bite--Scissors or level, with complete dentition. Scissors preferred.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck--Long, strong, muscular, slightly arched, clean, and well set into shoulders. Topline--The neck slopes smoothly into the withers; the back is level, well muscled, firm and strong; the croup is short and gently rounded. Body--The prosternum is prominent and well fleshed. The depth of chest is roughly equal to the length of the front leg from elbow to ground. The rib cage is long and extending into a short loin. Ribs are oval, well sprung and curve gently into a firm loin. Loin--Short, strong, and deep, with little or no tuck up. Tail--Set on low, in line with the croup, just below the level of the back with a natural downward inclination. Docked tails preferred, natural tails are allowed. The tail whether docked or natural length should be in balance with the overall dog.

Forequarters
Shoulders blades are oblique and sloping. The upper arm is closed-set; elbows are directly below the withers, and turn neither in nor out. Bone is flat. Forelegs are straight and well boned to the feet. Pasterns are moderately sloping but strong. Dewclaws may be removed. Feed face forward and are large, rounded, and webbed, with strong, well arched relatively tight toes and thick pads.

Hindquarters
Strong and driving; stifles and hocks only moderately bent. Hocks well let down; pasterns relatively short, strong and parallel when viewed from the rear. Hips moderately broad and muscular; upper tigh broad and powerful; second thigh well muscled. Bone corresponds to that of the forelegs. No dewclaws.

Coat
Single; moderately long; flat or slightly wavy; silky; and glossy; dense and water-repellent. Moderate setter-like feathering adorns the chest, underbody, backs of the legs, buttocks, and may also be present on the second thigh and underside of the tail. Pasterns have clean outlines to the ground. There is short, soft hair between the toes. Overabundance of coat, or cottony texture, impractical for field work should be penalized. Trimming is limited to that which enhances the natural appearance of the dog. Amount of coat or absence of coat should not be faulted as much as structural faults.

Color
Black, liver, golden liver or shades thereof, in any intensity (dark or light); either self-colored or bi-colored. Bi-colored dogs must be roaned and/or ticked in white areas. Tan points are acceptable on the aforementioned colors and are the same as any normally tan pointed breed. White is allowed on the throat, chest, and/or brisket, and may be clear, ticked, or roaned on a self color dog.

Gait
The head is carried alertly, neither so high nor so low as to impede motion or stride. There is good forward reach that begins in the shoulder, coupled with strong drive from the rear, giving the characteristic effortless, long, low majestic stride. When viewed from front and/or rear elbows and hocks move parallel. The legs move straight, with slight converence at increased speed. When moving, the tail is carried inclined slightly downward or level with the back, and with a wagging motion. Tail carried above the back is incorrect. Side movement is straight and clean, without energy wasting motions. Over-reaching and single tracking are incorrect. The Field Spaniel should be show at its own natural speed in an endurance trot, preferably on a loose lead, in order to evaluate its movement.

Temperament
Unusually docile, sensitive, funloving, independent and intelligent, with a great affinity for human companionship. They may be somewhat reserved in initial meetings. Any display of shyness, fear, or agression is to be severely penalized.

Approved September 14, 1998
Effective October 30, 1998

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 10:59:23 | 显示全部楼层


英国激飞猎犬(English Springer Spaniel)AKC标准及介绍
英国激飞猎犬图片、照片集 | 英国激飞猎犬视频、录像
英国激飞猎犬的简介

英国激飞猎犬(英国跳猎犬)是一种中型运动犬,身躯紧凑,且断尾。被毛长度适中,在腿部、耳朵、胸部、腹部有羽状饰毛。他下垂的耳朵、温柔文雅的表情、坚定的结构和友好地摆动的尾巴,宣布他无疑是猎鹬犬这一古老家族中的一员。首先,他必须是一个非常匀称的狗,没有任何夸张之处,所有的部位都显得精细而和谐。他的姿势是自豪地站立着,身躯很深,腿结实而肌肉发达,有足够的长度,能轻松地支撑身躯。从整体来看,英国激飞猎犬显得有力量、耐力,且非常敏捷。他看起来就是那种能在艰苦的条件下从事狩猎工作,并能坚持下去的狗。最好的英国激飞猎犬是显得时尚、匀称、平稳而热情,属于彻底的运动犬,带有明显的猎鹬犬的特征,结合了美观和效用。

英国激飞猎犬的体型

英国激飞猎犬的结构使他能覆盖杂乱粗糙的地面,敏捷且速度合理。他的结构使他能产生很强的耐力。他应该保持中等体型。雄性的理想肩高为 20英寸;雌性的理想肩高为19英寸。误差超过1英寸属于缺陷。一个肩高20英寸的雄性,在结构匀称,各方面的条件都很好的时候,体重约为50磅;肩高 19英寸的雌性,体重约为40磅。身躯的长度(从肩胛骨与上臂接合处到臀部的距离)略微大于肩高。一个身躯太长的狗,尤其是腰部太长,容易疲劳而且缺乏这个品种应有的紧凑的轮廓线;一个相对于腿的长度而言,身躯太短的狗,破坏了整体平衡,且影响步态。这两种情况一样不可取,都属于缺陷。英国激飞猎犬应该拥有正确的体质,显得扎实而强健,骨量充足,但决不能显得粗笨或笨拙。

英国激飞猎犬的头部

头部给人的印象是不很沉重。它非常漂亮,结合了力量和精致。最重要的是它的尺寸和比例与其他部分保持平衡。从轮廓上观察,头部的长度与颈部到融入身躯处的长度大致相等。止部,眉毛和眼窝周围的骨骼结构显示出猎鹬犬漂亮而独特的表情,警惕、和善而信任。眼睛,相对于其他部分,是猎鹬犬吸引力的基础。正确的尺寸、形状、位置、及颜色影响着他的表情和吸引力。

眼睛中等大小,卵形,位置分的比较开,且在眼窝中比较深。眼睛的颜色与被毛的颜色协调,肝色和白色的狗,眼睛颜色为深榛色;黑色和白色的狗,眼睛颜色为黑色或褐色。眼圈色素充足,与被毛颜色相匹配。眼睑紧,没有或很少的瞬膜显露出来。眼睛小、圆、突出,及颜色为黄颜色或黄铜色,都属于严重缺陷。

耳朵长而相当宽,贴着面颊悬挂,没有竖立或向外的迹象。耳廓薄,长度大致能延伸到鼻尖。正确的耳朵位置应该与眼睛在同一水平线,且不能位于脑袋太靠后的位置。

脑袋长度适中,顶部相当宽、平坦,侧面和后面略微圆拱。后枕骨不明显。脑袋从前脸上升,由止部开始,中间有凹槽或浅沟分开,凹槽位于眼睛中间。凹槽延伸到前额中间时就消失了。总的来说,止部是适中的。它(止部)在面貌中不应该是很突出的;更象是口吻与脑袋连接处的精细的上升。但它被凹槽、眉毛的位置和形状强调了,眉毛是非常发达的。

口吻的长度与脑袋的长度大致相等,宽度只有脑袋的一半。从轮廓上观察,口吻与脑袋的轮廓线大致上相互平行。

鼻梁骨直,到鼻尖为止,没有向下弯曲的迹象,后者会造成盘子脸的外貌,属于缺陷。鼻梁骨既不是向下弯曲,形成 “盘子”脸;也不是向上突起,形成罗马鼻。

面颊平坦,眼睛下方的脸部显得轮廓分明。

颌部有充足的长度,允许他轻松地叼回猎物。相当接近四方形,倾斜而结实。上唇垂下来,呈四方形,遮盖住下颌线条,无论如何,嘴唇不能过分夸张地下垂。

鼻镜色素充足,颜色为肝色或黑色,与被毛的颜色相互匹配。鼻孔开阔,且宽。

牙齿结实,整洁,尺寸恰当,剪状咬和最为理想。钳状咬和或有 1~2颗门牙略微偏离对齐线,属于次要缺陷。上颚突出式咬和、下颚突出式咬和或歪曲的颌部属于严重缺陷,并需要严厉惩罚。

英国激飞猎犬的颈部、背线、身躯

颈部长度适中,肌肉发达,整洁,顶端略微圆拱。逐渐、平顺地融入倾斜的肩胛。从马肩隆到尾根处这部分背线稳固,且非常轻微地倾斜。

身躯接合较短,结实而紧凑。

胸部深,延伸到肘部,前胸非常发达;但是,绝对不能太宽或太圆,而干涉到前肢的动作。肋骨相当长,向身躯中间部位逐渐撑起,而且接近末端的部位逐渐变细。下腹曲线水平,从肘部到腰窝略微上提。

背部直、结实,基本上是水平的;腰部短、结实,略微圆拱。臀部呈精致的圆形,平滑地融入后腿。臀部逐渐向尾根处倾斜,尾巴的位置是臀部曲线的自然延伸。

尾巴的姿势保持水平,或略高一些,显示出他特有的活泼、欢快的动作,在游戏时更明显。夹起来的尾巴(显得胆怯或不可靠)属于缺陷,反之,尾巴象梗类犬那样,与背线呈 90度角也属于缺陷。

英国激飞猎犬的前躯

正确的前躯结构能够产生有效率的动作。肩胛骨平坦,且在顶端非常靠近,平滑地融入身躯曲线。理想的情况是:从马肩隆到肩胛骨与上臂骨结合关节,再到肘部这端部位,肩胛骨与上臂骨的长度大致相同,而且,上臂骨与肩胛骨呈大约 90度的角;这样使前臂再身躯下方正确的位置,且肘部正好再肩胛骨顶端的正下方。肘部贴近身躯。

前臂直,到足爪这端部位的骨骼尺寸基本一致。骨骼结实、略平,不能太圆或太重。骹骨短、结实,略微倾斜,不显得软弱。狼爪通常需要切除。

足爪圆或略呈卵形。紧凑而圆拱,大小适中,脚垫厚实,脚趾间有羽状饰毛。

英国激飞猎犬的后躯

英国激飞猎犬不论在工作中,还是在比赛中,都需要有坚实、肌肉发达、而且非常强健的臀部和大腿。他的整个后躯显示出强健有力,且驱动力强大。大腿宽而肌肉发达。膝关节结实。考虑到功能和效率,后躯的角度决不能大于前躯,更不能有任何缺乏。飞节略呈圆形,不能太小或轮廓过于锐利。后骹骨短(大约为从臀部到足爪距离的 1/3)、结实且骨骼强健。从后面观察,后腿彼此平行。狼爪通常需要切除。足爪与前躯相同,除了略小一些,且更紧凑。

英国激飞猎犬的被毛

英国激飞猎犬拥有外层披毛和底毛。在身躯上,披毛为中等长度,平坦或略呈波浪状,很容易与底毛区分开,底毛短、柔软和浓密。底毛的数量受到季节和气候的影响。在底毛和披毛的共同保护下,使他可以防水、抵御恶劣气候,并能在荆棘从中得到保护。英国激飞猎犬的耳朵、胸部、腿部和腹部,有许多羽状饰毛,饰毛长度适中,非常厚重。在头部、前肢前面、飞节下面和后肢前面,毛发短而细腻。被毛整洁、有光泽、 “活跃”的外观,显示出良好的健康状况。在头部、耳朵、颈部和足爪进行合理的修剪,去处死毛(脱落的底毛)、将多余的饰毛修薄、修短,使外观更漂亮。尾巴可以修剪,或在边缘保留波浪状饰毛。总的来说,外观应该显得自然,过度修剪,尤其是身躯上的被毛,毛发破碎、毛发起伏、或显得虚假的造型都属于缺陷;同样,饰毛太多,影响了运动犬整洁的轮廓曲线,也属于缺陷。正确的被毛品质和样式,比单纯的被毛数量更重要。

英国激飞猎犬的颜色

下列颜色组合及斑纹都可以接受,而且地位相同。

( 1)黑色或肝色带有白色斑纹或主要是白色,带有黑色或肝色斑纹。

( 2)兰色或肝色的杂色。

( 3)三色:黑色和白色或肝色和白色,带有棕色斑纹,棕色斑纹通常在眉毛、面颊、耳朵内侧和尾巴下面。白色被毛有可能带有污迹。没有怪异的颜色,如柠檬色、红色或橘色。

英国激飞猎犬的步态

对英国激飞猎犬的结构及稳固性的最后测试就是看其动作。动作良好的前提就是非常匀称的结构。前躯和后躯有相同的角度和肌肉发达程度,使步态平顺而轻松。肩胛向后倾斜,允许较大的步幅,就象后躯能提供强大的驱动力。从侧面观察,英国激飞猎犬显示出步幅较长的步伐,稳固的背部姿势,没有倾斜、拱起、或左右摇摆。从前面观察,前肢向前摆动显得轻松舒展。从肩胛到肘部的动作显得舒展,前腿没有交叉或干涉的迹象。随着速度增加,四肢自然地向身体中心线聚集收拢。错误的步态包括了:抬腿太高;多余的动作;短而起伏的步伐;斜行;足爪分的太开,后躯身体显示出滚动及摇摆。

英国激飞猎犬的气质

典型的英国激飞猎犬是友善、热衷于取悦主人、学习能力强、且乐于服从的狗。这样的特点有助于管理,适当的训犬师在野外能方便地控制。在比赛中,显得镇静而专著,允许裁判检查他的身体,既不愤怒,也不阿谀。对人类有攻击欲望,或对其他狗有攻击欲望,不符合运动犬的特征,属于缺陷。过分胆怯,对幼犬和新手可以宽容,需要公平的惩罚。

英国激飞猎犬总结

在评估英国激飞猎犬,首先是考虑整体印象。看上去是否典型,主要包括整体外貌和轮廓;还有稳固性,包括了动作和气质。因为,如果他拥有平顺、轻松的步态,必定拥有健康和和匀称的结构,值得高度关注,但是,如果他看上去根本不象一个英国激飞猎犬,则不能宽恕。如果一个狗的腿部太长或太短,头部或表情完全错误,可能动作很好,但决不会比一个其他方面都不错,步态方面有些小缺陷的狗更可取。必须记住,英国激飞猎犬首先(也是第一位的)是猎鹬犬家族中的一员,是一个运动犬,外观、举止及步态都必须符合这个标准。

标准通过日期: 1994年2月12日
标准执行日期:1994年3月31日

English Springer Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The English Springer Spaniel is a medium-sized sporting dog, with a compact body and a docked tail. His coat is moderately long, with feathering on his legs, ears, chest and brisket. His pendulous ears, soft gentle expression, sturdy build and friendly wagging tail proclaim him unmistakably a member of the ancient family of Spaniels. He is above all a well-proportioned dog, free from exaggeration, nicely balanced in every part. His carriage is proud and upstanding, body deep, legs strong and muscular, with enough length to carry him with ease. Taken as a whole, the English Springer Spaniel suggests power, endurance and agility. He looks the part of a dog that can go, and keep going, under difficult hunting conditions. At his best, he is endowed with style, symmetry, balance and enthusiasm, and is every inch a sporting dog of distinct spaniel character, combining beauty and utility.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The Springer is built to cover rough ground with agility and reasonable speed. His structure suggests the capacity for endurance. He is to be kept to medium size. Ideal height at the shoulder for dogs is 20 inches; for bitches, it is 19 inches. Those more than one inch under or over the breed ideal are to be faulted. A 20 inch dog, well-proportioned and in good condition, will weigh approximately 50 pounds; a 19 inch bitch will weigh approximately 40 pounds. The length of the body (measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks) is slightly greater than the height at the withers. The dog too long in body, especially when long in the loin, tires easily and lacks the compact outline characteristic of the breed. A dog too short in body for the length of his legs, a condition which destroys balance and restricts gait, is equally undesirable. A Springer with correct substance appears well-knit and sturdy with good bone, however, he is never coarse or ponderous.

Head
The head is impressive without being heavy. Its beauty lies in a combination of strength and refinement. It is important that its size and proportion be in balance with the rest of the dog. Viewed in profile, the head appears approximately the same length as the neck and blends with the body in substance. The stop, eyebrows and chiseling of the bony structure around the eye sockets contribute to the Springer\'s beautiful and characteristic expression, which is alert, kindly and trusting. The eyes, more than any other feature, are the essence of the Springer\'s appeal. Correct size, shape, placement and color influence expression and attractiveness. The eyes are of medium size and oval in shape, set rather well-apart and fairly deep in their sockets. The color of the iris harmonizes with the color of the coat, preferably dark hazel in the liver and white dogs and black or deep brown in the black and white dogs. Eyerims are fully pigmented and match the coat in color. Lids are tight with little or no haw showing. Eyes that are small, round or protruding, as well as eyes that are yellow or brassy in color, are highly undesirable. Ears are long and fairly wide, hanging close to the cheeks with no tendency to stand up or out. The ear leather is thin and approximately long enough to reach the tip of the nose. Correct ear set is on a level with the eye and not too far back on the skull. The skull is medium-length and fairly broad, flat on top and slightly rounded at the sides and back. The occiput bone is inconspicuous. As the skull rises from the foreface, it makes a stop, divided by a groove, or fluting, between the eyes. The groove disappears as it reaches the middle of the forehead. The amount of stop is moderate. It must not be a pronounced feature; rather it is a subtle rise where the muzzle joins the upper head. It is emphasized by the groove and by the position and shape of the eyebrows, which are well-developed. The muzzle is approximately the same length as the skull and one half the width of the skull. Viewed in profile, the toplines of the skull and muzzle lie in approximately parallel planes. The nasal bone is straight, with no inclination downward toward the tip of the nose, the latter giving an undesirable downfaced look. Neither is the nasal bone concave, resulting in a \"dish-faced\" profile; nor convex, giving the dog a Roman nose. The cheeks are flat, and the face is well-chiseled under the eyes. Jaws are of sufficient length to allow the dog to carry game easily: fairly square, lean and strong. The upper lips come down full and rather square to cover the line of the lower jaw, however, the lips are never pendulous or exaggerated. The nose is fully-pigmented, liver or black in color, depending on the color of the coat. The nostrils are well-opened and broad. Teeth are strong, clean, of good size and ideally meet in a close scissors bite. An even bite or one or two incisors slightly out of line are minor faults. Undershot, overshot and wry jaws are serious faults and are to be severely penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is moderately long, muscular, clean and slightly arched at the crest. It blends gradually and smoothly into sloping shoulders. The portion of the topline from withers to tail is firm and slopes very gently. The body is short-coupled, strong and compact. The chest is deep, reaching the level of the elbows, with well-developed forechest; however, it is not so wide or round as to interfere with the action of the front legs. Ribs are fairly long, springing gradually to the middle of the body, then tapering as they approach the end of the ribbed section. The underline stays level with the elbows to a slight upcurve at the flank. The back is straight, strong and essentially level. Loins are strong, short and slightly arched. Hips are nicely-rounded, blending smoothly into the hind legs. The croup slopes gently to the set of the tail, and tail-set follows the natural line of the croup. The tail is carried horizontally or slightly elevated and displays a characteristic lively, merry action, particularly when the dog is on game. A clamped tail (indicating timidity or undependable temperament) is to be faulted, as is a tail carried at a right angle to the backline in Terrier fashion.

Forequarters
Efficient movement in front calls for proper forequarter assembly. The shoulder blades are flat and fairly close together at the tips, molding smoothly into the contour of the body. Ideally, when measured from the top of the withers to the point of the shoulder to the elbow, the shoulder blade and upper arm are of apparent equal length, forming an angle of nearly 90 degrees; this sets the front legs well under the body and places the elbows directly beneath the tips of the shoulder blades. Elbows lie close to the body. Forelegs are straight with the same degree of size continuing to the foot. Bone is strong, slightly flattened, not too round or too heavy. Pasterns are short, strong and slightly sloping, with no suggestion of weakness. Dewclaws are usually removed. Feet are round or slightly oval. They are compact and well-arched, of medium size with thick pads, and well-feathered between the toes.

Hindquarters
The Springer should be worked and shown in hard, muscular condition with well-developed hips and thighs. His whole rear assembly suggests strength and driving power. Thighs are broad and muscular. Stifle joints are strong. For functional efficiency, the angulation of the hindquarter is never greater than that of the forequarter, and not appreciably less. The hock joints are somewhat rounded, not small and sharp in contour. Rear pasterns are short (about 1/3 the distance from the hip joint to the foot) and strong, with good bone. When viewed from behind, the rear pasterns are parallel. Dewclaws are usually removed. The feet are the same as in front, except that they are smaller and often more compact.

Coat
The Springer has an outer coat and an undercoat. On the body, the outer coat is of medium length, flat or wavy, and is easily distinguishable from the undercoat, which is short, soft and dense. The quantity of undercoat is affected by climate and season. When in combination, outer coat and undercoat serve to make the dog substantially waterproof, weatherproof and thornproof. On ears, chest, legs and belly the Springer is nicely furnished with a fringe of feathering of moderate length and heaviness. On the head, front of the forelegs, and below the hock joints on the front of the hind legs, the hair is short and fine. The coat has the clean, glossy, \"live\" appearance indicative of good health. It is legitimate to trim about the head, ears, neck and feet, to remove dead undercoat, and to thin and shorten excess feathering as required to enhance a smart, functional appearance. The tail may be trimmed, or well fringed with wavy feathering. Above all, the appearance should be natural. Overtrimming, especially the body coat, or any chopped, barbered or artificial effect is to be penalized in the show ring, as is excessive feathering that destroys the clean outline desirable in a sporting dog. Correct quality and condition of coat is to take precedence over quantity of coat.

Color
All the following combinations of colors and markings are equally acceptable:(1) Black or liver with white markings or predominantly white with black or liver markings; (2) Blue or liver roan; (3) Tricolor: black and white or liver and white with tan markings, usually found on eyebrows, cheeks, inside of ears and under the tail. Any white portion of the coat may be flecked with ticking. Off colors such as lemon, red or orange are not to place.

Gait
The final test of the Springer\'s conformation and soundness is proper movement. Balance is a prerequisite to good movement. The front and rear assemblies must be equivalent in angulation and muscular development for the gait to be smooth and effortless. Shoulders which are well laid-back to permit a long stride are just as essential as the excellent rear quarters that provide driving power. Seen from the side, the Springer exhibits a long, ground-covering stride and carries a firm back, with no tendency to dip, roach or roll from side to side. From the front, the legs swing forward in a free and easy manner. Elbows have free action from the shoulders, and the legs show no tendency to cross or interfere. From behind, the rear legs reach well under the body, following on a line with the forelegs. As speed increases, there is a natural tendency for the legs to converge toward a center line of travel. Movement faults include high-stepping, wasted motion; short, choppy stride; crabbing; and moving with the feet wide, the latter giving roll or swing to the body.

Temperament
The typical Springer is friendly, eager to please, quick to learn and willing to obey. Such traits are conducive to tractability, which is essential for appropriate handler control in the field. In the show ring, he should exhibit poise and attentiveness and permit himself to be examined by the judge without resentment or cringing. Aggression toward people and aggression toward other dogs is not in keeping with sporting dog character and purpose and is not acceptable. Excessive timidity, with due allowance for puppies and novice exhibits, is to be equally penalized.

Summary
In evaluating the English Springer Spaniel, the overall picture is a primary consideration. One should look for type, which includes general appearance and outline, and also for soundness, which includes movement and temperament. Inasmuch as the dog with a smooth easy gait must be reasonably sound and well-balanced, he is to be highly regarded, however, not to the extent of forgiving him for not looking like an English Springer Spaniel. An atypical dog, too short or long in leg length or foreign in head or expression, may move well, but he is not to be preferred over a good all-round specimen that has a minor fault in movement. It must be remembered that the English Springer Spaniel is first and foremost a sporting dog of the Spaniel family, and he must look, behave and move in character.

Approval Date: February 12, 1994
Effective Date: March 31, 1994

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:01:04 | 显示全部楼层


英国雪达犬(English Setter)AKC标准及简介
[英国雪达犬的简介]
英国雪达犬是一种文雅、稳固而匀称的枪猎犬,理想状态是混合了力量、毅力、优雅和风度。平坦的被毛,羽状饰毛有足够的长度。步态舒展而平滑,前躯伸展充分,后躯驱动有力,背线保持平直、稳固。雄性明显表现出肌肉发达,但不粗笨。雌性明显表现出柔美,但不过分精致。整体外观,匀称性,步态和效果,比任何一个单独的部分都重要。首先,任何部分过度夸张而破坏了整体协调,都属于缺陷。

[头部]
尺寸和比例与身躯非常协调。长而倾斜,止部非常清晰。从侧面观察时,头部的主要平面(口吻的上平面、脑袋的上平面、下颌平面)都彼此平行。

脑袋:从上面观察时,脑袋呈卵形,中等宽度,不粗糙。耳根处略宽于眉毛的位置。后枕骨适度突出。脑袋的长度(从后枕骨到止部的距离)与口吻的长度相等。

口吻:从侧面观察,口吻长,且呈四方形,上唇相当深,呈四方形,且相当下垂。宽度与脑袋协调,在鼻镜处的宽度与止部的宽度相同。从眼睛到鼻镜上端保持水平。

鼻镜:黑色或深褐色,色素充足。鼻孔分的较开,且大。

前脸:眼睛下方的骨骼结构轮廓分明,但不过分突出。面颊平顺且线条清晰。

牙齿:紧密的剪状咬和为首选。钳状咬和也可以接受。

眼睛:深褐色,颜色越深越好。明亮且有间隙,一种聪明而温和的表情。几乎是圆形的,相当大。既不深陷,也不突出。

耳朵:位置靠后,且低,恰好在眼睛所在的水平线下方。毫无拘束地挂在头部两侧。中等长度,末端略圆,耳廓略薄,覆盖着丝状毛发。

[颈部和身躯]
颈部:长而优美,肌肉发达,且倾斜。顶部圆拱,线条清晰,在脑袋根部与头部接合。粗大而众多的肌肉向肩部方向生长,在颈根部,平滑流畅地融入肩胛。没有夸张的赘肉。

背线:在运动中或站立时,保持水平或略向下倾斜,没有摇摆或下垂的迹象,从马肩隆到尾巴形成优美的轮廓线,长度适中。

前胸:非常清晰,胸骨前端略微向前突出,稍微超过肩胛骨与上臂骨连接处的关节一点。

胸部:深,但不能太宽或太圆,而妨碍了前臂的动作。胸底深度达到肘部。

肋骨:长,向身躯中间方向逐渐支撑起来,靠近胸腔末端逐渐变细。

背部:直而结实,与腰部连接。

腰部:结实,中等长度。略微圆拱,适度上提。

臀部:臀部几乎是平的,臀骨距离分的较开,臀部圆形,平滑地融入后腿。

尾巴:背线平顺的延续。末端尖细,尾尖精致,有足够的长度,能延伸到飞节或略短。笔直而水平地举着,与背部同高。丝质的羽状饰毛松散地悬挂在边缘。

[前躯]

肩胛:肩胛骨向后倾斜,上臂骨的长度与肩胛骨大致相等,且上臂骨与肩胛骨形成接近直角的角度。肩胛骨在顶端距离非常接近。肩胛骨平躺着,并平顺地融入身躯轮廓。

前肢:从前面或侧面观察,前肢直且相互平行。站立时或行走中,肘部没有向内弯或向外翻的迹象。臂膀平且肌肉发达,骨骼坚实,但不粗糙,且肌肉坚硬,没有软弱无力的样子。

骹骨:短、结实,几乎是圆形的,非常轻微的向前倾斜,背离了几乎完全垂直的前肢。

足爪:前端笔直向前。脚趾紧凑、结实且圆拱。脚垫发达且坚固。狼爪可以切除。

[后躯]

宽,大腿肌肉发达,第二节大腿非常发达。骨盆长度与第一节大腿大致相同,并与之成接近直角的角度。与前躯角度协调。膝关节适度弯曲且结实。第二节大腿只比第一节大腿略长一点。飞节适度弯曲且结实。后骹骨短、结实,几乎是圆形的,垂直于地面。从后面观察,后腿直,且彼此平行。站立时或行走中,飞节没有向内弯或向外翻的迹象。

[被毛]

平坦,没有卷曲或羊毛质地。耳朵、胸部、腹部、大腿下面、腿后面和尾巴上有羽状饰毛,饰毛有足够的长度,但不夸张(遮盖住真实的轮廓线条且在运动中影响他作为一个运动犬应有的外观和功能)。

[颜色和斑纹]
斑纹:白色底色上带有深色毛发,形成条带斑纹,从清晰的斑点到班驳的杂色都有,斑纹覆盖全身比较理想。头部和耳朵上有色块可以接受,身躯上有沉重的色块则不理想。

颜色:橘色条带,兰色条带(黑白相杂的斑纹),三色(兰色条带,口吻、眼睛上、腿上带有棕色),柠檬色条带、肝色条带。

[动作和姿势]

轻松优美的动作,显示出耐力和有效的步伐。前躯伸展充分,后躯驱动有力,欢快的尾巴和骄傲的头部姿势。由于前肢的伸展动作,所以头部可能略底。背部结实、稳固,没有滚动。小跑时,由于地心引力的作用,四肢会逐渐向身体中心线收拢。

[尺寸]

雄性约 25英寸;雌性约24英寸。

[气质]

温和、挚爱、友善,不羞怯、恐惧或恶意。

标准通过日期: 1986年11月11日

English Setter Breed Standard
General Appearance
An elegant, substantial and symmetrical gun dog suggesting the ideal blend of strength, stamina, grace, and style. Flat-coated with feathering of good length. Gaiting freely and smoothly with long forward reach, strong rear drive and firm topline. Males decidedly masculine without coarseness. Females decidedly feminine without over-refinement. Overall appearance, balance, gait, and purpose to be given more emphasis than any component part. Above all, extremes of anything distort type and must be faulted.

Head
Size and proportion in harmony with body. Long and lean with a well defined stop. When viewed from the side, head planes (top of muzzle, top of skull and bottom of lower jaw) are parallel. Skull--oval when viewed from above, of medium width, without coarseness, and only slightly wider at the earset than at the brow. Moderately defined occipital protuberance. Length of skull from occiput to stop equal in length of muzzle. Muzzle-- long and square when viewed from the side, of good depth with flews squared and fairly pendant. Width in harmony with width of skull and equal at nose and stop. Level from eyes to tip of nose. Nose--black or dark brown, fully pigmented. Nostrils wide apart and large. Foreface--skeletal structure under the eyes well chiseled with no suggestion of fullness. Cheeks present a smooth and clean-cut appearance. Teeth--close scissors bite preferred. Even bite acceptable. Eyes--dark brown, the darker the better. Bright, and spaced to give a mild and intelligent expression. Nearly round, fairly large, neither deepset nor protruding. Eyelid rims dark and fully pigmented. Lids fit tightly so that haw is not exposed. Ears--set well back and low, even with or below eye level. When relaxed carried close to the head. Of moderate length, slightly rounded at the ends, moderately thin leather, and covered with silky hair.

Neck and Body
Neck--long and graceful, muscular and lean. Arched at the crest and cleancut where it joins the head at the base of the skull. Larger and more muscular toward the shoulders, with the base of the neck flowing smoothly into the shoulders. Not too throaty. Topline--in motion or standing appears level or sloping slightly downward without sway or drop from withers to tail forming a graceful outline of medium length. Forechest--well developed, point of sternum projecting slightly in front of point of shoulder/upper arm joint. Chest--deep, but not so wide or round as to interfere with the action of the forelegs. Brisket deep enough to reach the level of the elbow. Ribs--long, springing gradually to the middle of the body, then tapering as they approach the end of the chest cavity. Back--straight and strong at its junction with loin. Loin--strong, moderate in length, slightly arched. Tuck up moderate. Hips--croup nearly flat. Hip bones wide apart, hips rounded and blending smoothly into hind legs. Tail--a smooth continuation of the topline. Tapering to a fine point with only sufficient length to reach the hock joint or slightly less. Carried straight and level with the back. Feathering straight and silky, hanging loosely in a fringe.

Forequarters
Shoulder--shoulder blade well laid back. Upper arm equal in length to and forming a nearly right angle with the shoulder blade. Shoulders fairly close together at the tips. Shoulder blades lie flat and meld smoothly with contours of body. Forelegs-- from front or side, forelegs straight and parallel. Elbows have no tendency to turn in or out when standing or gaiting. Arm flat and muscular. Bone substantial but not coarse and muscles hard and devoid of flabbiness. Pasterns--short, strong and nearly round with the slope deviating very slightly forward from the perpendicular. Feet--face directly forward. Toes closely set, strong and well arched. Pads well developed and tough. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters
Wide, muscular thighs and well developed lower thighs. Pelvis equal in length to and forming a nearly right angle with upper thigh. In balance with forequarter assembly. Stifle well bent and strong. Lower thigh only slightly longer than upper thigh. Hock joint well bent and strong. Rear pastern short, strong, nearly round and perpendicular to the ground. Hind legs, when seen from the rear, straight and parallel to each other. Hock joints have no tendency to turn in or out when standing or gaiting.

Coat
Flat without curl or wooliness. Feathering on ears, chest, abdomen, underside of thighs, back of all legs and on the tail of good length but not so excessive as to hide true lines and movementor to affect the dog\'s appearance or function as a sporting dog.

Markings and Color
Markings--white ground color with intermingling of darker hairs resulting in belton markings varying in degree from clear distinct flecking to roan shading, but flecked all over preferred. Head and ear patches acceptable, heavy patches of color on the body undesirable. Color--orange belton, blue belton (white with black markings), tricolor (blue belton with tan on muzzle, over the eyes and on the legs), lemon belton, liver belton.

Movement and Carriage
An effortless graceful movement demonstrating endurance while covering ground efficiently. Long forward reach and strong rear drive with a lively tail and a proud head carriage. Head may be carried slightly lower when moving to allow for greater reach of forelegs. The back strong, firm, and free of roll. When moving at a trot, as speed increases, the legs tend to converge toward a line representing the center of gravity.

Size
Dogs about 25 inches; bitches about 24 inches.

Temperament
Gentle, affectionate, friendly, without shyness, fear or viciousness.

Approved November 11, 1986

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

自私一点点

退休教师

Rank: 8Rank: 8

退休教师

 楼主| 发表于 2007-6-10 11:01:51 | 显示全部楼层


英国可卡犬(English Cocker Spaniel)AKC标准及简介
英国可卡犬简介
英国可卡犬是一种活泼、欢快的运动犬,马肩隆为身躯最高点,结构紧凑。他的性格活泼;他的步态强有力,且没有阻力;有能力轻松地完成搜索任务,及用尖锐的叫声惊飞鸟类,并执行寻回任务。他非常热衷于在野外工作,不断摆动的尾巴显示出在狩猎过程中,他有多么享受,这正好符合培养这个品种的目的。他的头部非常特殊。首先,他必须是一条非常匀称的狗,不论在站立时还是在运动中,没有任何一个部位显得夸张,整体的协调性比这些部位的总和更重要。

二、[英国可卡犬的体型]
尺寸:肩高:雄性为16~17英寸;雌性为15~16英寸。背离这一范围属于缺陷。最理想的体重:雄性约为28~34磅;雌性约为26~32磅。正确的结构和体质比纯粹的体重更为重要。

比例:紧凑的结构和较短的接合,肩高略微大于从马肩隆到尾根处的距离。体质:英国可卡犬是一种结构稳固的狗,拥有尽可能多的骨量和体质,但不会显得土气或粗糙。

三、[英国可卡犬的头部]
整体外观:结实,但决不粗糙,轮廓柔和,没有尖锐的棱角。整体给人的感觉是,所有部位所组成的表情与其他品种相比显得与众不同。

表情:温和,甜蜜,但威严,警惕而且聪明。

眼睛:眼睛是理想表情的根本。中等大小,丰满而略呈卵形;分开的距离宽阔;眼睑紧。瞬膜不显眼;有色素沉积或没有色素沉积。除了肝色和带肝色的杂色狗允许有榛色眼睛(较深的榛色更好)外,其他颜色狗的眼睛颜色为深褐色。

耳朵:位置低,贴着头部悬挂;耳廓细腻,能延伸到鼻尖,覆盖着长、丝质、直或略微呈波浪状的毛发。脑袋:圆拱而略显平坦,分别从侧面和正面观察。观察其轮廓,眉毛并没有高出后脑多少。从上面观察,脑袋两侧的平面与口吻两侧的平面大致平行。止部清晰,但适中,且略有凹槽。口吻:与脑袋长度一致;适度丰满;只比脑袋稍微窄一点,宽度在眼睛所在的位置达成一致;眼睛下方轮廓整洁。颌部结实,有能力运送猎物。鼻孔开阔,且嗅觉相当发达;鼻镜颜色为黑色,除了肝色或带肝色的杂色狗的鼻镜可以是褐色;红色或带红色的杂色狗的鼻镜颜色可以是褐色,但黑色是首选。嘴唇呈四方形,但不下垂,也没有夸张的上唇。牙齿:剪状咬和。钳状咬和也可以接受,但不理想。上颚突出式咬和或下颚突出式咬和属于严重缺陷。

四、[英国可卡犬的颈部、背线、身躯]
颈部:优美,且肌肉发达,向头部方向显得圆拱,与头部接合整洁,没有赘肉,并融入倾斜的肩胛;长度适中,且与狗的高度及长度平衡。背线:颈部与肩胛接合处到背线呈平滑的曲线。背线非常轻微地向圆圆的臀部倾斜,没有下陷或褶皱。身躯:紧凑且接合紧密,给人的印象是非常有力,但不沉重。胸部深;没有宽到影响前肢动作的程度,也不是太窄,而显得前躯太窄或缩在一起。前胸非常发达,胸骨突出,略微超过肩胛与上臂的结合关节。胸部深度达到肘部,并向后逐渐向上倾斜,适度上提。肋骨支撑良好,并逐渐向身躯中间撑起,后端略细,有足够的深度,并充分向后扩展。背部短而结实。腰部短、宽且非常轻微地圆拱,但不足以影响背线。臀部非常圆,没有任何陡峭的迹象。尾巴:断尾。位置位于臀部,理想状态下,尾巴保持水平,而且在他运动时,动作坚定。在兴奋时,尾巴可能举的高一些,但决不能向上竖起。

五、[英国可卡犬的前躯]
英国可卡犬略有棱角。肩胛倾斜,肩胛骨平坦而平稳。肩胛骨与上臂骨程度大致相等,上臂骨位置靠后,与肩胛骨之间的连接,有足够的角度,使他在自然状态站立时,肘部正好位于肩胛骨顶端的正下方。

前肢:直,从肘部到胶骨的骨骼几乎完全是同样的尺寸;肘部的位置贴近身躯;胶骨几乎是笔直的,略有弹性。足爪:与腿部比例恰当,稳固,圆形的猫足;脚趾圆拱,紧凑;脚垫厚实。

六、[英国可卡犬的后躯]
<角度适中,与前躯的平衡是非常重要的。臀部相当宽,且圆。第一节大腿宽,粗且肌肉发达,能提供强大的驱动力。第二节大腿肌肉发达,且长度与第一节大腿的长度大致相等。膝关节结实且适度弯曲。从飞节到脚垫的距离短。足爪与前躯相同。/p>

七、[英国可卡犬的被毛]
头部的毛发短而纤细;身体上的毛发长度适中;平坦或带有轻微的波浪状;质地为丝质。英国可卡犬有许多羽状饰毛,但不会多到影响他在野外工作。修剪是允许的,去处多余的毛发并强调他的自然线条。但必须修剪地尽可能接近自然形态。

八、[英国可卡犬的颜色]
有很多种。杂色可以是整洁的斑纹、斑点或花斑色,白色为主,结合了黑色、肝色或不同深浅的红色。在杂色中,最可取的是身上有纯色斑块,或多或少,均匀分布;身躯上没有斑块也可以接受。纯色是黑色、肝色或不同深浅的红色。纯色带有白色足爪属于缺陷;喉咙带有少量白色是允许的;但这些白色斑块决不能使他看起来象杂色。棕色斑纹,清晰整洁,不同深浅,可以与黑色、肝色、及杂色结合在一起。黑色和棕色、肝色和棕色也被归为纯色。

九、[英国可卡犬的步态]
英国可卡犬是能够在浓密的灌木丛中和丘陵地带狩猎的猎犬。所以他的步态特点更多的表现在强大的驱动力方面,而且速度非常快。当他在角度适当的情况下,可以很轻松地覆盖地面,并延伸到前面和后面。在比赛场中,他骄傲地昂起他的头,并且,在站立等待检查时和行走中,背线都能保持一致。过来或离去时,行走路线笔直,没有横行或摇摆,当结构和步态都恰当的前提下,前腿和后腿间都保持相当宽的距离。

十、[英国可卡犬的气质]
英国可卡犬是欢快而挚爱的狗、性格平静,既不慢吞吞的,也不过度亢奋,一个乐于工作,可靠而迷人的伴侣。

标准通过日期:1988年10月11日
标准执行日期:1988年11月30日

English Cocker Spaniel Breed Standard

General Appearance
The English Cocker Spaniel is an active, merry sporting dog, standing well up at the withers and compactly built. He is alive with energy; his gait is powerful and frictionless, capable both of covering ground effortlessly and penetrating dense cover to flush and retrieve game. His enthusiasm in the field and the incessant action of his tail while at work indicate how much he enjoys the hunting for which he was bred. His head is especially characteristic. He is, above all, a dog of balance, both standing and moving, without exaggeration in any part, the whole worth more than the sum of its parts.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size-Height at withers: males 16 to 17 inches; females 15 to 16 inches. Deviations to be penalized. The most desirable weights: males, 28 to 34 pounds; females, 26 to 32 pounds. Proper conformation and substance should be considered more important than weight alone. Proportion--Compactly built and short-coupled, with height at withers slightly greater than the distance from withers to set-on of tail. Substance--The English Cocker is a solidly built dog with as much bone and substance as is possible without becoming cloddy or coarse.

Head
General appearance: strong, yet free from coarseness, softly contoured, without sharp angles. Taken as a whole, the parts combine to produce the expression distinctive of the breed. Expression--Soft, melting, yet dignified, alert, and intelligent. Eyes--The eyes are essential to the desired expression. They are medium in size, full and slightly oval; set wide apart; lids tight. Haws are inconspicuous; may be pigmented or unpigmented. Eye color dark brown, except in livers and liver parti-colors where hazel is permitted, but the darker the hazel the better. Ears--Set low, lying close to the head; leather fine, extending to the nose, well covered with long, silky, straight or slightly wavy hair. Skull--Arched and slightly flattened when seen both from the side and from the front. Viewed in profile, the brow appears not appreciably higher than the back-skull. Viewed from above, the sides of the skull are in planes roughly parallel to those of the muzzle. Stop definite, but moderate, and slightly grooved. Muzzle--Equal in length to skull; well cushioned; only as much narrower than the skull as is consistent with a full eye placement; cleanly chiseled under the eyes. Jaws strong, capable of carrying game. Nostrils wide for proper development of scenting ability; color black, except in livers and parti-colors of that shade where they will be brown; reds and parti-colors of that shade may be brown, but black is preferred. Lips square, but not pendulous or showing prominent flews. Bite--Scissors. A level bite is not preferred. Overshot or undershot to be severely penalized.

Neck, Topline and Body
Neck--Graceful and muscular, arched toward the head and blending cleanly, without throatiness, into sloping shoulders; moderate in length and in balance with the length and height of the dog. Topline--The line of the neck blends into the shoulder and backline in a smooth curve. The backline slopes very slightly toward a gently rounded croup, and is free from sagging or rumpiness. Body--Compact and well-knit, giving the impression of strength without heaviness. Chest deep; not so wide as to interfere with action of forelegs, nor so narrow as to allow the front to appear narrow or pinched. Forechest well developed, prosternum projecting moderately beyond shoulder points. Brisket reaches to the elbow and slopes gradually to a moderate tuck-up. Ribs well sprung and springing gradually to mid-body, tapering to back ribs which are of good depth and extend well back. Back short and strong. Loin short, broad and very slightly arched, but not enough to affect the topline appreciably. Croup gently rounded, without any tendency to fall away sharply. Tail--Docked. Set on to conform to croup. Ideally, the tail is carried horizontally and is in constant motion while the dog is in action. Under excitement, the dog may carry his tail somewhat higher, but not cocked up.

Forequarters
The English Cocker is moderately angulated. Shoulders are sloping, the blade flat and smoothly fitting. Shoulder blade and upper arm are approximately equal in length. Upper arm set well back, joining the shoulder with sufficient angulation to place the elbow beneath the highest point of the shoulder blade when the dog is standing naturally. Forelegs--Straight, with bone nearly uniform in size from elbow to heel; elbows set close to the body; pasterns nearly straight, with some flexibility. Feet-- Proportionate in size to the legs, firm, round and catlike; toes arched and tight; pads thick.

Hindquarters
Angulation moderate and, most importantly, in balance with that of the forequarters. Hips relatively broad and well rounded. Upper thighs broad, thick and muscular, providing plenty of propelling power. Second thighs well muscled and approximately equal in length to the upper. Stifle strong and well bent. Hock to pad short. Feet as in front.

Coat
On head, short and fine; of medium length on body; flat or slightly wavy; silky in texture. The English Cocker is well-feathered, but not so profusely as to interfere with field work. Trimming is permitted to remove overabundant hair and to enhance the dog\'s true lines. It should be done so as to appear as natural as possible.

Color
Various. Parti-colors are either clearly marked, ticked or roaned, the white appearing in combination with black, liver or shades of red. In parti-colors it is preferable that solid markings be broken on the body and more or less evenly distributed; absence of body markings is acceptable. Solid colors are black, liver or shades of red. White feet on a solid are undesirable; a little white on throat is acceptable; but in neither case do these white markings make the dog a parti-color. Tan markings, clearly defined and of rich shade, may appear in conjunction with black, livers and parti-color combinations of those colors. Black and tans and liver and tans are considered solid colors.

Gait
The English Cocker is capable of hunting in dense cover and upland terrain. His gait is accordingly characterized more by drive and the appearance of power than by great speed. He covers ground effortlessly and with extension both in front and in rear, appropriate to his angulation. In the ring, he carries his head proudly and is able to keep much the same topline while in action as when standing for examination. Going and coming, he moves in a straight line without crabbing or rolling, and with width between both front and rear legs appropriate to his build and gait.

Temperament
The English Cocker is merry and affectionate, of equable disposition, neither sluggish nor hyperactive, a willing worker and a faithful and engaging companion.

Approved October 11, 1988
Effective November 30, 1988

荣辱不惊,看庭前花开花落;去留无意,望碧空云卷云舒。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册会员

本版积分规则



Archiver|关于我们|陶都论坛 ( ICPB2-20120265 ICP11066580-2 )

GMT+8, 2018-1-18 17:27 , Processed in 0.066784 second(s), 13 queries , Gzip On, Yac On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.4

© 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表